Search Results: "pik"

19 May 2022

Joerg Jaspert: Rust? Munin? munin-plugin

My first Rust crate: munin-plugin Sooo, some time ago I had to rewrite a munin plugin from Shell to Rust, due to the shell version going crazy after some runtime and using up a CPU all for its own. Sure, it only did that on Systems with Oracle Database installed, so that monster seems to be bad (who would have guessed?), but somehow I had to fixup this plugin and wasn t allowed to drop that wannabe-database. A while later I wrote a plugin to graph Fibre Channel Host data, and then Network interface statistics, all with a one-second resolution for the graphs, to allow one to zoom in and see every spike. Not have RRD round of the interesting parts. As one can imagine, that turns out to be a lot of very similar code - after all, most of the difference is in the graph config statements and actual data gathering, but the rest of code is just the same. As I already know there are more plugins (hello rsyslog statistics) I have to (sometimes re-)write in Rust, I took some time and wrote me a Rust library to make writing munin-plugins in Rust easier. Yay, my first crate on crates.io (and wrote lots of docs for it). By now I made my 1 second resolution CPU load plugin and the 1 second resolution Network interface plugin use this lib already. To test less complicated plugins with the lib, I took the munin default plugin load (Linux variant) and made a Rust version from it, but mostly to see that something as simple as that is also easy to implement: Munin load I got some idea on how to provide a useful default implementation of the fetch function, so one can write even less code, when using this library. It is my first library in Rust, so if you see something bad or missing in there, feel free to open issues or pull requests. Now, having done this, one thing missing: Someone to (re)write munin itself in something that is actually fast Not munin-node, but munin. Or maybe the RRD usage, but with a few hundred nodes in it, with loads of graphs, we had to adjust munin code and change some timeout or it would commit suicide regularly. And some other code change for not always checking for a rename, or something like it. And only run parts of the default cronjob once an hour, not on every update run. And switch to fetching data over ssh (and munin-async on the nodes). And rrdcached with loads of caching for the trillions of files (currently amounts to ~800G of data).. And it still needs way more CPU than it should. Soo, lots of possible optimizations hidden in there. Though I bet a non-scripting language rewrite might gain the most. (Except, of course, someone needs to do it :) )

29 March 2022

Jacob Adams: A Lesson in Shortcuts

(The below was written by Rob Pike, copied here for posterity from The Wayback Machine) Long ago, as the design of the Unix file system was being worked out, the entries . and .. appeared, to make navigation easier. I m not sure but I believe .. went in during the Version 2 rewrite, when the file system became hierarchical (it had a very different structure early on). When one typed ls, however, these files appeared, so either Ken or Dennis added a simple test to the program. It was in assembler then, but the code in question was equivalent to something like this:
   if (name[0] == '.') continue;
This statement was a little shorter than what it should have been, which is
   if (strcmp(name, ".") == 0   strcmp(name, "..") == 0) continue;
but hey, it was easy. Two things resulted. First, a bad precedent was set. A lot of other lazy programmers introduced bugs by making the same simplification. Actual files beginning with periods are often skipped when they should be counted. Second, and much worse, the idea of a hidden or dot file was created. As a consequence, more lazy programmers started dropping files into everyone s home directory. I don t have all that much stuff installed on the machine I m using to type this, but my home directory has about a hundred dot files and I don t even know what most of them are or whether they re still needed. Every file name evaluation that goes through my home directory is slowed down by this accumulated sludge. I m pretty sure the concept of a hidden file was an unintended consequence. It was certainly a mistake. How many bugs and wasted CPU cycles and instances of human frustration (not to mention bad design) have resulted from that one small shortcut about 40 years ago? Keep that in mind next time you want to cut a corner in your code. (For those who object that dot files serve a purpose, I don t dispute that but counter that it s the files that serve the purpose, not the convention for their names. They could just as easily be in $HOME/cfg or $HOME/lib, which is what we did in Plan 9, which had no dot files. Lessons can be learned.)

26 January 2022

Timo Jyrinki: Unboxing Dell XPS 13 - openSUSE Tumbleweed alongside preinstalled Ubuntu

A look at the 2021 model of Dell XPS 13 - available with Linux pre-installed
I received a new laptop for work - a Dell XPS 13. Dell has been long famous for offering certain models with pre-installed Linux as a supported option, and opting for those is nice for moving some euros/dollars from certain PC desktop OS monopoly towards Linux desktop engineering costs. Notably Lenovo also offers Ubuntu and Fedora options on many models these days (like Carbon X1 and P15 Gen 2).
black box

opened box

accessories and a leaflet about Linux support

laptop lifted from the box, closed

laptop with lid open

Ubuntu running

openSUSE runnin
Obviously a smooth, ready-to-rock Ubuntu installation is nice for most people already, but I need openSUSE, so after checking everything is fine with Ubuntu, I continued to install openSUSE Tumbleweed as a dual boot option. As I m a funny little tinkerer, I obviously went with some special things. I wanted:
  • Ubuntu to remain as the reference supported OS on a small(ish) partition, useful to compare to if trying out new development versions of software on openSUSE and finding oddities.
  • openSUSE as the OS consuming most of the space.
  • LUKS encryption for openSUSE without LVM.
  • ext4 s new fancy fast_commit feature in use during filesystem creation.
  • As a result of all that, I ended up juggling back and forth installation screens a couple of times (even more than shown below, and also because I forgot I wanted to use encryption the first time around).
First boots to pre-installed Ubuntu and installation of openSUSE Tumbleweed as the dual-boot option:
(if the embedded video is not shown, use a direct link)
Some notes from the openSUSE installation:
  • openSUSE installer s partition editor apparently does not support resizing or automatically installing side-by-side another Linux distribution, so I did part of the setup completely on my own.
  • Installation package download hanged a couple of times, only passed when I entered a mirror manually. On my TW I ve also noticed download problems recently, there might be a problem with some mirror I need to escalate.
  • The installer doesn t very clearly show encryption status of the target installation - it took me a couple of attempts before I even noticed the small encrypted column and icon (well, very small, see below), which also did not spell out the device mapper name but only the main partition name. In the end it was going to do the right thing right away and use my pre-created encrypted target partition as I wanted, but it could be a better UX. Then again I was doing my very own tweaks anyway.
  • Let s not go to the details why I m so old-fashioned and use ext4 :)
  • openSUSE s installer does not work fine with HiDPI screen. Funnily the tty consoles seem to be fine and with a big font.
  • At the end of the video I install the two GNOME extensions I can t live without, Dash to Dock and Sound Input & Output Device Chooser.

6 November 2021

Reproducible Builds: Reproducible Builds in October 2021

Welcome to the October 2021 report from the Reproducible Builds project!
This month Samanta Navarro posted to the oss-security security mailing on a novel category of exploit in the .tar archive format, where a single .tar file contains different contents depending on the tar utility being used. Naturally, this has consequences for reproducible builds as Samanta goes onto reply:

Arch Linux uses libarchive (bsdtar) in its build environment. The default tar program installed is GNU tar. It is possible to create a source distribution which leads to different files seen by the build environment than compared to a careful reviewer and other Linux distributions.
Samanta notes that addressing the tar utilities themselves will not be a sufficient fix:
I have submitted bug reports and patches to some projects but eventually I had to conclude that the problem itself cannot be fixed by these implementations alone. The best choice for these tools would be to only allow archives which are fully compatible to standards but this in turn would render a lot of archives broken.
Reproducible builds, with its twin ideas of reaching consensus on the build outputs as well as precisely recording and describing the build environment, would help address this problem at a higher level.
Codethink announced that they had achieved ISO-26262 ASIL D Tool Certification, a way of determining specific safety standards for software. Codethink used open source tooling to achieve this, but they also leverage:
Reproducibility, repeatability and traceability of builds, drawing heavily on best-practices championed by the Reproducible Builds project.

Elsewhere on the internet, according to a comment on Hacker News, Microsoft are now comparing NPM Javascript packages with their original source repositories:
I got a PR in my repository a few days ago leading back to a team trying to make it easier for packages to be reproducible from source.

Lastly, Martin Monperrus started an interesting thread on our mailing list about Github, specifically that their autogenerated release tarballs are not deterministic . The thread generated a significant number of replies that are worth reading.

Events and presentations

Community news On our mailing list this month:
There were quite a few changes to the Reproducible Builds website and documentation this month as well, including Feng Chai updating some links on our publications page [ ] and marco updated our project metadata around the Bitcoin Core building guide [ ].
Lastly, we ran another productive meeting on IRC during October. A full set of notes from the meeting is available to view.

