Search Results: "slyon"

25 April 2024

Lukas M rdian: Creating a Netplan enabled system through Debian-Installer

With the work that has been done in the debian-installer/netcfg merge-proposal !9 it is possible to install a standard Debian system, using the normal Debian-Installer (d-i) mini.iso images, that will come pre-installed with Netplan and all network configuration structured in /etc/netplan/. In this write-up, I d like to run you through a list of commands for experiencing the Netplan enabled installation process first-hand. For now, we ll be using a custom ISO image, while waiting for the above-mentioned merge-proposal to be landed. Furthermore, as the Debian archive is going through major transitions builds of the unstable branch of d-i don t currently work. So I implemented a small backport, producing updated netcfg and netcfg-static for Bookworm, which can be used as localudebs/ during the d-i build. Let s start with preparing a working directory and installing the software dependencies for our virtualized Debian system:
$ mkdir d-i_bookworm && cd d-i_bookworm
$ apt install ovmf qemu-utils qemu-system-x86
Now let s download the custom mini.iso, linux kernel image and initrd.gz containing the Netplan enablement changes, as mentioned above.
$ wget https://people.ubuntu.com/~slyon/d-i/bookworm/mini.iso
$ wget https://people.ubuntu.com/~slyon/d-i/bookworm/linux
$ wget https://people.ubuntu.com/~slyon/d-i/bookworm/initrd.gz
Next we ll prepare a VM, by copying the EFI firmware files, preparing some persistent EFIVARs file, to boot from FS0:\EFI\debian\grubx64.efi, and create a virtual disk for our machine:
$ cp /usr/share/OVMF/OVMF_CODE_4M.fd .
$ cp /usr/share/OVMF/OVMF_VARS_4M.fd .
$ qemu-img create -f qcow2 ./data.qcow2 5G
Finally, let s launch the installer using a custom preseed.cfg file, that will automatically install Netplan for us in the target system. A minimal preseed file could look like this:
# Install minimal Netplan generator binary
d-i preseed/late_command string in-target apt-get -y install netplan-generator
For this demo, we re installing the full netplan.io package (incl. Python CLI), as the netplan-generator package was not yet split out as an independent binary in the Bookworm cycle. You can choose the preseed file from a set of different variants to test the different configurations: We re using the custom linux kernel and initrd.gz here to be able to pass the preseed URL as a parameter to the kernel s cmdline directly. Launching this VM should bring up the normal debian-installer in its netboot/gtk form:
$ export U=https://people.ubuntu.com/~slyon/d-i/bookworm/netplan-preseed+networkd.cfg
$ qemu-system-x86_64 \
	-M q35 -enable-kvm -cpu host -smp 4 -m 2G \
	-drive if=pflash,format=raw,unit=0,file=OVMF_CODE_4M.fd,readonly=on \
	-drive if=pflash,format=raw,unit=1,file=OVMF_VARS_4M.fd,readonly=off \
	-device qemu-xhci -device usb-kbd -device usb-mouse \
	-vga none -device virtio-gpu-pci \
	-net nic,model=virtio -net user \
	-kernel ./linux -initrd ./initrd.gz -append "url=$U" \
	-hda ./data.qcow2 -cdrom ./mini.iso;
Now you can click through the normal Debian-Installer process, using mostly default settings. Optionally, you could play around with the networking settings, to see how those get translated to /etc/netplan/ in the target system.
After you confirmed your partitioning changes, the base system gets installed. I suggest not to select any additional components, like desktop environments, to speed up the process.
During the final step of the installation (finish-install.d/55netcfg-copy-config) d-i will detect that Netplan was installed in the target system (due to the preseed file provided) and opt to write its network configuration to /etc/netplan/ instead of /etc/network/interfaces or /etc/NetworkManager/system-connections/.
Done! After the installation finished, you can reboot into your virgin Debian Bookworm system. To do that, quit the current Qemu process, by pressing Ctrl+C and make sure to copy over the EFIVARS.fd file that was written by grub during the installation, so Qemu can find the new system. Then reboot into the new system, not using the mini.iso image any more:
$ cp ./OVMF_VARS_4M.fd ./EFIVARS.fd
$ qemu-system-x86_64 \
        -M q35 -enable-kvm -cpu host -smp 4 -m 2G \
        -drive if=pflash,format=raw,unit=0,file=OVMF_CODE_4M.fd,readonly=on \
        -drive if=pflash,format=raw,unit=1,file=EFIVARS.fd,readonly=off \
        -device qemu-xhci -device usb-kbd -device usb-mouse \
        -vga none -device virtio-gpu-pci \
        -net nic,model=virtio -net user \
        -drive file=./data.qcow2,if=none,format=qcow2,id=disk0 \
        -device virtio-blk-pci,drive=disk0,bootindex=1
        -serial mon:stdio
Finally, you can play around with your Netplan enabled Debian system! As you will find, /etc/network/interfaces exists but is empty, it could still be used (optionally/additionally). Netplan was configured in /etc/netplan/ according to the settings given during the d-i installation process.
In our case, we also installed the Netplan CLI, so we can play around with some of its features, like netplan status:
Thank you for following along the Netplan enabled Debian installation process and happy hacking! If you want to learn more, join the discussion at Salsa:installer-team/netcfg and find us at GitHub:netplan.

