Search Results: "pm"

12 August 2022

Wouter Verhelst: Upgrading a Windows 10 VM to Windows 11

I run Debian on my laptop (obviously); but occasionally, for $DAYJOB, I have some work to do on Windows. In order to do so, I have had a Windows 10 VM in my libvirt configuration that I can use. A while ago, Microsoft issued Windows 11. I recently found out that all the components for running Windows 11 inside a libvirt VM are available, and so I set out to upgrade my VM from Windows 10 to Windows 11. This wasn't as easy as I thought, so here's a bit of a writeup of all the things I ran against, and how I fixed them. Windows 11 has a number of hardware requirements that aren't necessary for Windows 10. There are a number of them, but the most important three are: So let's see about all three.

A modern enough processor If your processor isn't modern enough to run Windows 11, then you can probably forget about it (unless you want to use qemu JIT compilation -- I dunno, probably not going to work, and also not worth it if it were). If it is, all you need is the "host-passthrough" setting in libvirt, which I've been using for a long time now. Since my laptop is less than two months old, that's not a problem for me.

A TPM 2.0 module My Windows 10 VM did not have a TPM configured, because it wasn't needed. Luckily, a quick web search told me that enabling that is not hard. All you need to do is:
  • Install the swtpm and swtpm-tools packages
  • Adding the TPM module, by adding the following XML snippet to your VM configuration:
    <devices>
      <tpm model='tpm-tis'>
        <backend type='emulator' version='2.0'/>
      </tpm>
    </devices>
    
    Alternatively, if you prefer the graphical interface, click on the "Add hardware" button in the VM properties, choose the TPM, set it to Emulated, model TIS, and set its version to 2.0.
You're done! Well, with this part, anyway. Read on.

Secure boot Here is where it gets interesting. My Windows 10 VM was old enough that it was configured for the older i440fx chipset. This one is limited to PCI and IDE, unlike the more modern q35 chipset (which supports PCIe and SATA, and does not support IDE nor SATA in IDE mode). There is a UEFI/Secure Boot-capable BIOS for qemu, but it apparently requires the q35 chipset, Fun fact (which I found out the hard way): Windows stores where its boot partition is somewhere. If you change the hard drive controller from an IDE one to a SATA one, you will get a BSOD at startup. In order to fix that, you need a recovery drive. To create the virtual USB disk, go to the VM properties, click "Add hardware", choose "Storage", choose the USB bus, and then under "Advanced options", select the "Removable" option, so it shows up as a USB stick in the VM. Note: this takes a while to do (took about an hour on my system), and your virtual USB drive needs to be 16G or larger (I used the libvirt default of 20G). There is no possibility, using the buttons in the virt-manager GUI, to convert the machine from i440fx to q35. However, that doesn't mean it's not possible to do so. I found that the easiest way is to use the direct XML editing capabilities in the virt-manager interface; if you edit the XML in an editor it will produce error messages if something doesn't look right and tell you to go and fix it, whereas the virt-manager GUI will actually fix things itself in some cases (and will produce helpful error messages if not). What I did was:
  • Take backups of everything. No, really. If you fuck up, you'll have to start from scratch. I'm not responsible if you do.
  • Go to the Edit->Preferences option in the VM manager, then on the "General" tab, choose "Enable XML editing"
  • Open the Windows VM properties, and in the "Overview" section, go to the "XML" tab.
  • Change the value of the machine attribute of the domain.os.type element, so that it says pc-q35-7.0.
  • Search for the domain.devices.controller element that has pci in its type attribute and pci-root in its model one, and set the model attribute to pcie-root instead.
  • Find all domain.devices.disk.target elements, setting their dev=hdX to dev=sdX, and bus="ide" to bus="sata"
  • Find the USB controller (domain.devices.controller with type="usb", and set its model to qemu-xhci. You may also want to add ports="15" if you didn't have that yet.
  • Perhaps also add a few PCIe root ports:
    <controller type="pci" index="1" model="pcie-root-port"/>
    <controller type="pci" index="2" model="pcie-root-port"/>
    <controller type="pci" index="3" model="pcie-root-port"/>
    
I figured out most of this by starting the process for creating a new VM, on the last page of the wizard that pops up selecting the "Modify configuration before installation" option, going to the "XML" tab on the "Overview" section of the new window that shows up, and then comparing that against what my current VM had. Also, it took me a while to get this right, so I might have forgotten something. If virt-manager gives you an error when you hit the Apply button, compare notes against the VM that you're in the process of creating, and copy/paste things from there to the old VM to make the errors go away. As long as you don't remove configuration that is critical for things to start, this shouldn't break matters permanently (but hey, use your backups if you do break -- you have backups, right?) OK, cool, so now we have a Windows VM that is... unable to boot. Remember what I said about Windows storing where the controller is? Yeah, there you go. Boot from the virtual USB disk that you created above, and select the "Fix the boot" option in the menu. That will fix it. Ha ha, only kidding. Of course it doesn't. I honestly can't tell you everything that I fiddled with, but I think the bit that eventually fixed it was where I chose "safe mode", which caused the system to do a hickup, a regular reboot, and then suddenly everything was working again. Meh. Don't throw the virtual USB disk away yet, you'll still need it. Anyway, once you have it booting again, you will now have a machine that theoretically supports Secure Boot, but you're still running off an MBR partition. I found a procedure on how to convert things from MBR to GPT that was written almost 10 years ago, but surprisingly it still works, except for the bit where the procedure suggests you use diskmgmt.msc (for one thing, that was renamed; and for another, it can't touch the partition table of the system disk either). The last step in that procedure says to restart your computer!, which is fine, except at this point you obviously need to switch over to the TianoCore firmware, otherwise you're trying to read a UEFI boot configuration on a system that only supports MBR booting, which obviously won't work. In order to do that, you need to add a loader element to the domain.os element of your libvirt configuration:
<loader readonly="yes" type="pflash">/usr/share/OVMF/OVMF_CODE_4M.ms.fd</loader>
When you do this, you'll note that virt-manager automatically adds an nvram element. That's fine, let it. I figured this out by looking at the documentation for enabling Secure Boot in a VM on the Debian wiki, and using the same trick as for how to switch chipsets that I explained above. Okay, yay, so now secure boot is enabled, and we can install Windows 11! All good? Well, almost. I found that once I enabled secure boot, my display reverted to a 1024x768 screen. This turned out to be because I was using older unsigned drivers, and since we're using Secure Boot, that's no longer allowed, which means Windows reverts to the default VGA driver, and that only supports the 1024x768 resolution. Yeah, I know. The solution is to download the virtio-win ISO from one of the links in the virtio-win github project, connecting it to the VM, going to Device manager, selecting the display controller, clicking on the "Update driver" button, telling the system that you have the driver on your computer, browsing to the CD-ROM drive, clicking the "include subdirectories" option, and then tell Windows to do its thing. While there, it might be good to do the same thing for unrecognized devices in the device manager, if any. So, all I have to do next is to get used to the completely different user interface of Windows 11. Sigh. Oh, and to rename the "w10" VM to "w11", or some such. Maybe.

4 August 2022

Reproducible Builds: Reproducible Builds in July 2022

Welcome to the July 2022 report from the Reproducible Builds project! In our reports we attempt to outline the most relevant things that have been going on in the past month. As a brief introduction, the reproducible builds effort is concerned with ensuring no flaws have been introduced during this compilation process by promising identical results are always generated from a given source, thus allowing multiple third-parties to come to a consensus on whether a build was compromised. As ever, if you are interested in contributing to the project, please visit our Contribute page on our website.

Reproducible Builds summit 2022 Despite several delays, we are pleased to announce that registration is open for our in-person summit this year: November 1st November 3rd
The event will happen in Venice (Italy). We intend to pick a venue reachable via the train station and an international airport. However, the precise venue will depend on the number of attendees. Please see the announcement email for information about how to register.

Is reproducibility practical? Ludovic Court s published an informative blog post this month asking the important question: Is reproducibility practical?:
Our attention was recently caught by a nice slide deck on the methods and tools for reproducible research in the R programming language. Among those, the talk mentions Guix, stating that it is for professional, sensitive applications that require ultimate reproducibility , which is probably a bit overkill for Reproducible Research . While we were flattered to see Guix suggested as good tool for reproducibility, the very notion that there s a kind of reproducibility that is ultimate and, essentially, impractical, is something that left us wondering: What kind of reproducibility do scientists need, if not the ultimate kind? Is reproducibility practical at all, or is it more of a horizon?
The post goes on to outlines the concept of reproducibility, situating examples within the context of the GNU Guix operating system.

diffoscope diffoscope is our in-depth and content-aware diff utility. Not only can it locate and diagnose reproducibility issues, it can provide human-readable diffs from many kinds of binary formats. This month, Chris Lamb prepared and uploaded versions 218, 219 and 220 to Debian, as well as made the following changes:
  • New features:
  • Bug fixes:
    • Fix a regression introduced in version 207 where diffoscope would crash if one directory contained a directory that wasn t in the other. Thanks to Alderico Gallo for the testcase. [ ]
    • Don t traceback if we encounter an invalid Unicode character in Haskell versioning headers. [ ]
  • Output improvements:
  • Codebase improvements:
    • Space out a file a little. [ ]
    • Update various copyright years. [ ]

Mailing list On our mailing list this month:
  • Roland Clobus posted his Eleventh status update about reproducible [Debian] live-build ISO images, noting amongst many other things! that all major desktops build reproducibly with bullseye, bookworm and sid.
  • Santiago Torres-Arias announced a Call for Papers (CfP) for a new SCORED conference, an academic workshop around software supply chain security . As Santiago highlights, this new conference invites reviewers from industry, open source, governement and academia to review the papers [and] I think that this is super important to tackle the supply chain security task .

Upstream patches The Reproducible Builds project attempts to fix as many currently-unreproducible packages as possible. This month, however, we submitted the following patches:

Reprotest reprotest is the Reproducible Builds project s end-user tool to build the same source code twice in widely and deliberate different environments, and checking whether the binaries produced by the builds have any differences. This month, the following changes were made:
  • Holger Levsen:
    • Uploaded version 0.7.21 to Debian unstable as well as mark 0.7.22 development in the repository [ ].
    • Make diffoscope dependency unversioned as the required version is met even in Debian buster. [ ]
    • Revert an accidentally committed hunk. [ ]
  • Mattia Rizzolo:
    • Apply a patch from Nick Rosbrook to not force the tests to run only against Python 3.9. [ ]
    • Run the tests through pybuild in order to run them against all supported Python 3.x versions. [ ]
    • Fix a deprecation warning in the setup.cfg file. [ ]
    • Close a new Debian bug. [ ]

Reproducible builds website A number of changes were made to the Reproducible Builds website and documentation this month, including:
  • Arnout Engelen:
  • Chris Lamb:
    • Correct some grammar. [ ]
  • Holger Levsen:
    • Add talk from FOSDEM 2015 presented by Holger and Lunar. [ ]
    • Show date of presentations if we have them. [ ][ ]
    • Add my presentation from DebConf22 [ ] and from Debian Reunion Hamburg 2022 [ ].
    • Add dhole to the speakers of the DebConf15 talk. [ ]
    • Add raboof s talk Reproducible Builds for Trustworthy Binaries from May Contain Hackers. [ ]
    • Drop some Debian-related suggested ideas which are not really relevant anymore. [ ]
    • Add a link to list of packages with patches ready to be NMUed. [ ]
  • Mattia Rizzolo:
    • Add information about our upcoming event in Venice. [ ][ ][ ][ ]

Testing framework The Reproducible Builds project runs a significant testing framework at tests.reproducible-builds.org, to check packages and other artifacts for reproducibility. This month, Holger Levsen made the following changes:
  • Debian-related changes:
    • Create graphs displaying existing .buildinfo files per each Debian suite/arch. [ ][ ]
    • Fix a typo in the Debian dashboard. [ ][ ]
    • Fix some issues in the pkg-r package set definition. [ ][ ][ ]
    • Improve the builtin-pho HTML output. [ ][ ][ ][ ]
    • Temporarily disable all live builds as our snapshot mirror is offline. [ ]
  • Automated node health checks:
    • Detect dpkg failures. [ ]
    • Detect files with bad UNIX permissions. [ ]
    • Relax a regular expression in order to detect Debian Live image build failures. [ ]
  • Misc changes:
    • Test that FreeBSD virtual machine has been updated to version 13.1. [ ]
    • Add a reminder about powercycling the armhf-architecture mst0X node. [ ]
    • Fix a number of typos. [ ][ ]
    • Update documentation. [ ][ ]
    • Fix Munin monitoring configuration for some nodes. [ ]
    • Fix the static IP address for a node. [ ]
In addition, Vagrant Cascadian updated host keys for the cbxi4pro0 and wbq0 nodes [ ] and, finally, node maintenance was also performed by Mattia Rizzolo [ ] and Holger Levsen [ ][ ][ ].