Distribution work Qubes was heavily featured in the latest edition of Linux Weekly News, and a significant section was dedicated to discussing reproducibility. For example, it was mentioned that the Qubes project has been working on incorporating reproducible builds into its continuous integration (CI) infrastructure . But the LWN article goes on to describe that:
The current goal is to be able to build the Qubes OS Debian templates solely from packages that can be built reproducibly. Templates in Qubes OS are VM images that can be used to start an application qube quickly based on the template. The qube will have read-only access to the root filesystem of the template, so that the same root filesystem can be shared with multiple application qubes. There are official templates for several variants of both Fedora and Debian, as well as community maintained templates for several other distributions.
You can view the whole article on LWN, and Fr d ric also published a lengthy summary about their work on reproducible builds in Qubes as well for those wishing to learn more.
In Debian this month, 133 reviews of Debian packages were added, 81 were updated and 24 were removed this month, adding to Debian s ever-growing knowledge about identified issues. A number of issues were categorised and added by Chris Lamb and Vagrant Cascadian too [ ][ ][ ]. In addition, work on alternative snapshot service has made progress by Fr d ric Pierret and Holger Levsen this month, including moving from the existing host (snapshot.notset.fr) to snapshot.reproducible-builds.org (more info) thanks to OSUOSL for the machine and hosting and Debian for the disks.
Finally, Bernhard M. Wiedemann posted his monthly reproducible builds status report.

diffoscope diffoscope is our in-depth and content-aware diff utility. Not only can it locate and diagnose reproducibility issues, it can provide human-readable diffs from many kinds of binary formats. This month, Chris Lamb made the following changes, including preparing and uploading versions 186, 187, 188 and 189 to Debian
  • New features:
    • Add support for Python Sphinx inventory files (usually named objects.inv on-disk). [ ]
    • Add support for comparing .pyc files. Thanks to Sergei Trofimovich for the inspiration. [ ]
    • Try some alternative suffixes (e.g. .py) to support distributions that strip or retain them. [ ][ ]
  • Bug fixes:
    • Fix Python decompilation tests under Python 3.10+ [ ] and for Python 3.7 [ ].
    • Don t raise a traceback if we cannot unmarshal Python bytecode. This is in order to support Python 3.7 failing to load .pyc files generated with newer versions of Python. [ ]
    • Skip Python bytecode testing where we do not have an expected diff. [ ]
  • Codebase improvements:
    • Use our file_version_is_lt utility instead of accepting both versions of uImage expected diff. [ ]
    • Split out a custom call to assert_diff for a .startswith equivalent. [ ]
    • Use skipif instead of manual conditionals in some tests. [ ]
In addition, Jelle van der Waa added external tool references for Arch Linux for ocamlobjinfo, openssl and ffmpeg [ ][ ][ ] and added Arch Linux as a Continuous Integration (CI) test target. [ ] and Vagrant Cascadian updated the testsuite to skip Python bytecode comparisons when file(1) is older than 5.39. [ ] as well as added external tool references for the Guix distribution for dumppdf and ppudump. [ ][ ]. Vagrant Cascadian also updated the diffoscope package in GNU Guix [ ][ ]. Lastly, Guangyuan Yang updated the FreeBSD package name on the website [ ], Mattia Rizzolo made a change to override a new Lintian warning due to the new test files [ ], Roland Clobus added support to detect and log if the GNU_BUILD_ID field in an ELF binary been modified [ ], Sandro J ckel updated a number of helpful links on the website [ ] and Sergei Trofimovich made the uImage test output support file() version 5.41 [ ].

reprotest reprotest is the Reproducible Build s project end-user tool to build same source code twice in widely differing environments, checking the binaries produced by the builds for any differences. This month, reprotest version 0.7.18 was uploaded to Debian unstable by Holger Levsen, which also included a change by Holger to clarify that Python 3.9 is used nowadays [ ], but it also included two changes by Vasyl Gello to implement realistic CPU architecture shuffling [ ] and to log the selected variations when the verbosity is configured at a sufficiently high level [ ]. Finally, Vagrant Cascadian updated reprotest to version 0.7.18 in GNU Guix.

Upstream patches The Reproducible Builds project detects, dissects and attempts to fix unreproducible packages. We try to send all of our patches upstream where appropriate. We authored a large number of such patches this month, including:

Testing framework The Reproducible Builds project runs a testing framework at tests.reproducible-builds.org, to check packages and other artifacts for reproducibility. This month, the following changes were made:
  • Holger Levsen:
    • Debian-related changes:
      • Incorporate a fix from bremner into builtin-pho related to binary-NMUs. [ ]
      • Keep bullseye environments around longer, in an attempt to fix a Jenkins issue. [ ]
      • Improve the documentation of buildinfos.debian.net. [ ]
      • Improve documentation for the builtin-pho setup. [ ][ ]
    • OpenWrt-related changes:
      • Also use -j1 for better debugging. [ ]
      • Document that that Python 3.x is now used. [ ]
      • Enable further debugging for the toolchain build. [ ]
    • New snapshot.reproducible-builds.org service:
      • Actually add new node. [ ][ ]
      • Install xfsprogs on snapshot.reproducible-builds.org. [ ]
      • Create account for fpierret on new node. [ ]
      • Run node_health_check job on new node too. [ ]
  • Mattia Rizzolo:
    • Debian-related changes:
      • Handle schroot errors when invoking diffoscope instead of masking them. [ ][ ]
      • Declare and define some variables separately to avoid masking the subshell return code. [ ]
      • Fix variable name. [ ]
      • Improve log reporting. [ ]
      • Execute apt-get update with the -q argument to get more decent logs. [ ]
      • Set the Debian HTTP mirror and proxy for snapshot.reproducible-builds.org. [ ]
      • Install the libarchive-tools package (instead of bsdtar) when updating Jenkins nodes. [ ]
    • Be stricter about errors when starting the node agent [ ] and don t overwrite NODE_NAME so that we can expect Jenkins to properly set for us [ ].
    • Explicitly warn if the NODE_NAME is not a fully-qualified domain name (FQDN). [ ]
    • Document whether a node runs in the future. [ ]
    • Disable postgresql_autodoc as it not available in bullseye. [ ]
    • Don t be so eager when deleting schroot internals, call to schroot -e to terminate the schroots instead. [ ]
    • Only consider schroot underlays for deletion that are over a month old. [ ][ ]
    • Only try to unmount /proc if it s actually mounted. [ ]
    • Move the db_backup task to its own Jenkins job. [ ]
Lastly, Vasyl Gello added usage information to the reproducible_build.sh script [ ].

Contributing If you are interested in contributing to the Reproducible Builds project, please visit our Contribute page on our website. However, you can get in touch with us via:

23 October 2021

Antoine Beaupr : The Neo-Colonial Internet

I grew up with the Internet and its ethics and politics have always been important in my life. But I have also been involved at other levels, against police brutality, for Food, Not Bombs, worker autonomy, software freedom, etc. For a long time, that all seemed coherent. But the more I look at the modern Internet -- and the mega-corporations that control it -- and the less confidence I have in my original political analysis of the liberating potential of technology. I have come to believe that most of our technological development is harmful to the large majority of the population of the planet, and of course the rest of the biosphere. And now I feel this is not a new problem. This is because the Internet is a neo-colonial device, and has been from the start. Let me explain.

What is Neo-Colonialism? The term "neo-colonialism" was coined by Kwame Nkrumah, first president of Ghana. In Neo-Colonialism, the Last Stage of Imperialism (1965), he wrote:
In place of colonialism, as the main instrument of imperialism, we have today neo-colonialism ... [which] like colonialism, is an attempt to export the social conflicts of the capitalist countries. ... The result of neo-colonialism is that foreign capital is used for the exploitation rather than for the development of the less developed parts of the world. Investment, under neo-colonialism, increases, rather than decreases, the gap between the rich and the poor countries of the world.
So basically, if colonialism is Europeans bringing genocide, war, and its religion to the Africa, Asia, and the Americas, neo-colonialism is the Americans (note the "n") bringing capitalism to the world. Before we see how this applies to the Internet, we must therefore make a detour into US history. This matters, because anyone would be hard-pressed to decouple neo-colonialism from the empire under which it evolves, and here we can only name the United States of America.

US Declaration of Independence Let's start with the United States declaration of independence (1776). Many Americans may roll their eyes at this, possibly because that declaration is not actually part of the US constitution and therefore may have questionable legal standing. Still, it was obviously a driving philosophical force in the founding of the nation. As its author, Thomas Jefferson, stated:
it was intended to be an expression of the American mind, and to give to that expression the proper tone and spirit called for by the occasion
In that aging document, we find the following pearl:
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.
As a founding document, the Declaration still has an impact in the sense that the above quote has been called an:
"immortal declaration", and "perhaps [the] single phrase" of the American Revolutionary period with the greatest "continuing importance." (Wikipedia)
Let's read that "immortal declaration" again: "all men are created equal". "Men", in that context, is limited to a certain number of people, namely "property-owning or tax-paying white males, or about 6% of the population". Back when this was written, women didn't have the right to vote, and slavery was legal. Jefferson himself owned hundreds of slaves. The declaration was aimed at the King and was a list of grievances. A concern of the colonists was that the King:
has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.
This is a clear mark of the frontier myth which paved the way for the US to exterminate and colonize the territory some now call the United States of America. The declaration of independence is obviously a colonial document, having being written by colonists. None of this is particularly surprising, historically, but I figured it serves as a good reminder of where the Internet is coming from, since it was born in the US.