4 April 2024

Lukas M rdian: Netplan v1.0 paves the way to stable, declarative network management

New netplan status diff subcommand, finding differences between configuration and system state As the maintainer and lead developer for Netplan, I m proud to announce the general availability of Netplan v1.0 after more than 7 years of development efforts. Over the years, we ve so far had about 80 individual contributors from around the globe. This includes many contributions from our Netplan core-team at Canonical, but also from other big corporations such as Microsoft or Deutsche Telekom. Those contributions, along with the many we receive from our community of individual contributors, solidify Netplan as a healthy and trusted open source project. In an effort to make Netplan even more dependable, we started shipping upstream patch releases, such as 0.106.1 and 0.107.1, which make it easier to integrate fixes into our users custom workflows. With the release of version 1.0 we primarily focused on stability. However, being a major version upgrade, it allowed us to drop some long-standing legacy code from the libnetplan1 library. Removing this technical debt increases the maintainability of Netplan s codebase going forward. The upcoming Ubuntu 24.04 LTS and Debian 13 releases will ship Netplan v1.0 to millions of users worldwide.

Highlights of version 1.0 In addition to stability and maintainability improvements, it s worth looking at some of the new features that were included in the latest release:
  • Simultaneous WPA2 & WPA3 support.
  • Introduction of a stable libnetplan1 API.
  • Mellanox VF-LAG support for high performance SR-IOV networking.
  • New hairpin and port-mac-learning settings, useful for VXLAN tunnels with FRRouting.
  • New netplan status diff subcommand, finding differences between configuration and system state.
Besides those highlights of the v1.0 release, I d also like to shed some light on new functionality that was integrated within the past two years for those upgrading from the previous Ubuntu 22.04 LTS which used Netplan v0.104:
  • We added support for the management of new network interface types, such as veth, dummy, VXLAN, VRF or InfiniBand (IPoIB).
  • Wireless functionality was improved by integrating Netplan with NetworkManager on desktop systems, adding support for WPA3 and adding the notion of a regulatory-domain, to choose proper frequencies for specific regions.
  • To improve maintainability, we moved to Meson as Netplan s buildsystem, added upstream CI coverage for multiple Linux distributions and integrations (such as Debian testing, NetworkManager, snapd or cloud-init), checks for ABI compatibility, and automatic memory leak detection.
  • We increased consistency between the supported backend renderers (systemd-networkd and NetworkManager), by matching physical network interfaces on permanent MAC address, when the match.macaddress setting is being used, and added new hardware offloading functionality for high performance networking, such as Single-Root IO Virtualisation virtual function link-aggregation (SR-IOV VF-LAG).
The much improved Netplan documentation, that is now hosted on Read the Docs , and new command line subcommands, such as netplan status, make Netplan a well vested tool for declarative network management and troubleshooting.

Integrations Those changes pave the way to integrate Netplan in 3rd party projects, such as system installers or cloud deployment methods. By shipping the new python3-netplan Python bindings to libnetplan, it is now easier than ever to access Netplan functionality and network validation from other projects. We are proud that the Debian Cloud Team chose Netplan to be the default network management tool in their official cloud-images for Debian Bookworm and beyond. Ubuntu s NetworkManager package now uses Netplan as it s default backend on Ubuntu 23.10 Desktop systems and beyond. Further integrations happened with cloud-init and the Calamares installer.
Please check out the Netplan version 1.0 release on GitHub! If you want to learn more, follow our activities on Netplan.io, GitHub, Launchpad, IRC or our Netplan Developer Diaries blog on discourse.

12 November 2023

Lukas M rdian: Netplan brings consistent network configuration across Desktop, Server, Cloud and IoT

Ubuntu 23.10 Mantic Minotaur Desktop, showing network settings We released Ubuntu 23.10 Mantic Minotaur on 12 October 2023, shipping its proven and trusted network stack based on Netplan. Netplan is the default tool to configure Linux networking on Ubuntu since 2016. In the past, it was primarily used to control the Server and Cloud variants of Ubuntu, while on Desktop systems it would hand over control to NetworkManager. In Ubuntu 23.10 this disparity in how to control the network stack on different Ubuntu platforms was closed by integrating NetworkManager with the underlying Netplan stack. Netplan could already be used to describe network connections on Desktop systems managed by NetworkManager. But network connections created or modified through NetworkManager would not be known to Netplan, so it was a one-way street. Activating the bidirectional NetworkManager-Netplan integration allows for any configuration change made through NetworkManager to be propagated back into Netplan. Changes made in Netplan itself will still be visible in NetworkManager, as before. This way, Netplan can be considered the single source of truth for network configuration across all variants of Ubuntu, with the network configuration stored in /etc/netplan/, using Netplan s common and declarative YAML format.

Netplan Desktop integration On workstations, the most common scenario is for users to configure networking through NetworkManager s graphical interface, instead of driving it through Netplan s declarative YAML files. Netplan ships a libnetplan library that provides an API to access Netplan s parser and validation internals, which is now used by NetworkManager to store any network interface configuration changes in Netplan. For instance, network configuration defined through NetworkManager s graphical UI or D-Bus API will be exported to Netplan s native YAML format in the common location at /etc/netplan/. This way, the only thing administrators need to care about when managing a fleet of Desktop installations is Netplan. Furthermore, programmatic access to all network configuration is now easily accessible to other system components integrating with Netplan, such as snapd. This solution has already been used in more confined environments, such as Ubuntu Core and is now enabled by default on Ubuntu 23.10 Desktop.