Contact As ever, if you are interested in contributing to the Reproducible Builds project, please visit our Contribute page on our website. However, you can get in touch with us via:

1 August 2022

Sergio Talens-Oliag: Using Git Server Hooks on GitLab CE to Validate Tags

Since a long time ago I ve been a gitlab-ce user, in fact I ve set it up on three of the last four companies I ve worked for (initially I installed it using the omnibus packages on a debian server but on the last two places I moved to the docker based installation, as it is easy to maintain and we don t need a big installation as the teams using it are small). On the company I work for now (kyso) we are using it to host all our internal repositories and to do all the CI/CD work (the automatic deployments are triggered by web hooks in some cases, but the rest is all done using gitlab-ci). The majority of projects are using nodejs as programming language and we have automated the publication of npm packages on our gitlab instance npm registry and even the publication into the npmjs registry. To publish the packages we have added rules to the gitlab-ci configuration of the relevant repositories and we publish them when a tag is created. As the we are lazy by definition, I configured the system to use the tag as the package version; I tested if the contents of the package.json where in sync with the expected version and if it was not I updated it and did a force push of the tag with the updated file using the following code on the script that publishes the package:
# Update package version & add it to the .build-args
INITIAL_PACKAGE_VERSION="$(npm pkg get version tr -d '"')"
npm version --allow-same --no-commit-hooks --no-git-tag-version \
  "$CI_COMMIT_TAG"
UPDATED_PACKAGE_VERSION="$(npm pkg get version tr -d '"')"
echo "UPDATED_PACKAGE_VERSION=$UPDATED_PACKAGE_VERSION" >> .build-args
# Update tag if the version was updated or abort
if [ "$INITIAL_PACKAGE_VERSION" != "$UPDATED_PACKAGE_VERSION" ]; then
  if [ -n "$CI_GIT_USER" ] && [ -n "$CI_GIT_TOKEN" ]; then
    git commit -m "Updated version from tag $CI_COMMIT_TAG" package.json
    git tag -f "$CI_COMMIT_TAG" -m "Updated version from tag"
    git push -f -o ci.skip origin "$CI_COMMIT_TAG"
  else
    echo "!!! ERROR !!!"
    echo "The updated tag could not be uploaded."
    echo "Set CI_GIT_USER and CI_GIT_TOKEN or fix the 'package.json' file"
    echo "!!! ERROR !!!"
    exit 1
  fi
fi
This feels a little dirty (we are leaving commits on the tag but not updating the original branch); I thought about trying to find the branch using the tag and update it, but I drop the idea pretty soon as there were multiple issues to consider (i.e. we can have tags pointing to commits present in multiple branches and even if it only points to one the tag does not have to be the HEAD of the branch making the inclusion difficult). In any case this system was working, so we left it until we started to publish to the NPM Registry; as we are using a token to push the packages that we don t want all developers to have access to (right now it would not matter, but when the team grows it will) I started to use gitlab protected branches on the projects that need it and adjusting the .npmrc file using protected variables. The problem then was that we can no longer do a standard force push for a branch (that is the main point of the protected branches feature) unless we use the gitlab api, so the tags with the wrong version started to fail. As the way things were being done seemed dirty anyway I thought that the best way of fixing things was to forbid users to push a tag that includes a version that does not match the package.json version. After thinking about it we decided to use githooks on the gitlab server for the repositories that need it, as we are only interested in tags we are going to use the update hook; it is executed once for each ref to be updated, and takes three parameters:
  • the name of the ref being updated,
  • the old object name stored in the ref,
  • and the new object name to be stored in the ref.
To install our hook we have found the gitaly relative path of each repo and located it on the server filesystem (as I said we are using docker and the gitlab s data directory is on /srv/gitlab/data, so the path to the repo has the form /srv/gitlab/data/git-data/repositories/@hashed/xx/yy/hash.git). Once we have the directory we need to:
  • create a custom_hooks sub directory inside it,
  • add the update script (as we only need one script we used that instead of creating an update.d directory, the good thing is that this will also work with a standard git server renaming the base directory to hooks instead of custom_hooks),
  • make it executable, and
  • change the directory and file ownership to make sure it can be read and executed from the gitlab container
On a console session:
$ cd /srv/gitlab/data/git-data/repositories/@hashed/xx/yy/hash.git
$ mkdir custom_hooks
$ edit_or_copy custom_hooks/update
$ chmod 0755 custom_hooks/update
$ chown --reference=. -R custom_hooks
The update script we are using is as follows:
#!/bin/sh
set -e
# kyso update hook
#
# Right now it checks version.txt or package.json versions against the tag name
# (it supports a 'v' prefix on the tag)
# Arguments
ref_name="$1"
old_rev="$2"
new_rev="$3"
# Initial test
if [ -z "$ref_name" ]    [ -z "$old_rev" ]   [ -z "$new_rev" ]; then
  echo "usage: $0 <ref> <oldrev> <newrev>" >&2
  exit 1
fi
# Get the tag short name
tag_name="$ ref_name##refs/tags/ "
# Exit if the update is not for a tag
if [ "$tag_name" = "$ref_name" ]; then
  exit 0
fi
# Get the null rev value (string of zeros)
zero=$(git hash-object --stdin </dev/null   tr '0-9a-f' '0')
# Get if the tag is new or not
if [ "$old_rev" = "$zero" ]; then
  new_tag="true"
else
  new_tag="false"
fi
# Get the type of revision:
# - delete: if the new_rev is zero
# - commit: annotated tag
# - tag: un-annotated tag
if [ "$new_rev" = "$zero" ]; then
  new_rev_type="delete"
else
  new_rev_type="$(git cat-file -t "$new_rev")"
fi
# Exit if we are deleting a tag (nothing to check here)
if [ "$new_rev_type" = "delete" ]; then
  exit 0
fi
# Check the version against the tag (supports version.txt & package.json)
if git cat-file -e "$new_rev:version.txt" >/dev/null 2>&1; then
  version="$(git cat-file -p "$new_rev:version.txt")"
  if [ "$version" = "$tag_name" ]   [ "$version" = "$ tag_name#v " ]; then
    exit 0
  else
    EMSG="tag '$tag_name' and 'version.txt' contents '$version' don't match"
    echo "GL-HOOK-ERR: $EMSG"
    exit 1
  fi
elif git cat-file -e "$new_rev:package.json" >/dev/null 2>&1; then
  version="$(
    git cat-file -p "$new_rev:package.json"   jsonpath version   tr -d '\[\]"'
  )"
  if [ "$version" = "$tag_name" ]   [ "$version" = "$ tag_name#v " ]; then
    exit 0
  else
    EMSG="tag '$tag_name' and 'package.json' version '$version' don't match"
    echo "GL-HOOK-ERR: $EMSG"
    exit 1
  fi
else
  # No version.txt or package.json file found
  exit 0
fi
Some comments about it:
  • we are only looking for tags, if the ref_name does not have the prefix refs/tags/ the script does an exit 0,
  • although we are checking if the tag is new or not we are not using the value (in gitlab that is handled by the protected tag feature),
  • if we are deleting a tag the script does an exit 0, we don t need to check anything in that case,
  • we are ignoring if the tag is annotated or not (we set the new_rev_type to tag or commit, but we don t use the value),
  • we test first the version.txt file and if it does not exist we check the package.json file, if it does not exist either we do an exit 0, as there is no version to check against and we allow that on a tag,
  • we add the GL-HOOK-ERR: prefix to the messages to show them on the gitlab web interface (can be tested creating a tag from it),
  • to get the version on the package.json file we use the jsonpath binary (it is installed by the jsonpath ruby gem) because it is available on the gitlab container (initially I used sed to get the value, but a real JSON parser is always a better option).
Once the hook is installed when a user tries to push a tag to a repository that has a version.txt file or package.json file and the tag does not match the version (if version.txt is present it takes precedence) the push fails. If the tag matches or the files are not present the tag is added if the user has permission to add it in gitlab (our hook is only executed if the user is allowed to create or update the tag).

31 July 2022

Russell Coker: Links July 2022

Darren Hayes wrote an interesting article about his battle with depression and his journey to accepting being gay [1]. Savage Garden had some great songs, Affirmation is relevant to this topic. Rorodi wrote an interesting article about the biggest crypto lending company being a Ponzi scheme [2]. One thing I find particularly noteworthy is how obviously scammy it is, even to the extent of having an ex porn star as an executive! Celsuis is now in the process of going bankrupt, 7 months after that article was published. Quora has an interesting discussion about different type casts in C++ [3]. C style casts shouldn t be used! MamaMia has an interesting article about Action Faking which means procrastination by doing tasks marginally related to the end goal [3]. This can mean include excessive study about the topic, excessive planning for the work, and work on things that aren t on the critical path first (EG thinking of a name for a project). Apple has a new Lockdown Mode to run an iPhone in a more secure configuration [4]. It would be good if more operating systems had a feature like this. Informative article about energy use of different organs [5]. The highest metabolic rates (in KCal/Kg/day) are for the heart and kidneys. The brain is 3rd on the list and as it s significantly more massive than the heart and kidneys it uses more energy, however this research was done on people who were at rest. Scientific American has an interesting article about brain energy use and exhaustion from mental effort [6]. Apparently it s doing things that aren t fun that cause exhaustion, mental effort that s fun can be refreshing.

26 July 2022

Rapha&#235;l Hertzog: Freexian s report about Debian Long Term Support, June 2022

A Debian LTS logo
Like each month, have a look at the work funded by Freexian s Debian LTS offering. Debian project funding No any major updates on running projects.
Two 1, 2 projects are in the pipeline now.
Tryton project is in a review phase. Gradle projects is still fighting in work. In June, we put aside 2254 EUR to fund Debian projects. We re looking forward to receive more projects from various Debian teams! Learn more about the rationale behind this initiative in this article. Debian LTS contributors In June, 15 contributors have been paid to work on Debian LTS, their reports are available: Evolution of the situation In June we released 27 DLAs.

This is a special month, where we have two releases (stretch and jessie) as ELTS and NO release as LTS. Buster is still handled by the security team and will probably be given in LTS hands at the beginning of the August. During this month we are updating the infrastructure, documentation and improve our internal processes to switch to a new release.
Many developers have just returned back from Debconf22, hold in Prizren, Kosovo! Many (E)LTS members could meet face-to-face and discuss some technical and social topics! Also LTS BoF took place, where the project was introduced (link to video).
Thanks to our sponsors Sponsors that joined recently are in bold. We are pleased to welcome Alter Way where their support of Debian is publicly acknowledged at the higher level, see this French quote of Alterway s CEO.