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace Two hundred and twenty years later, in 1996, John Perry Barlow wrote a declaration of independence of cyberspace. At this point, (almost) everyone has a right to vote (including women), slavery was abolished (although some argue it still exists in the form of the prison system); the US has made tremendous progress. Surely this text will have aged better than the previous declaration it is obviously derived from. Let's see how it reads today and how it maps to how the Internet is actually built now.

Borders of Independence One of the key ideas that Barlow brings up is that "cyberspace does not lie within your borders". In that sense, cyberspace is the final frontier: having failed to colonize the moon, Americans turn inwards, deeper into technology, but still in the frontier ideology. And indeed, Barlow is one of the co-founder of the Electronic Frontier Foundation (the beloved EFF), founded six years prior. But there are other problems with this idea. As Wikipedia quotes:
The declaration has been criticized for internal inconsistencies.[9] The declaration's assertion that 'cyberspace' is a place removed from the physical world has also been challenged by people who point to the fact that the Internet is always linked to its underlying geography.[10]
And indeed, the Internet is definitely a physical object. First controlled and severely restricted by "telcos" like AT&T, it was somewhat "liberated" from that monopoly in 1982 when an anti-trust lawsuit broke up the monopoly, a key historical event that, one could argue, made the Internet possible. (From there on, "backbone" providers could start competing and emerge, and eventually coalesce into new monopolies: Google has a monopoly on search and advertisement, Facebook on communications for a few generations, Amazon on storage and computing, Microsoft on hardware, etc. Even AT&T is now pretty much as consolidated as it was before.) The point is: all those companies have gigantic data centers and intercontinental cables. And those are definitely prioritizing the western world, the heart of the empire. Take for example Google's latest 3,900 mile undersea cable: it does not connect Argentina to South Africa or New Zealand, it connects the US to UK and Spain. Hardly a revolutionary prospect.

Private Internet But back to the Declaration:
Do not think that you can build it, as though it were a public construction project. You cannot. It is an act of nature and it grows itself through our collective actions.
In Barlow's mind, the "public" is bad, and private is good, natural. Or, in other words, a "public construction project" is unnatural. And indeed, the modern "nature" of development is private: most of the Internet is now privately owned and operated. I must admit that, as an anarchist, I loved that sentence when I read it. I was rooting for "us", the underdogs, the revolutionaries. And, in a way, I still do: I am on the board of Koumbit and work for a non-profit that has pivoted towards censorship and surveillance evasion. Yet I cannot help but think that, as a whole, we have failed to establish that independence and put too much trust in private companies. It is obvious in retrospect, but it was not, 30 years ago. Now, the infrastructure of the Internet has zero accountability to traditional political entities supposedly representing the people, or even its users. The situation is actually worse than when the US was founded (e.g. "6% of the population can vote"), because the owners of the tech giants are only a handful of people who can override any decision. There's only one Amazon CEO, he's called Jeff Bezos, and he has total control. (Update: Bezos actually ceded the CEO role to Andy Jassy, AWS and Amazon music founder, while remaining executive chairman. I would argue that, as the founder and the richest man on earth, he still has strong control over Amazon.)

Social Contract Here's another claim of the Declaration:
We are forming our own Social Contract.
I remember the early days, back when "netiquette" was a word, it did feel we had some sort of a contract. Not written in standards of course -- or barely (see RFC1855) -- but as a tacit agreement. How wrong we were. One just needs to look at Facebook to see how problematic that idea is on a global network. Facebook is the quintessential "hacker" ideology put in practice. Mark Zuckerberg explicitly refused to be "arbiter of truth" which implicitly means he will let lies take over its platforms. He also sees Facebook as place where everyone is equal, something that echoes the Declaration:
We are creating a world that all may enter without privilege or prejudice accorded by race, economic power, military force, or station of birth.
(We note, in passing, the omission of gender in that list, also mirroring the infamous "All men are created equal" claim of the US declaration.) As the Wall Street Journal's (WSJ) Facebook files later shown, both of those "contracts" have serious limitations inside Facebook. There are VIPs who systematically bypass moderation systems including fascists and rapists. Drug cartels and human traffickers thrive on the platform. Even when Zuckerberg himself tried to tame the platform -- to get people vaccinated or to make it healthier -- he failed: "vaxxer" conspiracies multiplied and Facebook got angrier. This is because the "social contract" behind Facebook and those large companies is a lie: their concern is profit and that means advertising, "engagement" with the platform, which causes increased anxiety and depression in teens, for example. Facebook's response to this is that they are working really hard on moderation. But the truth is that even that system is severely skewed. The WSJ showed that Facebook has translators for only 50 languages. It's a surprisingly hard to count human languages but estimates range the number of distinct languages between 2500 and 7000. So while 50 languages seems big at first, it's actually a tiny fraction of the human population using Facebook. Taking the first 50 of the Wikipedia list of languages by native speakers we omit languages like Dutch (52), Greek (74), and Hungarian (78), and that's just a few random nations picks from Europe. As an example, Facebook has trouble moderating even a major language like Arabic. It censored content from legitimate Arab news sources when they mentioned the word al-Aqsa because Facebook associates it with the al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades when they were talking about the Al-Aqsa Mosque... This bias against Arabs also shows how Facebook reproduces the American colonizer politics. The WSJ also pointed out that Facebook spends only 13% of its moderation efforts outside of the US, even if that represents 90% of its users. Facebook spends three more times moderating on "brand safety", which shows its priority is not the safety of its users, but of the advertisers.

Military Internet Sergey Brin and Larry Page are the Lewis and Clark of our generation. Just like the latter were sent by Jefferson (the same) to declare sovereignty over the entire US west coast, Google declared sovereignty over all human knowledge, with its mission statement "to organize the world's information and make it universally accessible and useful". (It should be noted that Page somewhat questioned that mission but only because it was not ambitious enough, Google having "outgrown" it.) The Lewis and Clark expedition, just like Google, had a scientific pretext, because that is what you do to colonize a world, presumably. Yet both men were military and had to receive scientific training before they left. The Corps of Discovery was made up of a few dozen enlisted men and a dozen civilians, including York an African American slave owned by Clark and sold after the expedition, with his final fate lost in history. And just like Lewis and Clark, Google has a strong military component. For example, Google Earth was not originally built at Google but is the acquisition of a company called Keyhole which had ties with the CIA. Those ties were brought inside Google during the acquisition. Google's increasing investment inside the military-industrial complex eventually led Google to workers organizing a revolt although it is currently unclear to me how much Google is involved in the military apparatus. Other companies, obviously, do not have such reserve, with Microsoft, Amazon, and plenty of others happily bidding on military contracts all the time.

Spreading the Internet I am obviously not the first to identify colonial structures in the Internet. In an article titled The Internet as an Extension of Colonialism, Heather McDonald correctly identifies fundamental problems with the "development" of new "markets" of Internet "consumers", primarily arguing that it creates a digital divide which creates a "lack of agency and individual freedom":
Many African people have gained access to these technologies but not the freedom to develop content such as web pages or social media platforms in their own way. Digital natives have much more power and therefore use this to create their own space with their own norms, shaping their online world according to their own outlook.
But the digital divide is certainly not the worst problem we have to deal with on the Internet today. Going back to the Declaration, we originally believed we were creating an entirely new world:
This governance will arise according to the conditions of our world, not yours. Our world is different.
How I dearly wished that was true. Unfortunately, the Internet is not that different from the offline world. Or, to be more accurate, the values we have embedded in the Internet, particularly of free speech absolutism, sexism, corporatism, and exploitation, are now exploding outside of the Internet, into the "real" world. The Internet was built with free software which, fundamentally, was based on quasi-volunteer labour of an elite force of white men with obviously too much time on their hands (and also: no children). The mythical writing of GCC and Emacs by Richard Stallman is a good example of this, but the entirety of the Internet now seems to be running on random bits and pieces built by hit-and-run programmers working on their copious free time. Whenever any of those fails, it can compromise or bring down entire systems. (Heck, I wrote this article on my day off...) This model of what is fundamentally "cheap labour" is spreading out from the Internet. Delivery workers are being exploited to the bone by apps like Uber -- although it should be noted that workers organise and fight back. Amazon workers are similarly exploited beyond belief, forbidden to take breaks until they pee in bottles, with ambulances nearby to carry out the bodies. During peak of the pandemic, workers were being dangerously exposed to the virus in warehouses. All this while Amazon is basically taking over the entire economy. The Declaration culminates with this prophecy:
We will spread ourselves across the Planet so that no one can arrest our thoughts.
This prediction, which first felt revolutionary, is now chilling.