Migration of existing connection profiles On installation of the NetworkManager package (network-manager >= 1.44.2-1ubuntu1) in Ubuntu 23.10, all your existing connection profiles from /etc/NetworkManager/system-connections/ will automatically and transparently be migrated to Netplan s declarative YAML format and stored in its common configuration directory /etc/netplan/. The same migration will happen in the background whenever you add or modify any connection profile through the NetworkManager user interface, integrated with GNOME Shell. From this point on, Netplan will be aware of your entire network configuration and you can query it using its CLI tools, such as sudo netplan get or sudo netplan status without interrupting traditional NetworkManager workflows (UI, nmcli, nmtui, D-Bus APIs). You can observe this migration on the apt-get command line, watching out for logs like the following:
Setting up network-manager (1.44.2-1ubuntu1.1) ...
Migrating HomeNet (9d087126-ae71-4992-9e0a-18c5ea92a4ed) to /etc/netplan
Migrating eduroam (37d643bb-d81d-4186-9402-7b47632c59b1) to /etc/netplan
Migrating DebConf (f862be9c-fb06-4c0f-862f-c8e210ca4941) to /etc/netplan
In order to prepare for a smooth transition, NetworkManager tests were integrated into Netplan s continuous integration pipeline at the upstream GitHub repository. Furthermore, we implemented a passthrough method of handling unknown or new settings that cannot yet be fully covered by Netplan, making Netplan future-proof for any upcoming NetworkManager release.

The future of Netplan Netplan has established itself as the proven network stack across all variants of Ubuntu Desktop, Server, Cloud, or Embedded. It has been the default stack across many Ubuntu LTS releases, serving millions of users over the years. With the bidirectional integration between NetworkManager and Netplan the final piece of the puzzle is implemented to consider Netplan the single source of truth for network configuration on Ubuntu. With Debian choosing Netplan to be the default network stack for their cloud images, it is also gaining traction outside the Ubuntu ecosystem and growing into the wider open source community. Within the development cycle for Ubuntu 24.04 LTS, we will polish the Netplan codebase to be ready for a 1.0 release, coming with certain guarantees on API and ABI stability, so that other distributions and 3rd party integrations can rely on Netplan s interfaces. First steps into that direction have already been taken, as the Netplan team reached out to the Debian community at DebConf 2023 in Kochi/India to evaluate possible synergies.

Conclusion Netplan can be used transparently to control a workstation s network configuration and plays hand-in-hand with many desktop environments through its tight integration with NetworkManager. It allows for easy network monitoring, using common graphical interfaces and provides a single source of truth to network administrators, allowing for configuration of Ubuntu Desktop fleets in a streamlined and declarative way. You can try this new functionality hands-on by following the Access Desktop NetworkManager settings through Netplan tutorial.
If you want to learn more, feel free to follow our activities on Netplan.io, GitHub, Launchpad, IRC or our Netplan Developer Diaries blog on discourse.

27 September 2023

Bits from Debian: New Debian Developers and Maintainers (July and August 2023)

The following contributors got their Debian Developer accounts in the last two months: The following contributors were added as Debian Maintainers in the last two months: Congratulations!

24 August 2023

Lukas M rdian: Netplan v0.107 is now available

I m happy to announce that Netplan version 0.107 is now available on GitHub and is soon to be deployed into a Linux installation near you! Six months and more than 200 commits after the previous version (including a .1 stable release), this release is brought to you by 8 free software contributors from around the globe.

Highlights Highlights of this release include the new configuration types for veth and dummy interfaces:
network:
  version: 2
  virtual-ethernets:
    veth0:
      peer: veth1
    veth1:
      peer: veth0
  dummy-devices:
    dm0:
      addresses:
        - 192.168.0.123/24
      ...
Furthermore, we implemented CFFI based Python bindings on top of libnetplan s API, that can easily be consumed by 3rd party applications (see full cffi-bindings.py example):
from netplan import Parser, State, NetDefinition
from netplan import NetplanException, NetplanParserException

parser = Parser()
# Parse the full, existing YAML config hierarchy
parser.load_yaml_hierarchy(rootdir='/')
# Validate the final parser state
state = State()
try:
    # validation of current state + new settings
    state.import_parser_results(parser)
except NetplanParserException as e:
    print('Error in', e.filename, 'Row/Col', e.line, e.column, '->', e.message)
except NetplanException as e:
    print('Error:', e.message)
# Walk through ethernet NetdefIDs in the state and print their backend
# renderer, to demonstrate working with NetDefinitionIterator &
# NetDefinition
for netdef in state.ethernets.values():
    print('Netdef', netdef.id, 'is managed by:', netdef.backend)
    print('Is it configured to use DHCP?', netdef.dhcp4 or netdef.dhcp6)

Changelog:

Bug fixes:

5 August 2023

Bits from Debian: Debian Project Bits Volume 1, Issue 1


Debian Project Bits Volume 1, Issue 1 August 05, 2023 Welcome to the inaugural issue of Debian Project Bits! Those remembering the Debian Weekly News (DwN) will recognize some of the sections here which served as our inspiration. Debian Project Bits posts will allow for a faster turnaround of some project news on a monthly basis. The Debian Micronews service will continue to share shorter news items, the Debian Project News remains as our official newsletter which may move to a biannual archive format. News Debian Day The Debian Project was officially founded by Ian Murdock on August 16, 1993. Since then we have celebrated our Anniversary of that date each year with events around the world. We would love it if you could join our revels this very special year as we have the honor of turning 30! Attend or organize a local Debian Day celebration. You're invited to plan your own event: from Bug Squashing parties to Key Signing parties, Meet-Ups, or any type of social event whether large or small. And be sure to check our Debian reimbursement How To if you need such resources. You can share your days, events, thoughts, or notes with us and the rest of the community with the #debianday tag that will be used across most social media platforms. See you then! Events: Upcoming and Reports Upcoming Debian 30 anos The Debian Brasil Community is organizing the event Debian 30 anos to celebrate the 30th anniversary of the Debian Project. From August 14 to 18, between 7pm and 22pm (UTC-3) contributors will talk online in Portuguese and we will live stream on Debian Brasil YouTube channel. DebConf23: Debian Developers Camp and Conference The 2023 Debian Developers Camp (DebCamp) and Conference (DebConf23) will be hosted this year in Infopark, Kochi, India. DebCamp is slated to run from September 3 through 9, immediately followed by the larger DebConf, September 10 through 17. If you are planning on attending the conference this year, now is the time to ensure your travel documentation, visa information, bursary submissions, papers and relevant equipment are prepared. For more information contact: debconf@debconf. MiniDebConf Cambridge 2023 There will be a MiniDebConf held in Cambridge, UK, hosted by ARM for 4 days in November: 2 days for a mini-DebCamp (Thu 23 - Fri 24), with space for dedicated development / sprint / team meetings, then two days for a more regular MiniDebConf (Sat 25 - Sun 26) with space for more general talks, up to 80 people. Reports During the last months, the Debian Community has organized some Bug Squashing Parties:
Tilburg, Netherlands. October 2022. St-Cergue, Switzerland. January 2023 Montreal, Canada. February 2023 In January, Debian India hosted the MiniDebConf Tamil Nadu in Viluppuram, Tamil Nadu, India (Sat 28 - Sun 26). The following month, the MiniDebConf Portugal 2023 was held in Lisbon (12 - 16 February 2023). These events, seen as a stunning success by some of their attendees, demonstrate the vitality of our community.
Debian Brasil Community at Campus Party Brazil 2023 Another edition of Campus Party Brazil took place in the city of S o Paulo between July 25th and 30th. And one more time the Debian Brazil Community was present. During the days in the available space, we carry out some activities such as: For more info and a few photos, check out the organizers' report. MiniDebConf Bras lia 2023 From May 25 to 27, Bras lia hosted the MiniDebConf Bras lia 2023. This gathering was composed of various activities such as talks, workshops, sprints, BSPs (Bug Squashing Party), key signings, social events, and hacking, aimed to bring the community together and celebrate the world's largest Free Software project: Debian. For more information please see the full report written by the organizers. Debian Reunion Hamburg 2023 This year the annual Debian Reunion Hamburg was held from Tuesday 23 to 30 May starting with four days of hacking followed by two days of talks, and then two more days of hacking. As usual, people - more than forty-five attendees from Germany, Czechia, France, Slovakia, and Switzerland - were happy to meet in person, to hack and chat together, and much more. If you missed the live streams, the video recordings are available. Translation workshops from the pt_BR team The Brazilian translation team, debian-l10n-portuguese, had their first workshop of 2023 in February with great results. The workshop was aimed at beginners, working in DDTP/DDTSS. For more information please see the full report written by the organizers. And on June 13 another workshop took place to translate The Debian Administrator's Handbook). The main goal was to show beginners how to collaborate in the translation of this important material, which has existed since 2004. The manual's translations are hosted on Weblate. Releases Stable Release Debian 12 bookworm was released on June 10, 2023. This new version becomes the stable release of Debian and moves the prior Debian 11 bullseye release to oldstable status. The Debian community celebrated the release with 23 Release Parties all around the world. Bookworm's first point release 12.1 address miscellaneous bug fixes affecting 88 packages, documentation, and installer updates was made available on July 22, 2023. RISC-V support riscv64 has recently been added to the official Debian architectures for support of 64-bit little-endian RISC-V hardware running the Linux kernel. We expect to have full riscv64 support in Debian 13 trixie. Updates on bootstrap, build daemon, porterbox, and development progress were recently shared by the team in a Bits from the Debian riscv64 porters post. non-free-firmware The Debian 12 bookworm archive now includes non-free-firmware; please be sure to update your apt sources.list if your systems requires such components for operation. If your previous sources.list included non-free for this purpose it may safely be removed. apt sources.list The Debian archive holds several components: Example of the sources.list file
deb http://deb.debian.org/debian bookworm main
deb-src http://deb.debian.org/debian bookworm main
deb http://deb.debian.org/debian-security/ bookworm-security main
deb-src http://deb.debian.org/debian-security/ bookworm-security main
deb http://deb.debian.org/debian bookworm-updates main
deb-src http://deb.debian.org/debian bookworm-updates main
Example using the components:
deb http://deb.debian.org/debian bookworm main non-free-firmware
deb-src http://deb.debian.org/debian bookworm main non-free-firmware
deb http://deb.debian.org/debian-security/ bookworm-security main non-free-firmware
deb-src http://deb.debian.org/debian-security/ bookworm-security main non-free-firmware
deb http://deb.debian.org/debian bookworm-updates main non-free-firmware