25 July 2022

Bits from Debian: DebConf22 closes in Prizren and DebConf23 dates announced

DebConf22 group photo - click to enlarge On Sunday 24 July 2022, the annual Debian Developers and Contributors Conference came to a close. Hosting 260 attendees from 38 different countries over a combined 91 event talks, discussion sessions, Birds of a Feather (BoF) gatherings, workshops, and activities, DebConf22 was a large success. The conference was preceded by the annual DebCamp held 10 July to 16 July which focused on individual work and team sprints for in-person collaboration towards developing Debian. In particular, this year there have been sprints to advance development of Mobian/Debian on mobile, reproducible builds and Python in Debian, and a BootCamp for newcomers, to get introduced to Debian and have some hands-on experience with using it and contributing to the community. The actual Debian Developers Conference started on Sunday 17 July 2022. Together with activities such as the traditional 'Bits from the DPL' talk, the continuous key-signing party, lightning talks and the announcement of next year's DebConf (DebConf23 in Kochi, India), there were several sessions related to programming language teams such as Python, Perl and Ruby, as well as news updates on several projects and internal Debian teams, discussion sessions (BoFs) from many technical teams (Long Term Support, Android tools, Debian Derivatives, Debian Installer and Images team, Debian Science...) and local communities (Debian Brasil, Debian India, the Debian Local Teams), along with many other events of interest regarding Debian and free software. The schedule was updated each day with planned and ad-hoc activities introduced by attendees over the course of the entire conference. Several activities that couldn\'t be organized in past years due to the COVID pandemic returned to the conference\'s schedule: a job fair, open-mic and poetry night, the traditional Cheese and Wine party, the group photos and the Day Trip. For those who were not able to attend, most of the talks and sessions were recorded for live streams with videos made, available through the Debian meetings archive website. Almost all of the sessions facilitated remote participation via IRC messaging apps or online collaborative text documents. The DebConf22 website will remain active for archival purposes and will continue to offer links to the presentations and videos of talks and events. Next year, DebConf23 will be held in Kochi, India, from September 10 to September 16, 2023. As tradition follows before the next DebConf the local organizers in India will start the conference activites with DebCamp (September 03 to September 09, 2023), with particular focus on individual and team work towards improving the distribution. DebConf is committed to a safe and welcome environment for all participants. See the web page about the Code of Conduct in DebConf22 website for more details on this. Debian thanks the commitment of numerous sponsors to support DebConf22, particularly our Platinum Sponsors: Lenovo, Infomaniak, ITP Prizren and Google. About Debian The Debian Project was founded in 1993 by Ian Murdock to be a truly free community project. Since then the project has grown to be one of the largest and most influential open source projects. Thousands of volunteers from all over the world work together to create and maintain Debian software. Available in 70 languages, and supporting a huge range of computer types, Debian calls itself the universal operating system. About DebConf DebConf is the Debian Project's developer conference. In addition to a full schedule of technical, social and policy talks, DebConf provides an opportunity for developers, contributors and other interested people to meet in person and work together more closely. It has taken place annually since 2000 in locations as varied as Scotland, Argentina, and Bosnia and Herzegovina. More information about DebConf is available from https://debconf.org/. About Lenovo As a global technology leader manufacturing a wide portfolio of connected products, including smartphones, tablets, PCs and workstations as well as AR/VR devices, smart home/office and data center solutions, Lenovo understands how critical open systems and platforms are to a connected world. About Infomaniak Infomaniak is Switzerland\'s largest web-hosting company, also offering backup and storage services, solutions for event organizers, live-streaming and video on demand services. It wholly owns its datacenters and all elements critical to the functioning of the services and products provided by the company (both software and hardware). About ITP Prizren Innovation and Training Park Prizren intends to be a changing and boosting element in the area of ICT, agro-food and creatives industries, through the creation and management of a favourable environment and efficient services for SMEs, exploiting different kinds of innovations that can contribute to Kosovo to improve its level of development in industry and research, bringing benefits to the economy and society of the country as a whole. About Google Google is one of the largest technology companies in the world, providing a wide range of Internet-related services and products such as online advertising technologies, search, cloud computing, software, and hardware. Google has been supporting Debian by sponsoring DebConf for more than ten years, and is also a Debian partner sponsoring parts of Salsa's continuous integration infrastructure within Google Cloud Platform. Contact Information For further information, please visit the DebConf22 web page at https://debconf22.debconf.org/ or send mail to press@debian.org.

23 July 2022

Wouter Verhelst: Planet Grep now running PtLink

Almost 2 decades ago, Planet Debian was created using the "planetplanet" RSS aggregator. A short while later, I created Planet Grep using the same software. Over the years, the blog aggregator landscape has changed a bit. First of all, planetplanet was abandoned, forked into Planet Venus, and then abandoned again. Second, the world of blogging (aka the "blogosphere") has disappeared much, and the more modern world uses things like "Social Networks", etc, making blogs less relevant these days. A blog aggregator community site is still useful, however, and so I've never taken Planet Grep down, even though over the years the number of blogs that was carried on Planet Grep has been reducing. In the past almost 20 years, I've just run Planet Grep on my personal server, upgrading its Debian release from whichever was the most recent stable release in 2005 to buster, never encountering any problems. That all changed when I did the upgrade to Debian bullseye, however. Planet Venus is a Python 2 application, which was never updated to Python 3. Since Debian bullseye drops support for much of Python 2, focusing only on Python 3 (in accordance with python upstream's policy on the matter), that means I have had to run Planet Venus from inside a VM for a while now, which works as a short-term solution but not as a long-term one. Although there are other implementations of blog aggregation software out there, I wanted to stick with something (mostly) similar. Additionally, I have been wanting to add functionality to it to also pull stuff from Social Networks, where possible (and legal, since some of these have... scary Terms Of Use documents). So, as of today, Planet Grep is no longer powered by Planet Venus, but instead by PtLink. Rather than Python, it was written in Perl (a language with which I am more familiar), and there are plans for me to extend things in ways that have little to do with blog aggregation anymore... There are a few other Planets out there that also use Planet Venus at this point -- Planet Debian and Planet FSFE are two that I'm currently already aware of, but I'm sure there might be more, too. At this point, PtLink is not yet on feature parity with Planet Venus -- as shown by the fact that it can't yet build either Planet Debian or Planet FSFE successfully. But I'm not stopping my development here, and hopefully I'll have something that successfully builds both of those soon, too. As a side note, PtLink is not intended to be bug compatible with Planet Venus. For one example, the configuration for Planet Grep contains an entry for Frederic Descamps, but somehow Planet Venus failed to fetch his feed. With the switch to PtLink, that seems fixed, and now some entries from Frederic seem to appear. I'm not going to be "fixing" that feature... but of course there might be other issues that will appear. If that's the case, let me know. If you're reading this post through Planet Grep, consider this a public service announcement for the possibility (hopefully a remote one) of minor issues.

18 July 2022

Bits from Debian: DebConf22 welcomes its sponsors!

DebConf22 is taking place in Prizren, Kosovo, from 17th to 24th July, 2022. It is the 23rd edition of the Debian conference and organizers are working hard to create another interesting and fruitful event for attendees. We would like to warmly welcome the sponsors of DebConf22, and introduce you to them. We have four Platinum sponsors. Our first Platinum sponsor is Lenovo. As a global technology leader manufacturing a wide portfolio of connected products, including smartphones, tablets, PCs and workstations as well as AR/VR devices, smart home/office and data center solutions, Lenovo understands how critical open systems and platforms are to a connected world. Infomaniak is our second Platinum sponsor. Infomaniak is Switzerland's largest web-hosting company, also offering backup and storage services, solutions for event organizers, live-streaming and video on demand services. It wholly owns its datacenters and all elements critical to the functioning of the services and products provided by the company (both software and hardware). The ITP Prizren is our third Platinum sponsor. ITP Prizren intends to be a changing and boosting element in the area of ICT, agro-food and creatives industries, through the creation and management of a favourable environment and efficient services for SMEs, exploiting different kinds of innovations that can contribute to Kosovo to improve its level of development in industry and research, bringing benefits to the economy and society of the country as a whole. Google is our fourth Platinum sponsor. Google is one of the largest technology companies in the world, providing a wide range of Internet-related services and products such as online advertising technologies, search, cloud computing, software, and hardware. Google has been supporting Debian by sponsoring DebConf for more than ten years, and is also a Debian partner sponsoring parts of Salsa's continuous integration infrastructure within Google Cloud Platform. Our Gold sponsors are: Roche, a major international pharmaceutical provider and research company dedicated to personalized healthcare. Microsoft, enables digital transformation for the era of an intelligent cloud and an intelligent edge. Its mission is to empower every person and every organization on the planet to achieve more. Ipko Telecommunications, provides telecommunication services and it is the first and the most dominant mobile operator which offers fast-speed mobile internet 3G and 4G networks in Kosovo. Ubuntu, the Operating System delivered by Canonical. U.S. Agency for International Development, leads international development and humanitarian efforts to save lives, reduce poverty, strengthen democratic governance and help people progress beyond assistance. Our Silver sponsors are: Pexip, is the video communications platform that solves the needs of large organizations. Deepin is a Chinese commercial company focusing on the development and service of Linux-based operating systems. Hudson River Trading, a company researching and developing automated trading algorithms using advanced mathematical techniques. Amazon Web Services (AWS), is one of the world's most comprehensive and broadly adopted cloud platforms, offering over 175 fully featured services from data centers globally. The Bern University of Applied Sciences with near 7,800 students enrolled, located in the Swiss capital. credativ, a service-oriented company focusing on open-source software and also a Debian development partner. Collabora, a global consultancy delivering Open Source software solutions to the commercial world. Arm: with the world s Best SoC Design Portfolio, Arm powered solutions have been supporting innovation for more than 30 years and are deployed in over 225 billion chips to date. GitLab, an open source end-to-end software development platform with built-in version control, issue tracking, code review, CI/CD, and more. Two Sigma, rigorous inquiry, data analysis, and invention to help solve the toughest challenges across financial services. Starlabs, builds software experiences and focus on building teams that deliver creative Tech Solutions for our clients. Solaborate, has the world s most integrated and powerful virtual care delivery platform. Civil Infrastructure Platform, a collaborative project hosted by the Linux Foundation, establishing an open source base layer of industrial grade software. Matanel Foundation, operates in Israel, as its first concern is to preserve the cohesion of a society and a nation plagued by divisions. Bronze sponsors: bevuta IT, Kutia, Univention, Freexian. And finally, our Supporter level sponsors: Altus Metrum, Linux Professional Institute, Olimex, Trembelat, Makerspace IC Prizren, Cloud68.co, Gandi.net, ISG.EE, IPKO Foundation, The Deutsche Gesellschaft f r Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH. Thanks to all our sponsors for their support! Their contributions make it possible for a large number of Debian contributors from all over the globe to work together, help and learn from each other in DebConf22. DebConf22 logo