Colonial Internet The Internet is, if not neo-colonial, plain colonial. The US colonies had cotton fields and slaves, we have disposable cell phones and Foxconn workers. Canada has its cultural genocide, Facebook has his own genocides in Ethiopia, Myanmar, and mob violence in India. Apple is at least implicitly accepting the Uyghur genocide. And just like the slaves of the colony, those atrocities are what makes the empire run. The Declaration actually ends like this, a quote which I have in my fortune cookies file:
We will create a civilization of the Mind in Cyberspace. May it be more humane and fair than the world your governments have made before.
That is still inspiring to me. But if we want to make "cyberspace" more humane, we need to decolonize it. Work on cyberpeace instead of cyberwar. Establish clear code of conduct, discuss ethics, and question your own privileges, biases, and culture. For me the first step in decolonizing my own mind is writing this article. Breaking up tech monopolies might be an important step, but it won't be enough: we have to do a culture shift as well, and that's the hard part.

Appendix: an apology to Barlow I kind of feel bad going through Barlow's declaration like this, point by point. It is somewhat unfair, especially since Barlow passed away a few years ago and cannot mount a response (even humbly assuming that he might read this). But then again, he himself recognized he was a bit too "optimistic" in 2009, saying: "we all get older and smarter":
I'm an optimist. In order to be libertarian, you have to be an optimist. You have to have a benign view of human nature, to believe that human beings left to their own devices are basically good. But I'm not so sure about human institutions, and I think the real point of argument here is whether or not large corporations are human institutions or some other entity we need to be thinking about curtailing. Most libertarians are worried about government but not worried about business. I think we need to be worrying about business in exactly the same way we are worrying about government.
And, in a sense, it was a little naive to expect Barlow to not be a colonist. Barlow is, among many things, a cattle rancher who grew up on a colonial ranch in Wyoming. The ranch was founded in 1907 by his great uncle, 17 years after the state joined the Union, and only a generation or two after the Powder River War (1866-1868) and Black Hills War (1876-1877) during which the US took over lands occupied by Lakota, Cheyenne, Arapaho, and other native American nations, in some of the last major First Nations Wars.

Appendix: further reading There is another article that almost has the same title as this one: Facebook and the New Colonialism. (Interestingly, the <title> tag on the article is actually "Facebook the Colonial Empire" which I also find appropriate.) The article is worth reading in full, but I loved this quote so much that I couldn't resist reproducing it here:
Representations of colonialism have long been present in digital landscapes. ( Even Super Mario Brothers, the video game designer Steven Fox told me last year. You run through the landscape, stomp on everything, and raise your flag at the end. ) But web-based colonialism is not an abstraction. The online forces that shape a new kind of imperialism go beyond Facebook.
It goes on:
Consider, for example, digitization projects that focus primarily on English-language literature. If the web is meant to be humanity s new Library of Alexandria, a living repository for all of humanity s knowledge, this is a problem. So is the fact that the vast majority of Wikipedia pages are about a relatively tiny square of the planet. For instance, 14 percent of the world s population lives in Africa, but less than 3 percent of the world s geotagged Wikipedia articles originate there, according to a 2014 Oxford Internet Institute report.
And they introduce another definition of Neo-colonialism, while warning about abusing the word like I am sort of doing here:
I m loath to toss around words like colonialism but it s hard to ignore the family resemblances and recognizable DNA, to wit, said Deepika Bahri, an English professor at Emory University who focuses on postcolonial studies. In an email, Bahri summed up those similarities in list form:
  1. ride in like the savior
  2. bandy about words like equality, democracy, basic rights
  3. mask the long-term profit motive (see 2 above)
  4. justify the logic of partial dissemination as better than nothing
  5. partner with local elites and vested interests
  6. accuse the critics of ingratitude
In the end, she told me, if it isn t a duck, it shouldn t quack like a duck.
Another good read is the classic Code and other laws of cyberspace (1999, free PDF) which is also critical of Barlow's Declaration. In "Code is law", Lawrence Lessig argues that:
computer code (or "West Coast Code", referring to Silicon Valley) regulates conduct in much the same way that legal code (or "East Coast Code", referring to Washington, D.C.) does (Wikipedia)
And now it feels like the west coast has won over the east coast, or maybe it recolonized it. In any case, Internet now christens emperors.

2 August 2021

Dirk Eddelbuettel: RcppFarmHash 0.0.2: Maintenance

A minor maintenance release of the new package RcppFarmHash, first released in version 0.0.1 a week ago, is now on CRAN in an version 0.0.2. RcppFarmHash wraps the Google FarmHash family of hash functions (written by Geoff Pike and contributors) that are used for example by Google BigQuery for the FARM_FINGERPRINT digest. This releases adds a #define which was needed on everybody s favourite CRAN platform to not attempt to include a missing header endian.h. With this added #define all is well as we can already tell from looking at the CRAN status where the three machines maintained by you-may-know-who have already built the package. The others will follow over the next few days. I also tweeted about the upload with a screenshot demonstrating an eight minute passage from upload to acceptance with the added #ThankYouCRAN tag to say thanks for very smooth and fully automated processing at their end. The very brief NEWS entry follows:

Changes in version 0.0.2 (2021-08-02)
  • On SunOS, set endianness to not error on #include endian.h
  • Add badges and installation notes to README as package is on CRAN

If you like this or other open-source work I do, you can now sponsor me at GitHub.

This post by Dirk Eddelbuettel originated on his Thinking inside the box blog. Please report excessive re-aggregation in third-party for-profit settings.

27 July 2021

Dirk Eddelbuettel: RcppFarmHash 0.0.1: New CRAN Package

A new package RcppFarmHash is now on CRAN in an inaugural version 0.0.1. RcppFarmHash wraps the Google FarmHash family of hash functions (written by Geoff Pike and contributors) that are used for example by Google BigQuery for the FARM_FINGERPRINT. The package was prepared and uploaded yesterday afternoon, and to my surprise already on CRAN this (early) morning when I got up. So here is another #ThankYouCRAN for very smoothing operations. The very brief NEWS entry follows:

Changes in version 0.0.1 (2021-07-25)
  • Initial version and CRAN upload

If you like this or other open-source work I do, you can now sponsor me at GitHub.

This post by Dirk Eddelbuettel originated on his Thinking inside the box blog. Please report excessive re-aggregation in third-party for-profit settings.

22 July 2021

Charles Plessy: Search in Debian's sources

Via my work on the media-types package, I wanted to know which packages were using the media type application/x-xcf, which apparently is not correct (#991158). The https://codesearch.debian.net site gives the answer. (Thanks!) Moreover, one can create a user key, for command-line remote access; here is an example below (the file dcs-apikeyHeader-plessy.txt contains x-dcs-apikey: followed by my access key).
curl -X GET "https://codesearch.debian.net/api/v1/searchperpackage?query=application/x-xcf&match_mode=literal" -H @dcs-apikeyHeader-plessy.txt > result.json
The result is serialised in JSON. Here is how I transformed it to make a list of email addresses that I could easily paste in mutt.
cat result.json  
  jq --raw-output '.[]."package"'  
  dd-list --stdin  
  sed -e '/^ /d' -e '/^$/'d -e 's/$/,/' -e 's/^/  /'

18 July 2021

Jamie McClelland: Google and Bitly

It seems I m the only person on the Internet who didn t know sending email to Google with bit.ly links will tank your deliverability. To my credit, I ve been answering deliverability support questions for 16 years and this has never come up. Until last week. For some reason, at May First we suddenly had about three percent of our email to Google deferred with the ominous sounding:
Our system has detected that this message is 421-4.7.0 suspicious due to the nature of the content and/or the links within.
The quantity of email that accounts for just three percent of mail to Google is high, and caused all kinds of monitoring alarms to go off, putting us into a bit of panic. Eventually we realized all but one of the email messages had bit.ly links. I m still not sure whether this issue was caused by a weird and coincidental spike in users sending bit.ly links to Google. Or whether some subtle change in the Google algorithm is responsible. Or some change in our IP address reputation placed greater emphasis on bit.ly links. In the end it doesn t really matter - the real point is that until we disrupt this growing monopoly we will all be at the mercy of Google and their algorithms for email deliverability (and much, much more).

13 May 2021

Shirish Agarwal: Population, Immigration, Vaccines and Mass-Surveilance.