deb-src http://deb.debian.org/debian bookworm-updates main non-free-firmware
For more information and guidelines on proper configuration of the apt source.list file please see the Configuring Apt Sources - Wiki page. Inside Debian New Debian Members Please welcome the following newest Debian Project Members: To find out more about our newest members or any Debian Developer, look for them on the Debian People list. Security Debian's Security Team releases current advisories on a daily basis. Some recently released advisories concern these packages: trafficserver Several vulnerabilities were discovered in Apache Traffic Server, a reverse and forward proxy server, which could result in information disclosure or denial of service. asterisk A flaw was found in Asterisk, an Open Source Private Branch Exchange. A buffer overflow vulnerability affects users that use PJSIP DNS resolver. This vulnerability is related to CVE-2022-24793. The difference is that this issue is in parsing the query record parse_query(), while the issue in CVE-2022-24793 is in parse_rr(). A workaround is to disable DNS resolution in PJSIP config (by setting nameserver_count to zero) or use an external resolver implementation instead. flask It was discovered that in some conditions the Flask web framework may disclose a session cookie. chromium Multiple security issues were discovered in Chromium, which could result in the execution of arbitrary code, denial of service or information disclosure. Other Popular packages gpgv - GNU privacy guard signature verification tool. 99,053 installations. gpgv is actually a stripped-down version of gpg which is only able to check signatures. It is somewhat smaller than the fully-blown gpg and uses a different (and simpler) way to check that the public keys used to make the signature are valid. There are no configuration files and only a few options are implemented. dmsetup - Linux Kernel Device Mapper userspace library. 77,769 installations. The Linux Kernel Device Mapper is the LVM (Linux Logical Volume Management) Team's implementation of a minimalistic kernel-space driver that handles volume management, while keeping knowledge of the underlying device layout in user-space. This makes it useful for not only LVM, but software raid, and other drivers that create "virtual" block devices. sensible-utils - Utilities for sensible alternative selection. 96,001 daily users. This package provides a number of small utilities which are used by programs to sensibly select and spawn an appropriate browser, editor, or pager. The specific utilities included are: sensible-browser sensible-editor sensible-pager. popularity-contest - The popularity-contest package. 90,758 daily users. The popularity-contest package sets up a cron job that will periodically anonymously submit to the Debian developers statistics about the most used Debian packages on the system. This information helps Debian make decisions such as which packages should go on the first CD. It also lets Debian improve future versions of the distribution so that the most popular packages are the ones which are installed automatically for new users. New and noteworthy packages in unstable Toolkit for scalable simulation of distributed applications SimGrid is a toolkit that provides core functionalities for the simulation of distributed applications in heterogeneous distributed environments. SimGrid can be used as a Grid simulator, a P2P simulator, a Cloud simulator, a MPI simulator, or a mix of all of them. The typical use-cases of SimGrid include heuristic evaluation, application prototyping, and real application development and tuning. This package contains the dynamic libraries and runtime. LDraw mklist program 3D CAD programs and rendering programs using the LDraw parts library of LEGO parts rely on a file called parts.lst containing a list of all available parts. The program ldraw-mklist is used to generate this list from a directory of LDraw parts. Open Lighting Architecture - RDM Responder Tests The DMX512 standard for Digital MultipleX is used for digital communication networks commonly used to control stage lighting and effects. The Remote Device Management protocol is an extension to DMX512, allowing bi-directional communication between RDM-compliant devices without disturbing other devices on the same connection. The Open Lighting Architecture (OLA) provides a plugin framework for distributing DMX512 control signals. The ola-rdm-tests package provides an automated way to check protocol compliance in RDM devices. parsec-service Parsec is an abstraction layer that can be used to interact with hardware-backed security facilities such as the Hardware Security Module (HSM), the Trusted Platform Module (TPM), as well as firmware-backed and isolated software services. The core component of Parsec is the security service, provided by this package. The service is a background process that runs on the host platform and provides connectivity with the secure facilities of that host, exposing a platform-neutral API that can be consumed into different programming languages using a client library. For a client library implemented in Rust see the package librust-parsec-interface-dev. Simple network calculator and lookup tool Process and lookup network addresses from the command line or CSV with ripalc. Output has a variety of customisable formats. High performance, open source CPU/GPU miner and RandomX benchmark XMRig is a high performance, open source, cross platform RandomX, KawPow, CryptoNight, and GhostRider unified CPU/GPU miner and RandomX benchmark. Ping, but with a graph - Rust source code This package contains the source for the Rust gping crate, packaged by debcargo for use with cargo and dh-cargo. Once upon a time in Debian: 2014-07-31 The Technical committee choose libjpeg-turbo as the default JPEG decoder. 2010-08-01 DebConf10 starts New York City, USA 2007-08-05 Debian Maintainers approved by vote 2009-08-05 Jeff Chimene files bug #540000 against live-initramfs. Calls for help The Publicity team calls for volunteers and help! Your Publicity team is asking for help from you our readers, developers, and interested parties to contribute to the Debian news effort. We implore you to submit items that may be of interest to our community and also ask for your assistance with translations of the news into (your!) other languages along with the needed second or third set of eyes to assist in editing our work before publishing. If you can share a small amount of your time to aid our team which strives to keep all of us informed, we need you. Please reach out to us via IRC on #debian-publicity on OFTC.net, or our public mailing list, or via email at press@debian.org for sensitive or private inquiries.