17 July 2022

Russ Allbery: Review: Trang

Review: Trang, by Mary Sisson
Series: Trang #1
Publisher: Mary Sisson
Copyright: 2011
Printing: December 2013
ASIN: B004I6DAQ8
Format: Kindle
Pages: 374
In 2113, a radio mapping satellite near the Titan station disappeared. It then reappeared five days later, apparently damaged and broadcasting a signal that made computers crash. The satellite was immediately sent back to the Space Authority base in Beijing for careful examination, but the techs on the station were able to decode the transmission: a request for the contents of databases. The general manager of the station sent a probe to the same location and it too vanished, returning two days later with a picture of a portal, followed shortly by an alien probe. Five years later, Philippe Trang has been assigned as the first human diplomat to an alien space station in intergalactic space at the nexus of multiple portals. Humans will apparently be the eighth type of intelligent life to send a representative to the station. He'll have a translation system, a security detail, and the groundwork of five years of audiovisual communications with the aliens, including one that was able to learn English. But he'll be the first official diplomatic representative physically there. The current style in SF might lead you to expect a tense thriller full of nearly incomprehensible aliens, unexplained devices, and creepy mysteries. This is not that sort of book. The best comparison point I could think of is James White's Sector General novels, except with a diplomat rather than a doctor. The aliens are moderately strange (not just humans in prosthetic makeup), but are mostly earnest, well-meaning, and welcoming. Trang's security escort is more military than he expects, but that becomes a satisfying negotiation rather than an ongoing problem. There is confusion, misunderstandings, and even violence, but most of it is sorted out by earnest discussion and attempts at mutual understanding. This is, in other words, diplomat competence porn (albeit written by someone who is not a diplomat, so I wouldn't expect too much realism). Trang defuses rather than confronts, patiently sorts through the nuances of a pre-existing complex dynamic between aliens without prematurely picking sides, and has the presence of mind to realize that the special forces troops assigned to him are another culture he needs to approach with the same skills. Most of the book is low-stakes confusion, curiosity, and careful exploration, which could have been boring but wasn't. It helps that Sisson packs a lot of complexity into the station dynamics and reveals it in ways that I found enjoyably unpredictable. Some caveats: This is a self-published first novel (albeit by an experienced reporter and editor) and it shows. The book has a sort of plastic Technicolor feel that I sometimes see in self-published novels, where the details aren't quite deep enough, the writing isn't quite polished, and the dialog isn't quite as tight as I'm used to. It also meanders in a way that few commercial novels do, including slice-of-life moments and small asides that don't go anywhere. This can be either a bug or a feature depending on what you're in the mood for. I found it relaxing and stress-relieving, which is what I was looking for, but you may have a different experience. I will warn that the climax features a sudden escalation of stakes that I don't think was sufficiently signaled by the tone of the writing, and thus felt a bit unreal. Sisson also includes a couple deus ex machina twists that felt a bit predictable and easy, and I didn't find the implied recent history of one of the alien civilizations that believable. The conclusion is therefore not the strongest part of the book; if you're not enjoying the journey, it probably won't get better. But, all that said, this was fun, and I've already bought the second book in the series. It's low-stakes, gentle SF with a core of discovery and exploration rather than social dynamics, and I haven't run across much of that recently. The worst thing in the book is some dream glimpses at a horrific event in Trang's past that's never entirely on camera. It's not as pacifist as James White, but it's close. Recommended, especially if you liked Sector General. White's series is so singular that I previously would have struggled to find a suggestion for someone who wanted more exactly like that (but without the Bewitched-era sexism). Now I have an answer. Score another one for Susan Stepney, who is also how I found Julie Czerneda. Trang is also currently free for Kindle, so you can't beat the price. Followed by Trust. Rating: 8 out of 10

16 July 2022

Russ Allbery: INN 2.7.0

This is the first major release of the INN news server package since 2015. It incorporates tons of work on just about every part of INN, ranging from a brand new overview backend contributed by Bo Lindbergh through Cancel-Lock support contributed by Julien LIE to numerous smaller changes in configuration files, protocol support, and overall simplification. Since this represents seven years of development, there are too many major changes to summarize in a short blog post, so I'll simply link to the INN 2.7.0 NEWS file for all of the details, including breaking changes to watch out for when upgrading. INN 2.7 is now the stable branch, and will be maintained on the 2.7 Git branch. The main branch is now open for development targeting 2.8.0. (I'm still hoping to get to the build system overhaul before 2.8.0 is released.) As of tonight, if all goes well, the nightly stable snapshots will be generated from the 2.7 branch instead of the 2.6 branch, so be aware that you will need to pay close attention to the upgrade if you're using a snapshot. As always, thanks to Julien LIE for preparing this release and doing most of the maintenance work on INN! You can get the latest version from the official ISC download page or from my personal INN pages. The latter also has links to the other INN documentation.

15 July 2022

Bits from Debian: (Unofficial) Debian Perl Sprint 2022

Three members of the Debian Perl Group met in Hamburg between May 23 and May 30 2022 as part of the Debian Reunion Hamburg to continue perl development work for Bookworm and to work on QA tasks across our 3800+ packages. The participants had a good time and met other Debian friends. The sprint was also productive: The more detailed report was posted to the Debian Perl mailing list. The participants would like to thank the Debian Reunion Hamburg organizers for providing the framework for our sprint, all sponsors of the event, and all donors to the Debian project who helped to cover parts of our expenses. Debian Reunion Hamburg 2022 group photo

13 July 2022

Reproducible Builds: Reproducible Builds in June 2022

Welcome to the June 2022 report from the Reproducible Builds project. In these reports, we outline the most important things that we have been up to over the past month. As a quick recap, whilst anyone may inspect the source code of free software for malicious flaws, almost all software is distributed to end users as pre-compiled binaries.

Save the date! Despite several delays, we are pleased to announce dates for our in-person summit this year: November 1st 2022 November 3rd 2022
The event will happen in/around Venice (Italy), and we intend to pick a venue reachable via the train station and an international airport. However, the precise venue will depend on the number of attendees. Please see the announcement mail from Mattia Rizzolo, and do keep an eye on the mailing list for further announcements as it will hopefully include registration instructions.

News David Wheeler filed an issue against the Rust programming language to report that builds are not reproducible because full path to the source code is in the panic and debug strings . Luckily, as one of the responses mentions: the --remap-path-prefix solves this problem and has been used to great effect in build systems that rely on reproducibility (Bazel, Nix) to work at all and that there are efforts to teach cargo about it here .
The Python Security team announced that:
The ctx hosted project on PyPI was taken over via user account compromise and replaced with a malicious project which contained runtime code which collected the content of os.environ.items() when instantiating Ctx objects. The captured environment variables were sent as a base64 encoded query parameter to a Heroku application [ ]
As their announcement later goes onto state, version-pinning using hash-checking mode can prevent this attack, although this does depend on specific installations using this mode, rather than a prevention that can be applied systematically.
Developer vanitasvitae published an interesting and entertaining blog post detailing the blow-by-blow steps of debugging a reproducibility issue in PGPainless, a library which aims to make using OpenPGP in Java projects as simple as possible . Whilst their in-depth research into the internals of the .jar may have been unnecessary given that diffoscope would have identified the, it must be said that there is something to be said with occasionally delving into seemingly low-level details, as well describing any debugging process. Indeed, as vanitasvitae writes:
Yes, this would have spared me from 3h of debugging But I probably would also not have gone onto this little dive into the JAR/ZIP format, so in the end I m not mad.

Kees Cook published a short and practical blog post detailing how he uses reproducibility properties to aid work to replace one-element arrays in the Linux kernel. Kees approach is based on the principle that if a (small) proposed change is considered equivalent by the compiler, then the generated output will be identical but only if no other arbitrary or unrelated changes are introduced. Kees mentions the fantastic diffoscope tool, as well as various kernel-specific build options (eg. KBUILD_BUILD_TIMESTAMP) in order to prepare my build with the known to disrupt code layout options disabled .
Stefano Zacchiroli gave a presentation at GDR S curit Informatique based in part on a paper co-written with Chris Lamb titled Increasing the Integrity of Software Supply Chains. (Tweet)

Debian In Debian in this month, 28 reviews of Debian packages were added, 35 were updated and 27 were removed this month adding to our knowledge about identified issues. Two issue types were added: nondeterministic_checksum_generated_by_coq and nondetermistic_js_output_from_webpack. After Holger Levsen found hundreds of packages in the bookworm distribution that lack .buildinfo files, he uploaded 404 source packages to the archive (with no meaningful source changes). Currently bookworm now shows only 8 packages without .buildinfo files, and those 8 are fixed in unstable and should migrate shortly. By contrast, Debian unstable will always have packages without .buildinfo files, as this is how they come through the NEW queue. However, as these packages were not built on the official build servers (ie. they were uploaded by the maintainer) they will never migrate to Debian testing. In the future, therefore, testing should never have packages without .buildinfo files again. Roland Clobus posted yet another in-depth status report about his progress making the Debian Live images build reproducibly to our mailing list. In this update, Roland mentions that all major desktops build reproducibly with bullseye, bookworm and sid but also goes on to outline the progress made with automated testing of the generated images using openQA.

GNU Guix Vagrant Cascadian made a significant number of contributions to GNU Guix: Elsewhere in GNU Guix, Ludovic Court s published a paper in the journal The Art, Science, and Engineering of Programming called Building a Secure Software Supply Chain with GNU Guix:
This paper focuses on one research question: how can [Guix]((https://www.gnu.org/software/guix/) and similar systems allow users to securely update their software? [ ] Our main contribution is a model and tool to authenticate new Git revisions. We further show how, building on Git semantics, we build protections against downgrade attacks and related threats. We explain implementation choices. This work has been deployed in production two years ago, giving us insight on its actual use at scale every day. The Git checkout authentication at its core is applicable beyond the specific use case of Guix, and we think it could benefit to developer teams that use Git.
A full PDF of the text is available.

openSUSE In the world of openSUSE, SUSE announced at SUSECon that they are preparing to meet SLSA level 4. (SLSA (Supply chain Levels for Software Artifacts) is a new industry-led standardisation effort that aims to protect the integrity of the software supply chain.) However, at the time of writing, timestamps within RPM archives are not normalised, so bit-for-bit identical reproducible builds are not possible. Some in-toto provenance files published for SUSE s SLE-15-SP4 as one result of the SLSA level 4 effort. Old binaries are not rebuilt, so only new builds (e.g. maintenance updates) have this metadata added. Lastly, Bernhard M. Wiedemann posted his usual monthly openSUSE reproducible builds status report.

diffoscope diffoscope is our in-depth and content-aware diff utility. Not only can it locate and diagnose reproducibility issues, it can provide human-readable diffs from many kinds of binary formats. This month, Chris Lamb prepared and uploaded versions 215, 216 and 217 to Debian unstable. Chris Lamb also made the following changes:
  • New features:
    • Print profile output if we were called with --profile and we were killed via a TERM signal. This should help in situations where diffoscope is terminated due to some sort of timeout. [ ]
    • Support both PyPDF 1.x and 2.x. [ ]
  • Bug fixes:
    • Also catch IndexError exceptions (in addition to ValueError) when parsing .pyc files. (#1012258)
    • Correct the logic for supporting different versions of the argcomplete module. [ ]
  • Output improvements:
    • Don t leak the (likely-temporary) pathname when comparing PDF documents. [ ]
  • Logging improvements:
    • Update test fixtures for GNU readelf 2.38 (now in Debian unstable). [ ][ ]
    • Be more specific about the minimum required version of readelf (ie. binutils), as it appears that this patch level version change resulted in a change of output, not the minor version. [ ]
    • Use our @skip_unless_tool_is_at_least decorator (NB. at_least) over @skip_if_tool_version_is (NB. is) to fix tests under Debian stable. [ ]
    • Emit a warning if/when we are handling a UNIX TERM signal. [ ]
  • Codebase improvements:
    • Clarify in what situations the main finally block gets called with respect to TERM signal handling. [ ]
    • Clarify control flow in the diffoscope.profiling module. [ ]
    • Correctly package the scripts/ directory. [ ]
In addition, Edward Betts updated a broken link to the RSS on the diffoscope homepage and Vagrant Cascadian updated the diffoscope package in GNU Guix [ ][ ][ ].