The Population Issue and its many facets Another couple of weeks passed. A Lot of things happening, lots of anger and depression in folks due to handling in pandemic, but instead of blaming they are willing to blame everybody else including the population. Many of them want forced sterilization like what Sanjay Gandhi did during the Emergency (1975). I had to share So Long, My son . A very moving tale of two families of what happened to them during the one-child policy in China. I was so moved by it and couldn t believe that the Chinese censors allowed it to be produced, shot, edited, and then shared worldwide. It also won a couple of awards at the 69th Berlin Film Festival, silver bear for the best actor and the actress in that category. But more than the award, the theme, and the concept as well as the length of the movie which was astonishing. Over a 3 hr. something it paints a moving picture of love, loss, shame, relief, anger, and asking for forgiveness. All of which can be identified by any rational person with feelings worldwide.

Girl child What was also interesting though was what it couldn t or wasn t able to talk about and that is the Chinese leftover men. In fact, a similar situation exists here in India, only it has been suppressed. This has been more pronounced more in Asia than in other places. One big thing in this is human trafficking and mostly women trafficking. For the Chinese male, that was happening on a large scale from all neighboring countries including India. This has been shared in media and everybody knows about it and yet people are silent. But this is not limited to just the Chinese, even Indians have been doing it. Even yesteryear actress Rupa Ganguly was caught red-handed but then later let off after formal questioning as she is from the ruling party. So much for justice. What is and has been surprising at least for me is Rwanda which is in the top 10 of some of the best places in equal gender. It, along with other African countries have also been in news for putting quite a significant amount of percentage of GDP into public healthcare (between 20-10%), but that is a story for a bit later. People forget or want to forget that it was in Satara, a city in my own state where 220 girls changed their name from nakusha or unwanted to something else and that had become a piece of global news. One would think that after so many years, things would have changed, the only change that has happened is that now we have two ministries, The Ministry of Women and Child Development (MoWCD) and The Ministry of Health and Welfare (MoHFW). Sadly, in both cases, the ministries have been found wanting, Whether it was the high-profile Hathras case or even the routine cries of help which given by women on the twitter helpline. Sadly, neither of these ministries talks about POSH guidelines which came up after the 2012 gangrape case. For both these ministries, it should have been a pinned tweet. There is also the 1994 PCPNDT Act which although made in 1994, actually functioned in 2006, although what happens underground even today nobody knows  . On the global stage, about a decade ago, Stephen J. Dubner and Steven Levitt argued in their book Freakonomics how legalized abortion both made the coming population explosion as well as expected crime rates to be reduced. There was a huge pushback on the same from the conservatives and has become a matter of debate, perhaps something that the Conservatives wanted. Interestingly, it hasn t made them go back but go forward as can be seen from the Freakonomics site.

Climate Change Another topic that came up for discussion was repeatedly climate change, but when I share Shell s own 1998 Confidential report titled Greenhouse effect all become strangely silent. The silence here is of two parts, there probably is a large swathe of Indians who haven t read the report and there may be a minority who have read it and know what already has been shared with U.S. Congress. The Conservative s argument has been for it is jobs and a weak we need to research more . There was a partial debunk of it on the TBD podcast by Matt Farell and his brother Sean Farell as to how quickly the energy companies are taking to the coming change.

Health Budget Before going to Covid stories. I first wanted to talk about Health Budgets. From the last 7 years the Center s allocation for health has been between 0.34 to 0.8% per year. That amount barely covers the salaries to the staff, let alone any money for equipment or anything else. And here by allocation I mean, what is actually spent, not the one that is shared by GOI as part of budget proposal. In fact, an article on Wire gives a good breakdown of the numbers. Even those who are on the path of free markets describe India s health business model as a flawed one. See the Bloomberg Quint story on that. Now let me come to Rwanda. Why did I chose Rwanda, I could have chosen South Africa where I went for Debconf 2016, I chose because Rwanda s story is that much more inspiring. In many ways much more inspiring than that South Africa in many ways. Here is a country which for decades had one war or the other, culminating into the Rwanda Civil War which ended in 1994. And coincidentally, they gained independence on a similar timeline as South Africa ending Apartheid in 1994. What does the country do, when it gains its independence, it first puts most of its resources in the healthcare sector. The first few years at 20% of GDP, later than at 10% of GDP till everybody has universal medical coverage. Coming back to the Bloomberg article I shared, the story does not go into the depth of beyond-expiry date medicines, spurious medicines and whatnot. Sadly, most media in India does not cover the deaths happening in rural areas and this I am talking about normal times. Today what is happening in rural areas is just pure madness. For last couple of days have been talking with people who are and have been covering rural areas. In many of those communities, there is vaccine hesitancy and why, because there have been whatsapp forwards sharing that if you go to a hospital you will die and your kidney or some other part of the body will be taken by the doctor. This does two things, it scares people into not going and getting vaccinated, at the same time they are prejudiced against science. This is politics of the lowest kind. And they do it so that they will be forced to go to temples or babas and what not and ask for solutions. And whether they work or not is immaterial, they get fixed and property and money is seized. Sadly, there are not many Indian movies of North which have tried to show it except for oh my god but even here it doesn t go the distance. A much more honest approach was done in Trance . I have never understood how the South Indian movies are able to do a more honest job of story-telling than what is done in Bollywood even though they do in 1/10th the budget that is needed in Bollywood. Although, have to say with OTT, some baggage has been shed but with the whole film certification rearing its ugly head through MEITY orders, it seems two steps backward instead of forward. The idea being simply to infantilize the citizens even more. That is a whole different ball-game which probably will require its own space.

Vaccine issues One good news though is that Vaccination has started. But it has been a long story full of greed by none other than GOI (Government of India) or the ruling party BJP. Where should I start with. I probably should start with this excellent article done by Priyanka Pulla. It is interesting and fascinating to know how vaccines are made, at least one way which she shared. She also shared about the Cutter Incident which happened in the late 50 s. The response was on expected lines, character assassination of her and the newspaper they published but could not critique any of the points made by her. Not a single point that she didn t think about x or y. Interestingly enough, in January 2021 Bharati Biotech was supposed to be share phase 3 trial data but hasn t been put up in public domain till May 2021. In fact, there have been a few threads raised by both well-meaning Indians as well as others globally especially on twitter to which GOI/ICMR (Indian Council of Medical Research) is silent. Another interesting point to note is that Russia did say in its press release that it is possible that their vaccine may not be standard (read inactivation on their vaccines and another way is possible but would take time, again Brazil has objected, but India hasn t till date.) What also has been interesting is the homegrown B.1.617 lineage or known as double mutant . This was first discovered from my own state, Maharashtra and then transported around the world. There is also B.1.618 which was found in West Bengal and is same or supposed to be similar to the one found in South Africa. This one is known as Triple mutant . About B.1.618 we don t know much other than knowing that it is much more easily transferable, much more infectious. Most countries have banned flights from India and I cannot fault them anyway. Hell, when even our diplomats do not care for procedures to be followed during the pandemic then how a common man is supposed to do. Of course, now for next month, Mr. Modi was supposed to go and now will not attend the G7 meeting. Whether, it is because he would have to face the press (the only Prime Minister and the only Indian Prime Minister who never has faced free press.) or because the Indian delegation has been disinvited, we would never know.

A good article which shares lots of lows with how things have been done in India has been an article by Arundhati Roy. And while the article in itself is excellent and shares a bit of the bitter truth but is still incomplete as so much has been happening. The problem is that the issue manifests in so many ways, it is difficult to hold on. As Arundhati shared, should we just look at figures and numbers and hold on, or should we look at individual ones, for e.g. the one shared in Outlook India. Or the one shared by Dr. Dipshika Ghosh who works in Covid ICU in some hospital
Dr. Dipika Ghosh sharing an incident in Covid Ward

Interestingly as well, while in the vaccine issue, Brazil Anvisa doesn t know what they are doing or the regulator just isn t knowledgeable etc. (statements by various people in GOI, when it comes to testing kits, the same is an approver.)

ICMR/DGCI approving internationally validated kits, Press release.

Twitter In the midst of all this, one thing that many people have forgotten and seem to have forgotten that Twitter and other tools are used by only the elite. The reason why the whole thing has become serious now than in the first phase is because the elite of India have also fallen sick and dying which was not the case so much in the first phase. The population on Twitter is estimated to be around 30-34 million and people who are everyday around 20 odd million or so, which is what 2% of the Indian population which is estimated to be around 1.34 billion. The other 98% don t even know that there is something like twitter on which you can ask help. Twitter itself is exclusionary in many ways, with both the emoticons, the language and all sorts of things. There is a small subset who does use Twitter in regional languages, but they are too small to write anything about. The main language is English which does become a hindrance to lot of people.