18 July 2023

Lukas M rdian: A declarative approach to Linux networking with Netplan

Photo by Taylor Vick (Unsplash)
Linux networking can be confusing due to the wide range of technology stacks and tools in use, in addition to the complexity of the surrounding network environment. The configuration of bridges, bonds, VRFs or routes can be done programmatically, declaratively, manually or with automated with tools like ifupdown, ifupdown2, ifupdown-ng, iproute2, NetworkManager, systemd-networkd and others. Each of these tools use different formats and locations to store their configuration files. Netplan, a utility for easily configuring networking on a Linux system, is designed to unify and standardise how administrators interact with these underlying technologies. Starting from a YAML description of the required network interfaces and what each should be configured to do, Netplan will generate all the necessary configuration for your chosen tool. In this article, we will provide an overview of how Ubuntu uses Netplan to manage Linux networking in a unified way. By creating a common interface across two disparate technology stacks, IT administrators benefit from a unified experience across both desktops and servers whilst retaining the unique advantages of the underlying tech. But first, let s start with a bit of history and show where we are today.

The history of Netplan in Ubuntu Starting with Ubuntu 16.10 and driven by the need to express network configuration in a common way across cloud metadata and other installer systems, we had the opportunity to switch to a network stack that integrates better with our dependency-based boot model. We chose systemd-networkd on server installations for its active upstream community and because it was already part of Systemd and therefore included in any Ubuntu base installation. It has a much better outlook for the future, using modern development techniques, good test coverage and CI integration, compared to the ifupdown tool we used previously. On desktop installations, we kept using NetworkManager due to its very good integration with the user interface. Having to manage and configure two separate network stacks, depending on the Ubuntu variant in use, can be confusing, and we wanted to provide a streamlined user experience across any flavour of Ubuntu. Therefore, we introduced Netplan.io as a control layer above systemd-networkd and NetworkManager. Netplan takes declarative YAML files from /etc/netplan/ as an input and generates corresponding network configuration for the relevant network stack backend in /run/systemd/network/ or /run/NetworkManager/ depending on the system configuration. All while keeping full flexibility to control the underlying network stack in its native way if need be.
Design overview (netplan.io)

Who is using Netplan? Recent versions of Netplan are available and ready to be installed on many distributions, such as Ubuntu, Fedora, RedHat Enterprise Linux, Debian and Arch Linux.

Ubuntu As stated above, Netplan has been installed by default on Ubuntu systems since 2016 and is therefore being used by millions of users across multiple long-term support versions of Ubuntu (18.04, 20.04, 22.04) on a day-to-day basis. This covers Ubuntu server scenarios primarily, such as bridges, bonding, VLANs, VXLANs, VRFs, IP tunnels or WireGuard tunnels, using systemd-networkd as the backend renderer. On Ubuntu desktop systems, Netplan can be used manually through its declarative YAML configuration files, and it will handle those to configure the NetworkManager stack. Keep reading to get a glimpse of how this will be improved through automation and integration with the desktop stack in the future.

Cloud It might not be as obvious, but many people have been using Netplan without knowing about it when configuring a public cloud instance on AWS, Google Cloud or elsewhere through cloud-init. This is because cloud-init s Networking Config Version 2 is a passthrough configuration to Netplan, which will then set up the underlying network stack on the given cloud instance. This is why Netplan is also a key package on the Debian distribution, for example, as it s being used by default on Debian cloud images, too.

Our vision for Linux networking We know that Linux networking can be a beast, and we want to keep simple things simple. But also allow for custom setups of any complexity. With Netplan, the day-to-day networking needs are covered through easily comprehensible and nicely documented YAML files, that describe the desired state of the local network interfaces, which will be rendered into corresponding configuration files for the relevant network stack and applied at (re-)boot or at runtime, using the netplan apply CLI. For example /etc/netplan/lan.yaml:
network:
  version: 2
  renderer: networkd
  ethernets:
    enp3s0:
      dhcp4: true
Having a single source of truth for network configuration is also important for administrators, so they do not need to understand multiple network stacks, but can rely on the declarative data given in /etc/netplan/ to configure a system, independent of the underlying network configuration backend. This is also very helpful to seed the initial network configuration for new Linux installations, for example through installation systems such as Subiquity, Ubuntu s desktop installer or cloud-init across the public and private clouds. In addition to describing and applying network configuration, the netplan status CLI can be used to query relevant data from the underlying network stack(s), such as systemd-networkd, NetworkManager or iproute2, and present them in a unified way.
Netplan status (Debian)
At the Netplan project we strive for very high test automation and coverage with plenty of unit tests, integration tests and linting steps, across multiple Linux distros, which gives high confidence in also supporting more advanced networking use cases, such as Open vSwitch or SR-IOV network virtualization, in addition to normal wired (static IP, DHCP, routing), wireless (e.g. wwan modems, WPA2/3 connections, WiFi hotspot, controlling the regulatory domain, ) and common server scenarios. Should there ever be a scenario that is not covered by Netplan natively, it allows for full flexibility to control the underlying network stack directly through systemd override configurations or NetworkManager passthrough settings in addition to having manual configuration side-by-side with interfaces controlled through Netplan.