Upstream patches The Reproducible Builds project detects, dissects and attempts to fix as many currently-unreproducible packages as possible. We endeavour to send all of our patches upstream where appropriate. This month, we wrote a large number of such patches, including:

Testing framework The Reproducible Builds project runs a significant testing framework at tests.reproducible-builds.org, to check packages and other artifacts for reproducibility. This month, the following changes were made:
  • Holger Levsen:
    • Add a package set for packages that use the R programming language [ ] as well as one for Rust [ ].
    • Improve package set matching for Python [ ] and font-related [ ] packages.
    • Install the lz4, lzop and xz-utils packages on all nodes in order to detect running kernels. [ ]
    • Improve the cleanup mechanisms when testing the reproducibility of Debian Live images. [ ][ ]
    • In the automated node health checks, deprioritise the generic kernel warning . [ ]
  • Roland Clobus (Debian Live image reproducibility):
    • Add various maintenance jobs to the Jenkins view. [ ]
    • Cleanup old workspaces after 24 hours. [ ]
    • Cleanup temporary workspace and resulting directories. [ ]
    • Implement a number of fixes and improvements around publishing files. [ ][ ][ ]
    • Don t attempt to preserve the file timestamps when copying artifacts. [ ]
And finally, node maintenance was also performed by Mattia Rizzolo [ ].

Mailing list and website On our mailing list this month: Lastly, Chris Lamb updated the main Reproducible Builds website and documentation in a number of small ways, but primarily published an interview with Hans-Christoph Steiner of the F-Droid project. Chris Lamb also added a Coffeescript example for parsing and using the SOURCE_DATE_EPOCH environment variable [ ]. In addition, Sebastian Crane very-helpfully updated the screenshot of salsa.debian.org s request access button on the How to join the Salsa group. [ ]

Contact If you are interested in contributing to the Reproducible Builds project, please visit our Contribute page on our website. However, you can get in touch with us via:

12 July 2022

Matthew Garrett: Responsible stewardship of the UEFI secure boot ecosystem

After I mentioned that Lenovo are now shipping laptops that only boot Windows by default, a few people pointed to a Lenovo document that says:

Starting in 2022 for Secured-core PCs it is a Microsoft requirement for the 3rd Party Certificate to be disabled by default.

"Secured-core" is a term used to describe machines that meet a certain set of Microsoft requirements around firmware security, and by and large it's a good thing - devices that meet these requirements are resilient against a whole bunch of potential attacks in the early boot process. But unfortunately the 2022 requirements don't seem to be publicly available, so it's difficult to know what's being asked for and why. But first, some background.

Most x86 UEFI systems that support Secure Boot trust at least two certificate authorities:

1) The Microsoft Windows Production PCA - this is used to sign the bootloader in production Windows builds. Trusting this is sufficient to boot Windows.
2) The Microsoft Corporation UEFI CA - this is used by Microsoft to sign non-Windows UEFI binaries, including built-in drivers for hardware that needs to work in the UEFI environment (such as GPUs and network cards) and bootloaders for non-Windows.

The apparent secured-core requirement for 2022 is that the second of these CAs should not be trusted by default. As a result, drivers or bootloaders signed with this certificate will not run on these systems. This means that, out of the box, these systems will not boot anything other than Windows[1].

Given the association with the secured-core requirements, this is presumably a security decision of some kind. Unfortunately, we have no real idea what this security decision is intended to protect against. The most likely scenario is concerns about the (in)security of binaries signed with the third-party signing key - there are some legitimate concerns here, but I'm going to cover why I don't think they're terribly realistic.

The first point is that, from a boot security perspective, a signed bootloader that will happily boot unsigned code kind of defeats the point. Kaspersky did it anyway. The second is that even a signed bootloader that is intended to only boot signed code may run into issues in the event of security vulnerabilities - the Boothole vulnerabilities are an example of this, covering multiple issues in GRUB that could allow for arbitrary code execution and potential loading of untrusted code.

So we know that signed bootloaders that will (either through accident or design) execute unsigned code exist. The signatures for all the known vulnerable bootloaders have been revoked, but that doesn't mean there won't be other vulnerabilities discovered in future. Configuring systems so that they don't trust the third-party CA means that those signed bootloaders won't be trusted, which means any future vulnerabilities will be irrelevant. This seems like a simple choice?

There's actually a couple of reasons why I don't think it's anywhere near that simple. The first is that whenever a signed object is booted by the firmware, the trusted certificate used to verify that object is measured into PCR 7 in the TPM. If a system previously booted with something signed with the Windows Production CA, and is now suddenly booting with something signed with the third-party UEFI CA, the values in PCR 7 will be different. TPMs support "sealing" a secret - encrypting it with a policy that the TPM will only decrypt it if certain conditions are met. Microsoft make use of this for their default Bitlocker disk encryption mechanism. The disk encryption key is encrypted by the TPM, and associated with a specific PCR 7 value. If the value of PCR 7 doesn't match, the TPM will refuse to decrypt the key, and the machine won't boot. This means that attempting to attack a Windows system that has Bitlocker enabled using a non-Windows bootloader will fail - the system will be unable to obtain the disk unlock key, which is a strong indication to the owner that they're being attacked.

The second is that this is predicated on the idea that removing the third-party bootloaders and drivers removes all the vulnerabilities. In fact, there's been rather a lot of vulnerabilities in the Windows bootloader. A broad enough vulnerability in the Windows bootloader is arguably a lot worse than a vulnerability in a third-party loader, since it won't change the PCR 7 measurements and the system will boot happily. Removing trust in the third-party CA does nothing to protect against this.

The third reason doesn't apply to all systems, but it does to many. System vendors frequently want to ship diagnostic or management utilities that run in the boot environment, but would prefer not to have to go to the trouble of getting them all signed by Microsoft. The simple solution to this is to ship their own certificate and sign all their tooling directly - the secured-core Lenovo I'm looking at currently is an example of this, with a Lenovo signing certificate. While everything signed with the third-party signing certificate goes through some degree of security review, there's no requirement for any vendor tooling to be reviewed at all. Removing the third-party CA does nothing to protect the user against the code that's most likely to contain vulnerabilities.

Obviously I may be missing something here - Microsoft may well have a strong technical justification. But they haven't shared it, and so right now we're left making guesses. And right now, I just don't see a good security argument.

But let's move on from the technical side of things and discuss the broader issue. The reason UEFI Secure Boot is present on most x86 systems is that Microsoft mandated it back in 2012. Microsoft chose to be the only trusted signing authority. Microsoft made the decision to assert that third-party code could be signed and trusted.

We've certainly learned some things since then, and a bunch of things have changed. Third-party bootloaders based on the Shim infrastructure are now reviewed via a community-managed process. We've had a productive coordinated response to the Boothole incident, which also taught us that the existing revocation strategy wasn't going to scale. In response, the community worked with Microsoft to develop a specification for making it easier to handle similar events in future. And it's also worth noting that after the initial Boothole disclosure was made to the GRUB maintainers, they proactively sought out other vulnerabilities in their codebase rather than simply patching what had been reported. The free software community has gone to great lengths to ensure third-party bootloaders are compatible with the security goals of UEFI Secure Boot.

So, to have Microsoft, the self-appointed steward of the UEFI Secure Boot ecosystem, turn round and say that a bunch of binaries that have been reviewed through processes developed in negotiation with Microsoft, implementing technologies designed to make management of revocation easier for Microsoft, and incorporating fixes for vulnerabilities discovered by the developers of those binaries who notified Microsoft of these issues despite having no obligation to do so, and which have then been signed by Microsoft are now considered by Microsoft to be insecure is, uh, kind of impolite? Especially when unreviewed vendor-signed binaries are still considered trustworthy, despite no external review being carried out at all.

If Microsoft had a set of criteria used to determine whether something is considered sufficiently trustworthy, we could determine which of these we fell short on and do something about that. From a technical perspective, Microsoft could set criteria that would allow a subset of third-party binaries that met additional review be trusted without having to trust all third-party binaries[2]. But, instead, this has been a decision made by the steward of this ecosystem without consulting major stakeholders.

If there are legitimate security concerns, let's talk about them and come up with solutions that fix them without doing a significant amount of collateral damage. Don't complain about a vendor blocking your apps and then do the same thing yourself.

[Edit to add: there seems to be some misunderstanding about where this restriction is being imposed. I bought this laptop because I'm interested in investigating the Microsoft Pluton security processor, but Pluton is not involved at all here. The restriction is being imposed by the firmware running on the main CPU, not any sort of functionality implemented on Pluton]

[1] They'll also refuse to run any drivers that are stored in flash on Thunderbolt devices, which means eGPU setups may be more complicated, as will netbooting off Thunderbolt-attached NICs
[2] Use a different leaf cert to sign the new trust tier, add the old leaf cert to dbx unless a config option is set, leave the existing intermediate in db

comment count unavailable comments

8 July 2022

Matthew Garrett: Lenovo shipping new laptops that only boot Windows by default

I finally managed to get hold of a Thinkpad Z13 to examine a functional implementation of Microsoft's Pluton security co-processor. Trying to boot Linux from a USB stick failed out of the box for no obvious reason, but after further examination the cause became clear - the firmware defaults to not trusting bootloaders or drivers signed with the Microsoft 3rd Party UEFI CA key. This means that given the default firmware configuration, nothing other than Windows will boot. It also means that you won't be able to boot from any third-party external peripherals that are plugged in via Thunderbolt.

There's no security benefit to this. If you want security here you're paying attention to the values measured into the TPM, and thanks to Microsoft's own specification for measurements made into PCR 7, switching from booting Windows to booting something signed with the 3rd party signing key will change the measurements and invalidate any sealed secrets. It's trivial to detect this. Distrusting the 3rd party CA by default doesn't improve security, it just makes it harder for users to boot alternative operating systems.

Lenovo, this isn't OK. The entire architecture of UEFI secure boot is that it allows for security without compromising user choice of OS. Restricting boot to Windows by default provides no security benefit but makes it harder for people to run the OS they want to. Please fix it.