Censorship Censorship of Indians critical of Govt. mishandling has been non-stop. Even U.S. which usually doesn t interfere into India s internal politics was forced to make an exception. But of course, this has been on deaf ears. There is and was a good thread on Twitter by Gaurav Sabnis, a friend, fellow Puneite now settled in U.S. as a professor.
Gaurav on Trump-Biden on vaccination of their own citizens
Now just to surmise what has been happened in India and what has been happening in most of the countries around the world. Most of the countries have done centralization purchasing of the vaccine and then is distributed by the States, this is what we understand as co-operative federalism. While last year, GOI took a lot of money under the shady PM Cares fund for vaccine purchase, donations from well-meaning Indians as well as Industries and trade bodies. Then later, GOI said it would leave the states hanging and it is they who would have to buy vaccines from the manufacturers. This is again cheap politics. The idea behind it is simple, GOI knows that almost all the states are strapped for cash. This is not new news, this I have shared a couple of months back. The problem has been that for the last 6-8 months no GST meeting has taken place as shared by Punjab s Finance Minister Amarinder Singh. What will happen is that all the states will fight in-between themselves for the vaccine and most of them are now non-BJP Governments. The idea is let the states fight and somehow be on top. So, the pandemic, instead of being a public health issue has become something of on which politics has to played. The news on whatsapp by RW media is it s ok even if a million or two also die, as it is India is heavily populated. Although that argument vanishes for those who lose their dear and near ones. But that just isn t the issue, the issue goes much more deeper than that Oxygen:12%
Remedisivir:12%
Sanitiser:12%
Ventilator:12%
PPE:18%
Ambulances 28% Now all the products above are essential medical equipment and should be declared as essential medical equipment and should have price controls on which GST is levied. In times of pandemic, should the center be profiting on those. States want to let go and even want the center to let go so that some relief is there to the public, while at the same time make them as essential medical equipment with price controls. But GOI doesn t want to. Leaders of opposition parties wrote open letters but no effect. What is sad to me is how Ambulances are being taxed at 28%. Are they luxury items or sin goods ? This also reminds of the recent discovery shared by Mr. Pappu Yadav in Bihar. You can see the color of ambulances as shared by Mr. Yadav, and the same news being shared by India TV news showing other ambulances. Also, the weak argument being made of not having enough drivers. Ideally, you should have 2-3 people, both 9-1-1 and Chicago Fire show 2 people in ambulance but a few times they have also shown to be flipped over. European seems to have three people in ambulance, also they are also much more disciplined as drivers, at least an opinion shared by an American expat.
Pappu Yadav, President Jan Adhikar Party, Bihar May 11, 2021
What is also interesting to note is GOI plays this game of Health is State subject and health is Central subject depending on its convenience. Last year, when it invoked the Epidemic and DMA Act it was a Central subject, now when bodies are flowing down the Ganges and pyres being lit everywhere, it becomes a State subject. But when and where money is involved, it again becomes a Central subject. The States are also understanding it, but they are fighting on too many fronts.
Snippets from Karnataka High Court hearing today, 13th March 2021
One of the good things is most of the High Courts have woken up. Many of the people on the RW think that the Courts are doing Judicial activism . And while there may be an iota of truth in it, the bitter truth is that many judges or relatives or their helpers have diagnosed and some have even died due to Covid. In face of the inevitable, what can they do. They are hauling up local Governments to make sure they are accountable while at the same time making sure that they get access to medical facilities. And I as a citizen don t see any wrong in that even if they are doing it for selfish reasons. Because, even if justice is being done for selfish reasons, if it does improve medical delivery systems for the masses, it is cool. If it means that the poor and everybody else are able to get vaccinations, oxygen and whatever they need, it is cool. Of course, we are still seeing reports of patients spending in the region of INR 50k and more for each day spent in hospital. But as there are no price controls, judges cannot do anything unless they want to make an enemy of the medical lobby in the country. A good story on medicines and what happens in rural areas, see no further than Laakhon mein ek.
Allahabad High Court hauling Uttar Pradesh Govt. for lack of Oxygen is equal to genocide, May 11, 2021
The censorship is not just related to takedown requests on twitter but nowadays also any articles which are critical of the GOI s handling. I have been seeing many articles which have shared facts and have been critical of GOI being taken down. Previously, we used to see 404 errors happen 7-10 years down the line and that was reasonable. Now we see that happen, days weeks or months. India seems to be turning more into China and North Korea and become more anti-science day-by-day

Fake websites Before going into fake websites, let me start with a fake newspaper which was started by none other than the Gujarat CM Mr. Modi in 2005 .
Gujarat Satya Samachar 2005 launched by Mr. Modi.
And if this wasn t enough than on Feb 8, 2005, he had invoked Official Secrets Act
Mr. Modi invoking Official Secrets Act, Feb 8 2005 Gujarat Samachar
The headlines were In Modi s regime press freedom is in peril-Down with Modi s dictatorship. So this was a tried and tested technique. The above information was shared by Mr. Urvish Kothari, who incidentally also has his own youtube channel. Now cut to 2021, and we have a slew of fake websites being done by the same party. In fact, it seems they started this right from 2011. A good article on BBC itself tells the story. Hell, Disinfo.eu which basically combats disinformation in EU has a whole pdf chronicling how BJP has been doing it. Some of the sites it shared are

Times of New York
Manchester Times
Times of Los Angeles
Manhattan Post
Washington Herald
and many more. The idea being take any site name which sounds similar to a brand name recognized by Indians and make fool of them. Of course, those of who use whois and other such tools can easily know what is happening. Two more were added to the list yesterday, Daily Guardian and Australia Today. There are of course, many features which tell them apart from genuine websites. Most of these are on shared hosting rather than dedicated hosting, most of these are bought either from Godaddy and Bluehost. While Bluehost used to be a class act once upon a time, both the above will do anything as long as they get money. Don t care whether it s a fake website or true. Capitalism at its finest or worst depending upon how you look at it. But most of these details are lost on people who do not know web servers, at all and instead think see it is from an exotic site, a foreign site and it chooses to have same ideas as me. Those who are corrupt or see politics as a tool to win at any cost will not see it as evil. And as a gentleman Raghav shared with me, it is so easy to fool us. An example he shared which I had forgotten. Peter England which used to be an Irish brand was bought by Aditya Birla group way back in 2000. But even today, when you go for Peter England, the way the packaging is done, the way the prices are, more often than not, people believe they are buying the Irish brand. While sharing this, there is so much of Naom Chomsky which comes to my mind again and again

Caste Issues I had written about caste issues a few times on this blog. This again came to the fore as news came that a Hindu sect used forced labor from Dalit community to make a temple. This was also shared by the hill. In both, Mr. Joshi doesn t tell that if they were volunteers then why their passports have been taken forcibly, also I looked at both minimum wage prevailing in New Jersey as a state as well as wage given to those who are in the construction Industry. Even in minimum wage, they were giving $1 when the prevailing minimum wage for unskilled work is $12.00 and as Mr. Joshi shared that they are specialized artisans, then they should be paid between $23 $30 per hour. If this isn t exploitation, then I don t know what is. And this is not the first instance, the first instance was perhaps the case against Cisco which was done by John Doe. While I had been busy with other things, it seems Cisco had put up both a demurrer petition and a petition to strike which the Court stayed. This seemed to all over again a type of apartheid practice, only this time applied to caste. The good thing is that the court stayed the petition. Dr. Ambedkar s statement if Hindus migrate to other regions on earth, Indian caste would become a world problem given at Columbia University in 1916, seems to be proven right in today s time and sadly has aged well. But this is not just something which is there only in U.S. this is there in India even today, just couple of days back, a popular actress Munmun Dutta used a casteist slur and then later apologized giving the excuse that she didn t know Hindi. And this is patently false as she has been in the Bollywood industry for almost now 16-17 years. This again, was not an isolated incident. Seema Singh, a lecturer in IIT-Kharagpur abused students from SC, ST backgrounds and was later suspended. There is an SC/ST Atrocities Act but that has been diluted by this Govt. A bit on the background of Dr. Ambedkar can be found at a blog on Columbia website. As I have shared and asked before, how do we think, for what reason the Age of Englightenment or the Age of Reason happened. If I were a fat monk or a priest who was privileges, would I have let Age of Enlightenment happen. It broke religion or rather Church which was most powerful to not so powerful and that power was more distributed among all sort of thinkers, philosophers, tinkers, inventors and so on and so forth.