The future of Netplan desktop integration On workstations, the most common scenario is for end users to configure NetworkManager through its user interface tools, instead of driving it through Netplan s declarative YAML files, which makes use of NetworkManager s native configuration files. To avoid Netplan just handing over control to NetworkManager on such systems, we re working on a bidirectional integration between NetworkManager and Netplan to further improve the single source of truth use case on Ubuntu desktop installations. Netplan is shipping a libnetplan library that provides an API to access Netplan s parser and validation internals, that can be used by NetworkManager to write back a network interface configuration. For instance, configuration given through NetworkManager s UI tools or D-Bus API can be exported to Netplan s native YAML format in the common location at /etc/netplan/. This way, administrators just need to care about Netplan when managing a fleet of Desktop installations. This solution is currently being used in more confined environments, like Ubuntu Core, when using the NetworkManager snap, and we will deliver it to generic Ubuntu desktop systems in 24.04 LTS. In addition to NetworkManager, libnetplan can also be used to integrate with other tools in the networking space, such as cloud-init for improved validation of user data or installation systems when seeding new Linux images.

Conclusion Overall, Netplan can be considered to be a good citizen within a network environment that plays hand-in-hand with other networking tools and makes it easy to control modern network stacks, such as systemd-networkd or NetworkManager in a common, streamlined and declarative way. It provides a single source of truth to network administrators about the network state, while keeping simple things simple, but allowing for arbitrarily complex custom setups.
If you want to learn more, feel free to follow our activities on Netplan.io, GitHub, Launchpad, IRC or our Netplan Developer Diaries blog on discourse.

10 July 2023

Lukas M rdian: Netplan and systemd-networkd on Debian Bookworm

Debian s cloud-images are using systemd-networkd as their default network stack in Bookworm. A slim and feature rich networking daemon that comes included with Systemd itself. Debian s cloud-images are deploying Netplan on top of this as an easy-to-use, declarative control layer. If you want to experiment with systemd-networkd and Netplan on Debian, this can be done easily in QEMU using the official images. To start, you need to download the relevant .qcow2 Debian cloud-image from: https://cloud.debian.org/images/cloud/bookworm/latest/
$ wget https://cloud.debian.org/images/cloud/bookworm/latest/debian-12-generic-amd64.qcow2

Prepare a cloud image Next, you need to prepare some configuration files for cloud-init and Netplan, to prepare a data-source (seed.img) for your local cloud-image.
$ cat > meta.yaml <<EOF
instance-id: debian01
local-hostname: cloudimg
EOF
$ cat > user.yaml <<EOF
#cloud-config
ssh_pwauth: true
password: test
chpasswd:
  expire: false
EOF
$ cat > netplan.yaml <<EOF
network:
  version: 2
  ethernets:
    id0:
      match:
        macaddress: "ca:fe:ca:fe:00:aa"
      dhcp4: true
      dhcp6: true
      set-name: lan0
EOF
Once all configuration is prepared, you can create the local data-source image, using the cloud-localds tool from the cloud-image-utils package:
$ cloud-localds --network-config=netplan.yaml seed.img user.yaml meta.yaml

Launch the local VM Now, everything is prepared to launch a QEMU VM with two NICs and do some experimentation! The following command will launch an ephemeral environment for you, keeping the original Debian cloud-image untouched. If you want to preserve any changes on disk, you can remove the trailing -snapshot parameter.
$ qemu-system-x86_64 \
  -machine accel=kvm,type=q35 \
  -cpu host \
  -m 2G \
  -device virtio-net-pci,netdev=net0,mac=ca:fe:ca:fe:00:aa \
  -netdev user,id=net0,hostfwd=tcp::2222-:22 \
  -nic user,model=virtio-net-pci,mac=f0:0d:ca:fe:00:bb \
  -drive if=virtio,format=qcow2,file=debian-12-generic-amd64.qcow2 \
  -drive if=virtio,format=raw,file=seed.img -snapshot
We set up the default debian user account through cloud-init s user-data configuration above, so you can now login to the system, using that user with the (very unsafe!) password test .
$ ssh -o "StrictHostKeyChecking=no" -o "UserKnownHostsFile=/dev/null" -p 2222 debian@localhost # password: test