comment count unavailable comments

5 July 2022

Alberto Garc a: Running the Steam Deck s OS in a virtual machine using QEMU

SteamOS desktop Introduction The Steam Deck is a handheld gaming computer that runs a Linux-based operating system called SteamOS. The machine comes with SteamOS 3 (code name holo ), which is in turn based on Arch Linux. Although there is no SteamOS 3 installer for a generic PC (yet), it is very easy to install on a virtual machine using QEMU. This post explains how to do it. The goal of this VM is not to play games (you can already install Steam on your computer after all) but to use SteamOS in desktop mode. The Gamescope mode (the console-like interface you normally see when you use the machine) requires additional development to make it work with QEMU and will not work with these instructions. A SteamOS VM can be useful for debugging, development, and generally playing and tinkering with the OS without risking breaking the Steam Deck. Running the SteamOS desktop in a virtual machine only requires QEMU and the OVMF UEFI firmware and should work in any relatively recent distribution. In this post I m using QEMU directly, but you can also use virt-manager or some other tool if you prefer, we re emulating a standard x86_64 machine here. General concepts SteamOS is a single-user operating system and it uses an A/B partition scheme, which means that there are two sets of partitions and two copies of the operating system. The root filesystem is read-only and system updates happen on the partition set that is not active. This allows for safer updates, among other things. There is one single /home partition, shared by both partition sets. It contains the games, user files, and anything that the user wants to install there. Although the user can trivially become root, make the root filesystem read-write and install or change anything (the pacman package manager is available), this is not recommended because A simple way for the user to install additional software that survives OS updates and doesn t touch the root filesystem is Flatpak. It comes preinstalled with the OS and is integrated with the KDE Discover app. Preparing all necessary files The first thing that we need is the installer. For that we have to download the Steam Deck recovery image from here: https://store.steampowered.com/steamos/download/?ver=steamdeck&snr= Once the file has been downloaded, we can uncompress it and we ll get a raw disk image called steamdeck-recovery-4.img (the number may vary). Note that the recovery image is already SteamOS (just not the most up-to-date version). If you simply want to have a quick look you can play a bit with it and skip the installation step. In this case I recommend that you extend the image before using it, for example with truncate -s 64G steamdeck-recovery-4.img or, better, create a qcow2 overlay file and leave the original raw image unmodified: qemu-img create -f qcow2 -F raw -b steamdeck-recovery-4.img steamdeck-recovery-extended.qcow2 64G But here we want to perform the actual installation, so we need a destination image. Let s create one: $ qemu-img create -f qcow2 steamos.qcow2 64G Installing SteamOS Now that we have all files we can start the virtual machine:
$ qemu-system-x86_64 -enable-kvm -smp cores=4 -m 8G \
    -device usb-ehci -device usb-tablet \
    -device intel-hda -device hda-duplex \
    -device VGA,xres=1280,yres=800 \
    -drive if=pflash,format=raw,readonly=on,file=/usr/share/ovmf/OVMF.fd \
    -drive if=virtio,file=steamdeck-recovery-4.img,driver=raw \
    -device nvme,drive=drive0,serial=badbeef \
    -drive if=none,id=drive0,file=steamos.qcow2
Note that we re emulating an NVMe drive for steamos.qcow2 because that s what the installer script expects. This is not strictly necessary but it makes things a bit easier. If you don t want to do that you ll have to edit ~/tools/repair_device.sh and change DISK and DISK_SUFFIX. SteamOS installer shortcuts Once the system has booted we ll see a KDE Plasma session with a few tools on the desktop. If we select Reimage Steam Deck and click Proceed on the confirmation dialog then SteamOS will be installed on the destination drive. This process should not take a long time. Now, once the operation finishes a new confirmation dialog will ask if we want to reboot the Steam Deck, but here we have to choose Cancel . We cannot use the new image yet because it would try to boot into the Gamescope session, which won t work, so we need to change the default desktop session. SteamOS comes with a helper script that allows us to enter a chroot after automatically mounting all SteamOS partitions, so let s open a Konsole and make the Plasma session the default one in both partition sets:
$ sudo steamos-chroot --disk /dev/nvme0n1 --partset A
# steamos-readonly disable
# echo '[Autologin]' > /etc/sddm.conf.d/zz-steamos-autologin.conf
# echo 'Session=plasma.desktop' >> /etc/sddm.conf.d/zz-steamos-autologin.conf
# steamos-readonly enable
# exit
$ sudo steamos-chroot --disk /dev/nvme0n1 --partset B
# steamos-readonly disable
# echo '[Autologin]' > /etc/sddm.conf.d/zz-steamos-autologin.conf
# echo 'Session=plasma.desktop' >> /etc/sddm.conf.d/zz-steamos-autologin.conf
# steamos-readonly enable
# exit
After this we can shut down the virtual machine. Our new SteamOS drive is ready to be used. We can discard the recovery image now if we want. Booting SteamOS and first steps To boot SteamOS we can use a QEMU line similar to the one used during the installation. This time we re not emulating an NVMe drive because it s no longer necessary.
$ cp /usr/share/OVMF/OVMF_VARS.fd .
$ qemu-system-x86_64 -enable-kvm -smp cores=4 -m 8G \
   -device usb-ehci -device usb-tablet \
   -device intel-hda -device hda-duplex \
   -device VGA,xres=1280,yres=800 \
   -drive if=pflash,format=raw,readonly=on,file=/usr/share/ovmf/OVMF.fd \
   -drive if=pflash,format=raw,file=OVMF_VARS.fd \
   -drive if=virtio,file=steamos.qcow2 \
   -device virtio-net-pci,netdev=net0 \
   -netdev user,id=net0,hostfwd=tcp::2222-:22
(the last two lines redirect tcp port 2222 to port 22 of the guest to be able to SSH into the VM. If you don t want to do that you can omit them) If everything went fine, you should see KDE Plasma again, this time with a desktop icon to launch Steam and another one to Return to Gaming Mode (which we should not use because it won t work). See the screenshot that opens this post. Congratulations, you re running SteamOS now. Here are some things that you probably want to do: Updating the OS to the latest version The Steam Deck recovery image doesn t install the most recent version of SteamOS, so now we should probably do a software update. Note: if the last step fails after reaching 100% with a post-install handler error then go to Connections in the system settings, rename Wired Connection 1 to something else (anything, the name doesn t matter), click Apply and run steamos-update again. This works around a bug in the update process. Recent images fix this and this workaround is not necessary with them. As we did with the recovery image, before rebooting we should ensure that the new update boots into the Plasma session, otherwise it won t work:
$ sudo steamos-chroot --partset other
# steamos-readonly disable
# echo '[Autologin]' > /etc/sddm.conf.d/zz-steamos-autologin.conf
# echo 'Session=plasma.desktop' >> /etc/sddm.conf.d/zz-steamos-autologin.conf
# steamos-readonly enable
# exit
After this we can restart the system. If everything went fine we should be running the latest SteamOS release. Enjoy! Reporting bugs SteamOS is under active development. If you find problems or want to request improvements please go to the SteamOS community tracker. Edit 06 Jul 2022: Small fixes, mention how to install the OS without using NVMe.