Situation going forward I believe things are going to be far more complex and deadly before they get better. I had to share another term called Comorbidities which fortunately or unfortunately has also become part of twitter lexicon. While I have shared what it means, it simply means when you have an existing ailment or condition and then Coronavirus attacks you. The Virus will weaken you. The Vaccine in the best case just stops the damage, but the damage already done can t be reversed. There are people who advise and people who are taking steroids but that again has its own side-effects. And this is now, when we are in summer. I am afraid for those who have recovered, what will happen to them during the Monsoons. We know that the Virus attacks most the lungs and their quality of life will be affected. Even the immune system may have issues. We also know about the inflammation. And the grant that has been given to University of Dundee also has signs of worry, both for people like me (obese) as well as those who have heart issues already. In other news, my city which has been under partial lockdown since a month, has been extended for another couple of weeks. There are rumors that the same may continue till the year-end even if it means economics goes out of the window.There is possibility that in the next few months something like 2 million odd Indians could die
The above is a conversation between Karan Thapar and an Oxford Mathematician Dr. Murad Banaji who has shared that the under-counting of cases in India is huge. Even BBC shared an article on the scope of under-counting. Of course, those on the RW call of the evidence including the deaths and obituaries in newspapers as a narrative . And when asked that when deaths used to be in the 20 s or 30 s which has jumped to 200-300 deaths and this is just the middle class and above. The poor don t have the money to get wood and that is the reason you are seeing the bodies in Ganges whether in Buxar Bihar or Gajipur, Uttar Pradesh. The sights and visuals makes for sorry reading
Pandit Ranjan Mishra son on his father s death due to unavailability of oxygen, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, 11th May 2021.
For those who don t know Pandit Ranjan Mishra was a renowned classical singer. More importantly, he was the first person to suggest Mr. Modi s name as a Prime Ministerial Candidate. If they couldn t fulfil his oxygen needs, then what can be expected for the normal public.

Conclusion Sadly, this time I have no humorous piece to share, I can however share a documentary which was shared on Feluda . I have shared about Feluda or Prodosh Chandra Mitter a few times on this blog. He has been the answer of James Bond from India. I have shared previously about The Golden Fortress . An amazing piece of art by Satyajit Ray. I watched that documentary two-three times. I thought, mistakenly that I am the only fool or fan of Feluda in Pune to find out that there are people who are even more than me. There were so many facets both about Feluda and master craftsman Satyajit Ray that I was unaware about. I was just simply amazed. I even shared few of the tidbits with mum as well, although now she has been truly hooked to Korean dramas. The only solace from all the surrounding madness. So, if you have nothing to do, you can look up his books, read them and then see the movies. And my first recommendation would be the Golden Fortress. The only thing I would say, do not have high hopes. The movie is beautiful. It starts slow and then picks up speed, just like a train. So, till later. Update The Mass surveillance part I could not do justice do hence removed it at the last moment. It actually needs its whole space, article. There is so much that the Govt. is doing under the guise of the pandemic that it is difficult to share it all in one article. As it is, the article is big

26 April 2021

Vishal Gupta: Ramblings // On Sikkim and Backpacking

What I loved the most about Sikkim can t be captured on cameras. It can t be taped since it would be intrusive and it can t be replicated because it s unique and impromptu. It could be described, as I attempt to, but more importantly, it s something that you simply have to experience to know. Now I first heard about this from a friend who claimed he d been offered free rides and Tropicanas by locals after finishing the Ladakh Marathon. And then I found Ronnie s song, whose chorus goes : Dil hai pahadi, thoda anadi. Par duniya ke maya mein phasta nahi (My heart belongs to the mountains. Although a little childish, it doesn t get hindered by materialism). While the song refers his life in Manali, I think this holds true for most Himalayan states. Maybe it s the pleasant weather, the proximity to nature, the sense of safety from Indian Army being round the corner, independence from material pleasures that aren t available in remote areas or the absence of the pollution, commercialisation, & cutthroat-ness of cities, I don t know, there s just something that makes people in the mountains a lot kinder, more generous, more open and just more alive. Sikkimese people, are honestly some of the nicest people I ve ever met. The blend of Lepchas, Bhutias and the humility and the truthfulness Buddhism ingrains in its disciples is one that ll make you fall in love with Sikkim (assuming the views, the snow, the fab weather and food, leave you pining for more). As a product of Indian parenting, I ve always been taught to be wary of the unknown and to stick to the safer, more-travelled path but to be honest, I enjoy bonding with strangers. To me, each person is a storybook waiting to be flipped open with the right questions and the further I get from home, the wilder the stories get. Besides there s something oddly magical about two arbitrary curvilinear lines briefly running parallel until they diverge to move on to their respective paths. And I think our society has been so busy drawing lines and spreading hate that we forget that in the end, we re all just lines on the universe s infinite canvas. So the next time you travel, and you re in a taxi, a hostel, a bar, a supermarket, or on a long walk to a monastery (that you re secretly wishing is open despite a lockdown), strike up a conversation with a stranger. Small-talk can go a long way.
Header icon made by Freepik from www.flaticon.com

11 April 2021

Vishal Gupta: Sikkim 101 for Backpackers

Host to Kanchenjunga, the world s third-highest mountain peak and the endangered Red Panda, Sikkim is a state in northeastern India. Nestled between Nepal, Tibet (China), Bhutan and West Bengal (India), the state offers a smorgasbord of cultures and cuisines. That said, it s hardly surprising that the old spice route meanders through western Sikkim, connecting Lhasa with the ports of Bengal. Although the latter could also be attributed to cardamom (kali elaichi), a perennial herb native to Sikkim, which the state is the second-largest producer of, globally. Lastly, having been to and lived in India, all my life, I can confidently say Sikkim is one of the cleanest & safest regions in India, making it ideal for first-time backpackers.

Brief History
  • 17th century: The Kingdom of Sikkim is founded by the Namgyal dynasty and ruled by Buddhist priest-kings known as the Chogyal.
  • 1890: Sikkim becomes a princely state of British India.
  • 1947: Sikkim continues its protectorate status with the Union of India, post-Indian-independence.
  • 1973: Anti-royalist riots take place in front of the Chogyal's palace, by Nepalis seeking greater representation.
  • 1975: Referendum leads to the deposition of the monarchy and Sikkim joins India as its 22nd state.
Languages
  • Official: English, Nepali, Sikkimese/Bhotia and Lepcha
  • Though Hindi and Nepali share the same script (Devanagari), they are not mutually intelligible. Yet, most people in Sikkim can understand and speak Hindi.
Ethnicity
  • Nepalis: Migrated in large numbers (from Nepal) and soon became the dominant community
  • Bhutias: People of Tibetan origin. Major inhabitants in Northern Sikkim.
  • Lepchas: Original inhabitants of Sikkim

Food
  • Tibetan/Nepali dishes (mostly consumed during winter)
    • Thukpa: Noodle soup, rich in spices and vegetables. Usually contains some form of meat. Common variations: Thenthuk and Gyathuk
    • Momos: Steamed or fried dumplings, usually with a meat filling.
    • Saadheko: Spicy marinated chicken salad.
    • Gundruk Soup: A soup made from Gundruk, a fermented leafy green vegetable.
    • Sinki : A fermented radish tap-root product, traditionally consumed as a base for soup and as a pickle. Eerily similar to Kimchi.
  • While pork and beef are pretty common, finding vegetarian dishes is equally easy.
  • Staple: Dal-Bhat with Subzi. Rice is a lot more common than wheat (rice) possibly due to greater carb content and proximity to West Bengal, India s largest producer of Rice.
  • Good places to eat in Gangtok
    • Hamro Bhansa Ghar, Nimtho (Nepali)
    • Taste of Tibet
    • Dragon Wok (Chinese & Japanese)

Buddhism in Sikkim
  • Bayul Demojong (Sikkim), is the most sacred Land in the Himalayas as per the belief of the Northern Buddhists and various religious texts.
  • Sikkim was blessed by Guru Padmasambhava, the great Buddhist saint who visited Sikkim in the 8th century and consecrated the land.
  • However, Buddhism is said to have reached Sikkim only in the 17th century with the arrival of three Tibetan monks viz. Rigdzin Goedki Demthruchen, Mon Kathok Sonam Gyaltshen & Rigdzin Legden Je at Yuksom. Together, they established a Buddhist monastery.
  • In 1642 they crowned Phuntsog Namgyal as the first monarch of Sikkim and gave him the title of Chogyal, or Dharma Raja.
  • The faith became popular through its royal patronage and soon many villages had their own monastery.
  • Today Sikkim has over 200 monasteries.