Experience Netplan and systemd-networkd Once logged in successfully, you can execute the netplan status command to check the system s network configuration, as configured through cloud-init s netplan.yaml passthrough. So you ve already used Netplan at this point implicitly and it did all the configuration of systemd-networkd for you in the background!
debian@cloudimg:~$ sudo netplan status -a
     Online state: online
    DNS Addresses: 10.0.2.3 (compat)
       DNS Search: .
   1: lo ethernet UNKNOWN/UP (unmanaged)
      MAC Address: 00:00:00:00:00:00
        Addresses: 127.0.0.1/8
                   ::1/128
           Routes: ::1 metric 256
   2: enp0s2 ethernet DOWN (unmanaged)
      MAC Address: f0:0d:ca:fe:00:bb (Red Hat, Inc.)
   3: lan0 ethernet UP (networkd: id0)
      MAC Address: ca:fe:ca:fe:00:aa (Red Hat, Inc.)
        Addresses: 10.0.2.15/24 (dhcp)
                   fec0::c8fe:caff:fefe:aa/64
                   fe80::c8fe:caff:fefe:aa/64 (link)
    DNS Addresses: 10.0.2.3
           Routes: default via 10.0.2.2 from 10.0.2.15 metric 100 (dhcp)
                   10.0.2.0/24 from 10.0.2.15 metric 100 (link)
                   10.0.2.2 from 10.0.2.15 metric 100 (dhcp, link)
                   10.0.2.3 from 10.0.2.15 metric 100 (dhcp, link)
                   fe80::/64 metric 256
                   fec0::/64 metric 100 (ra)
                   default via fe80::2 metric 100 (ra)
As you can see from this output, the lan0 interface is configured via the id0 Netplan ID to be managed by systemd-networkd. Compare this data to the netplan.yaml file above, the networkctl output, the local Netplan configuration in /etc/netplan/ and the auto-generated systemd-networkd configuration.
debian@cloudimg:~$ networkctl 
IDX LINK   TYPE     OPERATIONAL SETUP     
  1 lo     loopback carrier     unmanaged
  2 enp0s2 ether    off         unmanaged
  3 lan0   ether    routable    configured
3 links listed.
debian@cloudimg:~$ cat /etc/netplan/50-cloud-init.yaml 
# [...]
network:
    ethernets:
        id0:
            dhcp4: true
            dhcp6: true
            match:
                macaddress: ca:fe:ca:fe:00:aa
            set-name: lan0
    version: 2

debian@cloudimg:~$ ls -l /run/systemd/network/
total 8
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root  78 Jul  5 15:23 10-netplan-id0.link
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 137 Jul  5 15:23 10-netplan-id0.network
Now you can go ahead and try something more advanced, like link aggregation, using the second NIC that you configured for this QEMU VM and explore all the possibilities of Netplan on Debian, by checking the Netplan YAML documentation.

26 June 2023

Lukas M rdian: Netplan 0.106.1 stable release

We are happy to announce that Netplan 0.106.1 is available for download on Ubuntu Mantic Minotaur and Debian testing. This release includes some improvements in our documentation and CI infrastructure and a number of bug fixes.

What s new in Netplan 0.106.1?

Documentation

Infrastructure
  • canonical/setup-lxd GitHub action. The autopkgtest environment creation was standardized to use Canonical s setup-lxd action.
  • Snapd integrations tests with spread. A new test set for the Snapd integration with Netplan was introduced using the spread tool.
  • DBus. A number of DBus integration tests were added to the Debian package.

New features
  • Keyfile parser improvements. Our Network Manager keyfile parser (the capability of loading Network Manager configuration to Netplan YAML) was expanded to support all the types of tunnels supported by Netplan.

Misc
  • Ubuntu s Code of Conduct 2.0 was added to the code repository.
  • We added a new bash autocompletion script with all the Netplan s subcommands.
  • The new release package was synchronized with Debian.

Bug fixes
  • Keyfile parser. This release contains a couple of important fixes for the NetworkManager integration stability: 1) adding WPA enterprise connections is now working fine and new test cases were added to the package; 2) a WireGuard peer with allowed IPs that don t include the network prefix are now accepted.
  • Netplan parser. A number of memory leaks and stability issues were fixed.
  • DBus. An issue related to how directory paths are built in the Netplan DBus service was causing issues in the Snapd integration and was fixed.
For the complete list of changes please consult the debian/changelog file in https://launchpad.net/ubuntu/+source/netplan.io/+changelog

15 February 2023

Lukas M rdian: Netplan v0.106 is now available

I m happy to announce that Netplan version 0.106 is now available on GitHub and is soon to be deployed into an Ubuntu/Debian/Fedora installation near you! Six months and 65 commits after the previous version, this release is brought to you by 4 free software contributors from around the globe. Highlights Highlights of this release include the new netplan status command, which queries your system for IP addresses, routes, DNS information, etc in addition to the Netplan backend renderer (NetworkManager/networkd) in use and the relevant Netplan YAML configuration ID. It displays all this in a nicely formatted way (or alternatively in machine readable YAML/JSON format).
Furthermore, we implemented a clean libnetplan API which can be used by external tools to parse Netplan configuration, migrated away from non-inclusive language (PR#303) and improved the overall Netplan documentation. Another change that should be noted, is that the match.macaddress stanza now only matches on PermanentMACAddress= on the systemd-networkd backend, as has been the case on the NetworkManager backend ever since (see PR#278 for background information on this slight change in behavior). Changelog Bug fixes:

18 August 2022

Lukas M rdian: Netplan v0.105 is now available

I m happy to announce that Netplan version 0.105 is now available on GitHub and is soon to be deployed into an Ubuntu/Debian installation near you! Six month and exactly 100 commits after the previous version, this release is brought to you by 7 free software contributors from around the globe. Changelog Bug fixes