29 June 2022

Aigars Mahinovs: Long travel in an electric car

Since the first week of April 2022 I have (finally!) changed my company car from a plug-in hybrid to a fully electic car. My new ride, for the next two years, is a BMW i4 M50 in Aventurine Red metallic. An ellegant car with very deep and memorable color, insanely powerful (544 hp/795 Nm), sub-4 second 0-100 km/h, large 84 kWh battery (80 kWh usable), charging up to 210 kW, top speed of 225 km/h and also very efficient (which came out best in this trip) with WLTP range of 510 km and EVDB real range of 435 km. The car also has performance tyres (Hankook Ventus S1 evo3 245/45R18 100Y XL in front and 255/45R18 103Y XL in rear all at recommended 2.5 bar) that have reduced efficiency. So I wanted to document and describe how was it for me to travel ~2000 km (one way) with this, electric, car from south of Germany to north of Latvia. I have done this trip many times before since I live in Germany now and travel back to my relatives in Latvia 1-2 times per year. This was the first time I made this trip in an electric car. And as this trip includes both travelling in Germany (where BEV infrastructure is best in the world) and across Eastern/Northen Europe, I believe that this can be interesting to a few people out there. Normally when I travelled this trip with a gasoline/diesel car I would normally drive for two days with an intermediate stop somewhere around Warsaw with about 12 hours of travel time in each day. This would normally include a couple bathroom stops in each day, at least one longer lunch stop and 3-4 refueling stops on top of that. Normally this would use at least 6 liters of fuel per 100 km on average with total usage of about 270 liters for the whole trip (or about 540 just in fuel costs, nowadays). My (personal) quirk is that both fuel and recharging of my (business) car inside Germany is actually paid by my employer, so it is useful for me to charge up (or fill up) at the last station in Gemany before driving on. The plan for this trip was made in a similar way as when travelling with a gasoline car: travelling as fast as possible on German Autobahn network to last chargin stop on the A4 near G rlitz, there charging up as much as reasonable and then travelling to a hotel in Warsaw, charging there overnight and travelling north towards Ionity chargers in Lithuania from where reaching the final target in north of Latvia should be possible. How did this plan meet the reality? Travelling inside Germany with an electric car was basically perfect. The most efficient way would involve driving fast and hard with top speed of even 180 km/h (where possible due to speed limits and traffic). BMW i4 is very efficient at high speeds with consumption maxing out at 28 kWh/100km when you actually drive at this speed all the time. In real situation in this trip we saw consumption of 20.8-22.2 kWh/100km in the first legs of the trip. The more traffic there is, the more speed limits and roadworks, the lower is the average speed and also the lower the consumption. With this kind of consumption we could comfortably drive 2 hours as fast as we could and then pick any fast charger along the route and in 26 minutes at a charger (50 kWh charged total) we'd be ready to drive for another 2 hours. This lines up very well with recommended rest stops for biological reasons (bathroom, water or coffee, a bit of movement to get blood circulating) and very close to what I had to do anyway with a gasoline car. With a gasoline car I had to refuel first, then park, then go to bathroom and so on. With an electric car I can do all of that while the car is charging and in the end the total time for a stop is very similar. Also not that there was a crazy heat wave going on and temperature outside was at about 34C minimum the whole day and hitting 40C at one point of the trip, so a lot of power was used for cooling. The car has a heat pump standard, but it still was working hard to keep us cool in the sun. The car was able to plan a charging route with all the charging stops required and had all the good options (like multiple intermediate stops) that many other cars (hi Tesla) and mobile apps (hi Google and Apple) do not have yet. There are a couple bugs with charging route and display of current route guidance, those are already fixed and will be delivered with over the air update with July 2022 update. Another good alterantive is the ABRP (A Better Route Planner) that was specifically designed for electric car routing along the best route for charging. Most phone apps (like Google Maps) have no idea about your specific electric car - it has no idea about the battery capacity, charging curve and is missing key live data as well - what is the current consumption and remaining energy in the battery. ABRP is different - it has data and profiles for almost all electric cars and can also be linked to live vehicle data, either via a OBD dongle or via a new Tronity cloud service. Tronity reads data from vehicle-specific cloud service, such as MyBMW service, saves it, tracks history and also re-transmits it to ABRP for live navigation planning. ABRP allows for options and settings that no car or app offers, for example, saying that you want to stop at a particular place for an hour or until battery is charged to 90%, or saying that you have specific charging cards and would only want to stop at chargers that support those. Both the car and the ABRP also support alternate routes even with multiple intermediate stops. In comparison, route planning by Google Maps or Apple Maps or Waze or even Tesla does not really come close. After charging up in the last German fast charger, a more interesting part of the trip started. In Poland the density of high performance chargers (HPC) is much lower than in Germany. There are many chargers (west of Warsaw), but vast majority of them are (relatively) slow 50kW chargers. And that is a difference between putting 50kWh into the car in 23-26 minutes or in 60 minutes. It does not seem too much, but the key bit here is that for 20 minutes there is easy to find stuff that should be done anyway, but after that you are done and you are just waiting for the car and if that takes 4 more minutes or 40 more minutes is a big, perceptual, difference. So using HPC is much, much preferable. So we put in the Ionity charger near Lodz as our intermediate target and the car suggested an intermediate stop at a Greenway charger by Katy Wroclawskie. The location is a bit weird - it has 4 charging stations with 150 kW each. The weird bits are that each station has two CCS connectors, but only one parking place (and the connectors share power, so if two cars were to connect, each would get half power). Also from the front of the location one can only see two stations, the otehr two are semi-hidden around a corner. We actually missed them on the way to Latvia and one person actually waited for the charger behind us for about 10 minutes. We only discovered the other two stations on the way back. With slower speeds in Poland the consumption goes down to 18 kWh/100km which translates to now up to 3 hours driving between stops. At the end of the first day we drove istarting from Ulm from 9:30 in the morning until about 23:00 in the evening with total distance of about 1100 km, 5 charging stops, starting with 92% battery, charging for 26 min (50 kWh), 33 min (57 kWh + lunch), 17 min (23 kWh), 12 min (17 kWh) and 13 min (37 kW). In the last two chargers you can see the difference between a good and fast 150 kW charger at high battery charge level and a really fast Ionity charger at low battery charge level, which makes charging faster still. Arriving to hotel with 23% of battery. Overnight the car charged from a Porsche Destination Charger to 87% (57 kWh). That was a bit less than I would expect from a full power 11kW charger, but good enough. Hotels should really install 11kW Type2 chargers for their guests, it is a really significant bonus that drives more clients to you. The road between Warsaw and Kaunas is the most difficult part of the trip for both driving itself and also for charging. For driving the problem is that there will be a new highway going from Warsaw to Lithuanian border, but it is actually not fully ready yet. So parts of the way one drives on the new, great and wide highway and parts of the way one drives on temporary roads or on old single lane undivided roads. And the most annoying part is navigating between parts as signs are not always clear and the maps are either too old or too new. Some maps do not have the new roads and others have on the roads that have not been actually build or opened to traffic yet. It's really easy to loose ones way and take a significant detour. As far as charging goes, basically there is only the slow 50 kW chargers between Warsaw and Kaunas (for now). We chose to charge on the last charger in Poland, by Suwalki Kaufland. That was not a good idea - there is only one 50 kW CCS and many people decide the same, so there can be a wait. We had to wait 17 minutes before we could charge for 30 more minutes just to get 18 kWh into the battery. Not the best use of time. On the way back we chose a different charger in Lomza where would have a relaxed dinner while the car was charging. That was far more relaxing and a better use of time. We also tried charging at an Orlen charger that was not recommended by our car and we found out why. Unlike all other chargers during our entire trip, this charger did not accept our universal BMW Charging RFID card. Instead it demanded that we download their own Orlen app and register there. The app is only available in some countries (and not in others) and on iPhone it is only available in Polish. That is a bad exception to the rule and a bad example. This is also how most charging works in USA. Here in Europe that is not normal. The normal is to use a charging card - either provided from the car maker or from another supplier (like PlugSufring or Maingau Energy). The providers then make roaming arrangements with all the charging networks, so the cards just work everywhere. In the end the user gets the prices and the bills from their card provider as a single monthly bill. This also saves all any credit card charges for the user. Having a clear, separate RFID card also means that one can easily choose how to pay for each charging session. For example, I have a corporate RFID card that my company pays for (for charging in Germany) and a private BMW Charging card that I am paying myself for (for charging abroad). Having the car itself authenticate direct with the charger (like Tesla does) removes the option to choose how to pay. Having each charge network have to use their own app or token bring too much chaos and takes too much setup. The optimum is having one card that works everywhere and having the option to have additional card or cards for specific purposes. Reaching Ionity chargers in Lithuania is again a breath of fresh air - 20-24 minutes to charge 50 kWh is as expected. One can charge on the first Ionity just enough to reach the next one and then on the second charger one can charge up enough to either reach the Ionity charger in Adazi or the final target in Latvia. There is a huge number of CSDD (Road Traffic and Safety Directorate) managed chargers all over Latvia, but they are 50 kW chargers. Good enough for local travel, but not great for long distance trips. BMW i4 charges at over 50 kW on a HPC even at over 90% battery state of charge (SoC). This means that it is always faster to charge up in a HPC than in a 50 kW charger, if that is at all possible. We also tested the CSDD chargers - they worked without any issues. One could pay with the BMW Charging RFID card, one could use the CSDD e-mobi app or token and one could also use Mobilly - an app that you can use in Latvia for everything from parking to public transport tickets or museums or car washes. We managed to reach our final destination near Aluksne with 17% range remaining after just 3 charging stops: 17+30 min (18 kWh), 24 min (48 kWh), 28 min (36 kWh). Last stop we charged to 90% which took a few extra minutes that would have been optimal. For travel around in Latvia we were charging at our target farmhouse from a normal 3 kW Schuko EU socket. That is very slow. We charged for 33 hours and went from 17% to 94%, so not really full. That was perfectly fine for our purposes. We easily reached Riga, drove to the sea and then back to Aluksne with 8% still in reserve and started charging again for the next trip. If it were required to drive around more and charge faster, we could have used the normal 3-phase 440V connection in the farmhouse to have a red CEE 16A plug installed (same as people use for welders). BMW i4 comes standard with a new BMW Flexible Fast Charger that has changable socket adapters. It comes by default with a Schucko connector in Europe, but for 90 one can buy an adapter for blue CEE plug (3.7 kW) or red CEE 16A or 32A plugs (11 kW). Some public charging stations in France actually use the blue CEE plugs instead of more common Type2 electric car charging stations. The CEE plugs are also common in camping parking places. On the way back the long distance BEV travel was already well understood and did not cause us any problem. From our destination we could easily reach the first Ionity in Lithuania, on the Panevezhis bypass road where in just 8 minutes we got 19 kWh and were ready to drive on to Kaunas, there a longer 32 minute stop before the charging desert of Suwalki Gap that gave us 52 kWh to 90%. That brought us to a shopping mall in Lomzha where we had some food and charged up 39 kWh in lazy 50 minutes. That was enough to bring us to our return hotel for the night - Hotel 500W in Strykow by Lodz that has a 50kW charger on site, while we were having late dinner and preparing for sleep, the car easily recharged to full (71 kWh in 95 minutes), so I just moved it from charger to a parking spot just before going to sleep. Really easy and well flowing day. Second day back went even better as we just needed an 18 minute stop at the same Katy Wroclawskie charger as before to get 22 kWh and that was enough to get back to Germany. After that we were again flying on the Autobahn and charging as needed, 15 min (31 kWh), 23 min (48 kWh) and 31 min (54 kWh + food). We started the day on about 9:40 and were home at 21:40 after driving just over 1000 km on that day. So less than 12 hours for 1000 km travelled, including all charging, bio stops, food and some traffic jams as well. Not bad. Now let's take a look at all the apps and data connections that a technically minded customer can have for their car. Architecturally the car is a network of computers by itself, but it is very secured and normally people do not have any direct access. However, once you log in into the car with your BMW account the car gets your profile info and preferences (seat settings, navigation favorites, ...) and the car then also can start sending information to the BMW backend about its status. This information is then available to the user over multiple different channels. There is no separate channel for each of those data flow. The data only goes once to the backend and then all other communication of apps happens with the backend. First of all the MyBMW app. This is the go-to for everything about the car - seeing its current status and location (when not driving), sending commands to the car (lock, unlock, flash lights, pre-condition, ...) and also monitor and control charging processes. You can also plan a route or destination in the app in advance and then just send it over to the car so it already knows where to drive to when you get to the car. This can also integrate with calendar entries, if you have locations for appointments, for example. This also shows full charging history and allows a very easy export of that data, here I exported all charging sessions from June and then trimmed it back to only sessions relevant to the trip and cut off some design elements to have the data more visible. So one can very easily see when and where we were charging, how much power we got at each spot and (if you set prices for locations) can even show costs. I've already mentioned the Tronity service and its ABRP integration, but it also saves the information that it gets from the car and gathers that data over time. It has nice aspects, like showing the driven routes on a map, having ways to do business trip accounting and having good calendar view. Sadly it does not correctly capture the data for charging sessions (the amounts are incorrect). Update: after talking to Tronity support, it looks like the bug was in the incorrect value for the usable battery capacity for my car. They will look into getting th eright values there by default, but as a workaround one can edit their car in their system (after at least one charging session) and directly set the expected battery capacity (usable) in the car properties on the Tronity web portal settings. One other fun way to see data from your BMW is using the BMW integration in Home Assistant. This brings the car as a device in your own smart home. You can read all the variables from the car current status (and Home Asisstant makes cute historical charts) and you can even see interesting trends, for example for remaining range shows much higher value in Latvia as its prediction is adapted to Latvian road speeds and during the trip it adapts to Polish and then to German road speeds and thus to higher consumption and thus lower maximum predicted remaining range. Having the car attached to the Home Assistant also allows you to attach the car to automations, both as data and event source (like detecting when car enters the "Home" zone) and also as target, so you could flash car lights or even unlock or lock it when certain conditions are met. So, what in the end was the most important thing - cost of the trip? In total we charged up 863 kWh, so that would normally cost one about 290 , which is close to half what this trip would have costed with a gasoline car. Out of that 279 kWh in Germany (paid by my employer) and 154 kWh in the farmhouse (paid by our wonderful relatives :D) so in the end the charging that I actually need to pay adds up to 430 kWh or about 150 . Typically, it took about 400 in fuel that I had to pay to get to Latvia and back. The difference is really nice! In the end I believe that there are three different ways of charging:
  • incidental charging - this is wast majority of charging in the normal day-to-day life. The car gets charged when and where it is convinient to do so along the way. If we go to a movie or a shop and there is a chance to leave the car at a charger, then it can charge up. Works really well, does not take extra time for charging from us.
  • fast charging - charging up at a HPC during optimal charging conditions - from relatively low level to no more than 70-80% while you are still doing all the normal things one would do in a quick stop in a long travel process: bio things, cleaning the windscreen, getting a coffee or a snack.
  • necessary charging - charging from a whatever charger is available just enough to be able to reach the next destination or the next fast charger.
The last category is the only one that is really annoying and should be avoided at all costs. Even by shifting your plans so that you find something else useful to do while necessary charging is happening and thus, at least partially, shifting it over to incidental charging category. Then you are no longer just waiting for the car, you are doing something else and the car magically is charged up again. And when one does that, then travelling with an electric car becomes no more annoying than travelling with a gasoline car. Having more breaks in a trip is a good thing and makes the trips actually easier and less stressfull - I was more relaxed during and after this trip than during previous trips. Having the car air conditioning always be on, even when stopped, was a godsend in the insane heat wave of 30C-38C that we were driving trough. Final stats: 4425 km driven in the trip. Average consumption: 18.7 kWh/100km. Time driving: 2 days and 3 hours. Car regened 152 kWh. Charging stations recharged 863 kWh. Questions? You can use this i4talk forum thread or this Twitter thread to ask them to me.

26 June 2022

Russ Allbery: Review: Feet of Clay

Review: Feet of Clay, by Terry Pratchett
Series: Discworld #19
Publisher: Harper
Copyright: October 1996
Printing: February 2014
ISBN: 0-06-227551-8
Format: Mass market
Pages: 392
Feet of Clay is the 19th Discworld novel, the third Watch novel, and probably not the best place to start. You could read only Guards! Guards! and Men at Arms before this one, though, if you wanted. This story opens with a golem selling another golem to a factory owner, obviously not caring about the price. This is followed by two murders: an elderly priest, and the curator of a dwarven bread museum. (Dwarf bread is a much-feared weapon of war.) Meanwhile, assassins are still trying to kill Watch Commander Vimes, who has an appointment to get a coat of arms. A dwarf named Cheery Littlebottom is joining the Watch. And Lord Vetinari, the ruler of Ankh-Morpork, has been poisoned. There's a lot going on in this book, and while it's all in some sense related, it's more interwoven than part of a single story. The result felt to me like a day-in-the-life episode of a cop show: a lot of character development, a few largely separate plot lines so that the characters have something to do, and the development of a few long-running themes that are neither started nor concluded in this book. We check in on all the individual Watch members we've met to date, add new ones, and at the end of the book everyone is roughly back to where they were when the book started. This is, to be clear, not a bad thing for a book to do. It relies on the reader already caring about the characters and being invested in the long arc of the series, but both of those are true of me, so it worked. Cheery is a good addition, giving Pratchett an opportunity to explore gender nonconformity with a twist (all dwarfs are expected to act the same way regardless of gender, which doesn't work for Cheery) and, even better, giving Angua more scenes. Angua is among my favorite Watch characters, although I wish she'd gotten more of a resolution for her relationship anxiety in this book. The primary plot is about golems, which on Discworld are used in factories because they work nonstop, have no other needs, and do whatever they're told. Nearly everyone in Ankh-Morpork considers them machinery. If you've read any Discworld books before, you will find it unsurprising that Pratchett calls that belief into question, but the ways he gets there, and the links between the golem plot and the other plot threads, have a few good twists and turns. Reading this, I was reminded vividly of Orwell's discussion of Charles Dickens:
It seems that in every attack Dickens makes upon society he is always pointing to a change of spirit rather than a change of structure. It is hopeless to try and pin him down to any definite remedy, still more to any political doctrine. His approach is always along the moral plane, and his attitude is sufficiently summed up in that remark about Strong's school being as different from Creakle's "as good is from evil." Two things can be very much alike and yet abysmally different. Heaven and Hell are in the same place. Useless to change institutions without a "change of heart" that, essentially, is what he is always saying. If that were all, he might be no more than a cheer-up writer, a reactionary humbug. A "change of heart" is in fact the alibi of people who do not wish to endanger the status quo. But Dickens is not a humbug, except in minor matters, and the strongest single impression one carries away from his books is that of a hatred of tyranny.
and later:
His radicalism is of the vaguest kind, and yet one always knows that it is there. That is the difference between being a moralist and a politician. He has no constructive suggestions, not even a clear grasp of the nature of the society he is attacking, only an emotional perception that something is wrong, all he can finally say is, "Behave decently," which, as I suggested earlier, is not necessarily so shallow as it sounds. Most revolutionaries are potential Tories, because they imagine that everything can be put right by altering the shape of society; once that change is effected, as it sometimes is, they see no need for any other. Dickens has not this kind of mental coarseness. The vagueness of his discontent is the mark of its permanence. What he is out against is not this or that institution, but, as Chesterton put it, "an expression on the human face."
I think Pratchett is, in that sense, a Dickensian writer, and it shows all through Discworld. He does write political crises (there is one in this book), but the crises are moral or personal, not ideological or structural. The Watch novels are often concerned with systems of government, but focus primarily on the popular appeal of kings, the skill of the Patrician, and the greed of those who would maneuver for power. Pratchett does not write (at least so far) about the proper role of government, the impact of Vetinari's policies (or even what those policies may be), or political theory in any deep sense. What he does write about, at great length, is morality, fairness, and a deeply generous humanism, all of which are central to the golem plot. Vimes is a great protagonist for this type of story. He's grumpy, cynical, stubborn, and prejudiced, and we learn in this book that he's a descendant of the Discworld version of Oliver Cromwell. He can be reflexively self-centered, and he has no clear idea how to use his newfound resources. But he behaves decently towards people, in both big and small things, for reasons that the reader feels he could never adequately explain, but which are rooted in empathy and an instinctual sense of fairness. It's fun to watch him grumble his way through the plot while making snide comments about mysteries and detectives. I do have to complain a bit about one of those mysteries, though. I would have enjoyed the plot around Vetinari's poisoning more if Pratchett hadn't mercilessly teased readers who know a bit about French history. An allusion or two would have been fun, but he kept dropping references while having Vimes ignore them, and I found the overall effect both frustrating and irritating. That and a few other bits, like Angua's uncommunicative angst, fell flat for me. Thankfully, several other excellent scenes made up for them, such as Nobby's high society party and everything about the College of Heralds. Also, Vimes's impish PDA (smartphone without the phone, for those younger than I am) remains absurdly good commentary on the annoyances of portable digital devices despite an original publication date of 1996. Feet of Clay is less focused than the previous Watch novels and more of a series book than most Discworld novels. You're reading about characters introduced in previous books with problems that will continue into subsequent books. The plot and the mysteries are there to drive the story but seem relatively incidental to the characterization. This isn't a complaint; at this point in the series, I'm in it for the long haul, and I liked the variation. As usual, Pratchett is stronger for me when he's not overly focused on parody. His own characters are as good as the material he's been parodying, and I'm happy to see them get a book that's not overshadowed by another material. If you've read this far in the series, or even in just the Watch novels, recommended. Followed by Hogfather in publication order and, thematically, by Jingo. Rating: 8 out of 10

23 June 2022

Rapha&#235;l Hertzog: Freexian s report about Debian Long Term Support, May 2022

A Debian LTS logo
Like each month, have a look at the work funded by Freexian s Debian LTS offering. Debian project funding Two [1, 2] projects are in the pipeline now. Tryton project is in a final phase. Gradle projects is fighting with technical difficulties. In May, we put aside 2233 EUR to fund Debian projects. We re looking forward to receive more projects from various Debian teams! Learn more about the rationale behind this initiative in this article. Debian LTS contributors In May, 14 contributors have been paid to work on Debian LTS, their reports are available: Evolution of the situation In May we released 49 DLAs. The security tracker currently lists 71 packages with a known CVE and the dla-needed.txt file has 65 packages needing an update. The number of paid contributors increased significantly, we are pleased to welcome our latest team members: Andreas R nnquist, Dominik George, Enrico Zini and Stefano Rivera. It is worth pointing out that we are getting close to the end of the LTS period for Debian 9. After June 30th, no new security updates will be made available on security.debian.org. We are preparing to overtake Debian 10 Buster for the next two years and to make this process as smooth as possible. But Freexian and its team of paid Debian contributors will continue to maintain Debian 9 going forward for the customers of the Extended LTS offer. If you have Debian 9 servers to keep secure, it s time to subscribe! You might not have noticed, but Freexian formalized a mission statement where we explain that our purpose is to help improve Debian. For this, we want to fund work time for the Debian developers that recently joined Freexian as collaborators. The Extended LTS and the PHP LTS offers are built following a model that will help us to achieve this if we manage to have enough customers for those offers. So consider subscribing: you help your organization but you also help Debian! Thanks to our sponsors Sponsors that joined recently are in bold.

22 June 2022

John Goerzen: I Finally Found a Solid Debian Tablet: The Surface Go 2

I have been looking for a good tablet for Debian for well, years. I want thin, light, portable, excellent battery life, and a servicable keyboard. For a while, I tried a Lenovo Chromebook Duet. It meets the hardware requirements, well sort of. The problem is with performance and the OS. I can run Debian inside the ChromeOS Linux environment. That works, actually pretty well. But it is slow. Terribly, terribly, terribly slow. Emacs takes minutes to launch. apt-gets also do. It has barely enough RAM to keep its Chrome foundation happy, let alone a Linux environment also. But basically it is too slow to be servicable. Not just that, but I ran into assorted issues with having it tied to a Google account particularly being unable to login unless I had Internet access after an update. That and my growing concern over Google s privacy practices led me sort of write it off. I have a wonderful System76 Lemur Pro that I m very happy with. Plenty of RAM, a good compromise size between portability and screen size at 14.1 , and so forth. But a 10 goes-anywhere it s not. I spent quite a lot of time looking at thin-and-light convertible laptops of various configurations. Many of them were quite expensive, not as small as I wanted, or had dubious Linux support. To my surprise, I wound up buying a Surface Go 2 from the Microsoft store, along with the Type Cover. They had a pretty good deal on it since the Surface Go 3 is out; the highest-processor model of the Go 2 is roughly similar to the Go 3 in terms of performance. There is an excellent linux-surface project out there that provides very good support for most Surface devices, including the Go 2 and 3. I put Debian on it. I had a fair bit of hassle with EFI, and wound up putting rEFInd on it, which mostly solved those problems. (I did keep a Windows partition, and if it comes up for some reason, the easiest way to get it back to Debian is to use the Windows settings tool to reboot into advanced mode, and then select the appropriate EFI entry to boot from there.) Researching on-screen keyboards, it seemed like Gnome had the most mature. So I wound up with Gnome (my other systems are using KDE with tiling, but I figured I d try Gnome on it.) Almost everything worked without additional tweaking, the one exception being the cameras. The cameras on the Surfaces are a known point of trouble and I didn t bother to go to all the effort to get them working. With 8GB of RAM, I didn t put ZFS on it like I do on other systems. Performance is quite satisfactory, including for Rust development. Battery life runs about 10 hours with light use; less when running a lot of cargo builds, of course. The 1920 1280 screen is nice at 10.5 . Gnome with Wayland does a decent job of adjusting to this hi-res configuration. I took this as my only computer for a trip from the USA to Germany. It was a little small at times; though that was to be expected. It let me take a nicely small bag as a carryon, and being light, it was pleasant to carry around in airports. It served its purpose quite well. One downside is that it can t be powered by a phone charger like my Chromebook Duet can. However, I found a nice slim 65W Anker charger that could charge it and phones simultaneously that did the job well enough (I left the Microsoft charger with the proprietary connector at home). The Surface Go 2 maxes out at a 128GB SSD. That feels a bit constraining, especially since I kept Windows around. However, it also has a micro SD slot, so you can put LUKS and ext4 on that and use it as another filesystem. I popped a micro SD I had lying around into there and that felt a lot better storage-wise. I could also completely zap Windows, but that would leave no way to get firmware updates and I didn t really want to do that. Still, I don t use Windows and that could be an option also. All in all, I m pretty pleased with it. Around $600 for a fully-functional Debian tablet, with a keyboard is pretty nice. I had been hoping for months that the Pinetab would come back into stock, because I d much rather support a Linux hardware vendor, but for now I think the Surface Go series is the most solid option for a Linux tablet.

20 June 2022

Jamie McClelland: A very liberal spam assassin rule

I just sent myself a test message via Powerbase (a hosted CiviCRM project for community organizers) and it didn t arrive. Wait, nope, there it is in my junk folder with a spam score of 6!
X-Spam-Status: Yes, score=6.093 tagged_above=-999 required=5
	tests=[BAYES_00=-1.9, DKIM_SIGNED=0.1, DKIM_VALID=-0.1,
	DKIM_VALID_AU=-0.1, DKIM_VALID_EF=-0.1, DMARC_MISSING=0.1,
	HTML_MESSAGE=0.001, KAM_WEBINAR=3.5, KAM_WEBINAR2=3.5,
	NO_DNS_FOR_FROM=0.001, SPF_HELO_NONE=0.001, ST_KGM_DEALS_SUB_11=1.1,
	T_SCC_BODY_TEXT_LINE=-0.01] autolearn=no autolearn_force=no
What just happened? A careful look at the scores suggest that the KAM_WEBINAR and KAM_WEBINAR2 rules killed me. I ve never heard of them (this email came through a system I m not administering). So, I did some searching and found a page with the rules:
# SEMINARS AND WORKSHOPS SPAM
header   __KAM_WEBINAR1 From =~ /education career manage learning webinar project efolder/i
header   __KAM_WEBINAR2 Subject =~ /last chance increase productivity workplace morale payroll dept trauma.training case.study issues follow.up service.desk vip.(lunch breakfast) manage.your private.business professional.checklist customers.safer great.timesaver prep.course crash.course hunger.to.learn (keys tips).(to for).smarter/i
header   __KAM_WEBINAR3 Subject =~ /webinar strateg seminar owners.meeting webcast our.\d.new sales.video/i
body     __KAM_WEBINAR4 /executive.education contactid register now \d+.minute webinar management.position supervising.skills discover.tips register.early take.control marketing.capabilit drive.more.sales leveraging.cloud solution.provider have.a.handle plan.to.divest being.informed upcoming.webinar spearfishing.email increase.revenue industry.podcast \d+.in.depth.tips early.bird.offer pmp.certified lunch.briefing/i

meta     KAM_WEBINAR (__KAM_WEBINAR1 + __KAM_WEBINAR2 + __KAM_WEBINAR3 + __KAM_WEBINAR4 >= 3)
describe KAM_WEBINAR Spam for webinars
score    KAM_WEBINAR 3.5

meta     KAM_WEBINAR2 (__KAM_WEBINAR1 + __KAM_WEBINAR2 + __KAM_WEBINAR3 + __KAM_WEBINAR4 >= 4)
describe KAM_WEBINAR2 Spam for webinars
score    KAM_WEBINAR2 3.5
For those of you who don t care to parse those regular expressions, here s a summary: Hm. I m glad I can now fix our email, but this doesn t work so well for people with a name that includes project that like to organize webinars for which you have to register.

Next.