Major monasteries
  • Rumtek Monastery, 20Km from Gangtok
  • Lingdum/Ranka Monastery, 17Km from Gangtok
  • Phodong Monastery, 28Km from Gangtok
  • Ralang Monastery, 10Km from Ravangla
  • Tsuklakhang Monastery, Royal Palace, Gangtok
  • Enchey Monastery, Gangtok
  • Tashiding Monastery, 35Km from Ravangla


Reaching Sikkim
  • Gangtok, being the capital, is easiest to reach amongst other regions, by public transport and shared cabs.
  • By Air:
    • Pakyong (PYG) :
      • Nearest airport from Gangtok (about 1 hour away)
      • Tabletop airport
      • Reserved cabs cost around INR 1200.
      • As of Apr 2021, the only flights to PYG are from IGI (Delhi) and CCU (Kolkata).
    • Bagdogra (IXB) :
      • About 20 minutes from Siliguri and 4 hours from Gangtok.
      • Larger airport with flights to most major Indian cities.
      • Reserved cabs cost about INR 3000. Shared cabs cost about INR 350.
  • By Train:
    • New Jalpaiguri (NJP) :
      • About 20 minutes from Siliguri and 4 hours from Gangtok.
      • Reserved cabs cost about INR 3000. Shared cabs from INR 350.
  • By Road:
    • NH10 connects Siliguri to Gangtok
    • If you can t find buses plying to Gangtok directly, reach Siliguri and then take a cab to Gangtok.
  • Sikkim Nationalised Transport Div. also runs hourly buses between Siliguri and Gangtok and daily buses on other common routes. They re cheaper than shared cabs.
  • Wizzride also operates shared cabs between Siliguri/Bagdogra/NJP, Gangtok and Darjeeling. They cost about the same as shared cabs but pack in half as many people in luxury cars (Innova, Xylo, etc.) and are hence more comfortable.

Gangtok
  • Time needed: 1D/1N
  • Places to visit:
    • Hanuman Tok
    • Ganesh Tok
    • Tashi View Point [6,800ft]
    • MG Marg
    • Sikkim Zoo
    • Gangtok Ropeway
    • Enchey Monastery
    • Tsuklakhang Palace & Monastery
  • Hostels: Tagalong Backpackers (would strongly recommend), Zostel Gangtok
  • Places to chill: Travel Cafe, Caf Live & Loud and Gangtok Groove
  • Places to shop: Lal Market and MG Marg

Getting Around
  • Taxis operate on a reserved or shared basis. In case of the latter, you can pool with other commuters your taxis will pick up and drop en-route.
  • Naturally shared taxis only operate on popular routes. The easiest way to get around Gangtok is to catch a shared cab from MG Marg.
  • Reserved taxis for Gangtok sightseeing cost around INR 1000-1500, depending upon the spots you d like to see
  • Key taxi/bus stands :
    • Deorali stand: For Darjeeling, Siliguri, Kalimpong
    • Vajra stand: For North & East Sikkim (Tsomgo Lake & Nathula)
    • Rumtek taxi: For Ravangla, Pelling, Namchi, Geyzing, Jorethang and Singtam.
Exploring Gangtok on an MTB

North Sikkim
  • The easiest & most economical way to explore North Sikkim is the 3D/2N package offered by shared-cab drivers.
  • This includes food, permits, cab rides and accommodation (1N in Lachen and 1N in Lachung)
  • The accommodation on both nights are at homestays with bare necessities, so keep your hopes low.
  • In the spirit of sustainable tourism, you ll be asked to discard single-use plastic bottles, so please carry a bottle that you can refill along the way.
  • Zero Point and Gurdongmer Lake are snow-capped throughout the year
3D/2N Shared-cab Package Itinerary
  • Day 1
    • Gangtok (10am) - Chungthang - Lachung (stay)
  • Day 2
    • Pre-lunch : Lachung (6am) - Yumthang Valley [12,139ft] - Zero Point - Lachung [15,300ft]
    • Post-lunch : Lachung - Chungthang - Lachen (stay)
  • Day 3
    • Pre-lunch : Lachen (5am) - Kala Patthar - Gurdongmer Lake [16,910ft] - Lachen
    • Post-lunch : Lachen - Chungthang - Gangtok (7pm)
  • This itinerary is idealistic and depends on the level of snowfall.
  • Some drivers might switch up Day 2 and 3 itineraries by visiting Lachen and then Lachung, depending upon the weather.
  • Areas beyond Lachen & Lachung are heavily militarized since the Indo-China border is only a few miles away.

East Sikkim

Zuluk and Silk Route
  • Time needed: 2D/1N
  • Zuluk [9,400ft] is a small hamlet with an excellent view of the eastern Himalayan range including the Kanchenjunga.
  • Was once a transit point to the historic Silk Route from Tibet (Lhasa) to India (West Bengal).
  • The drive from Gangtok to Zuluk takes at least four hours. Hence, it makes sense to spend the night at a homestay and space out your trip to Zuluk

Tsomgo Lake and Nathula
  • Time Needed : 1D
  • A Protected Area Permit is required to visit these places, due to their proximity to the Chinese border
  • Tsomgo/Chhangu Lake [12,313ft]
    • Glacial lake, 40 km from Gangtok.
    • Remains frozen during the winter season.
    • You can also ride on the back of a Yak for INR 300
  • Baba Mandir
    • An old temple dedicated to Baba Harbhajan Singh, a Sepoy in the 23rd Regiment, who died in 1962 near the Nathu La during Indo China war.
  • Nathula Pass [14,450ft]
    • Located on the Indo-Tibetan border crossing of the Old Silk Route, it is one of the three open trading posts between India and China.
    • Plays a key role in the Sino-Indian Trade and also serves as an official Border Personnel Meeting(BPM) Point.
    • May get cordoned off by the Indian Army in event of heavy snowfall or for other security reasons.


West Sikkim
  • Time needed: 3N/1N
  • Hostels at Pelling : Mochilerro Ostillo

Itinerary

Day 1: Gangtok - Ravangla - Pelling
  • Leave Gangtok early, for Ravangla through the Temi Tea Estate route.
  • Spend some time at the tea garden and then visit Buddha Park at Ravangla
  • Head to Pelling from Ravangla

Day 2: Pelling sightseeing
  • Hire a cab and visit Skywalk, Pemayangtse Monastery, Rabdentse Ruins, Kecheopalri Lake, Kanchenjunga Falls.

Day 3: Pelling - Gangtok/Siliguri
  • Wake up early to catch a glimpse of Kanchenjunga at the Pelling Helipad around sunrise
  • Head back to Gangtok on a shared-cab
  • You could take a bus/taxi back to Siliguri if Pelling is your last stop.

Darjeeling
  • In my opinion, Darjeeling is lovely for a two-day detour on your way back to Bagdogra/Siliguri and not any longer (unless you re a Bengali couple on a honeymoon)
  • Once a part of Sikkim, Darjeeling was ceded to the East India Company after a series of wars, with Sikkim briefly receiving a grant from EIC for gifting Darjeeling to the latter
  • Post-independence, Darjeeling was merged with the state of West Bengal.

Itinerary

Day 1 :
  • Take a cab from Gangtok to Darjeeling (shared-cabs cost INR 300 per seat)
  • Reach Darjeeling by noon and check in to your Hostel. I stayed at Hideout.
  • Spend the evening visiting either a monastery (or the Batasia Loop), Nehru Road and Mall Road.
  • Grab dinner at Glenary whilst listening to live music.

Day 2:
  • Wake up early to catch the sunrise and a glimpse of Kanchenjunga at Tiger Hill. Since Tiger Hill is 10km from Darjeeling and requires a permit, book your taxi in advance.
  • Alternatively, if you don t want to get up at 4am or shell out INR1500 on the cab to Tiger Hill, walk to the Kanchenjunga View Point down Mall Road
  • Next, queue up outside Keventers for breakfast with a view in a century-old cafe
  • Get a cab at Gandhi Road and visit a tea garden (Happy Valley is the closest) and the Ropeway. I was lucky to meet 6 other backpackers at my hostel and we ended up pooling the cab at INR 200 per person, with INR 1400 being on the expensive side, but you could bargain.
  • Get lunch, buy some tea at Golden Tips, pack your bags and hop on a shared-cab back to Siliguri. It took us about 4hrs to reach Siliguri, with an hour to spare before my train.
  • If you ve still got time on your hands, then check out the Peace Pagoda and the Darjeeling Himalayan Railway (Toy Train). At INR 1500, I found the latter to be too expensive and skipped it.


Tips and hacks
  • Download offline maps, especially when you re exploring Northern Sikkim.
  • Food and booze are the cheapest in Gangtok. Stash up before heading to other regions.
  • Keep your Aadhar/Passport handy since you need permits to travel to North & East Sikkim.
  • In rural areas and some cafes, you may get to try Rhododendron Wine, made from Rhododendron arboreum a.k.a Gurans. Its production is a little hush-hush since the flower is considered holy and is also the National Flower of Nepal.
  • If you don t want to invest in a new jacket, boots or a pair of gloves, you can always rent them at nominal rates from your hotel or little stores around tourist sites.
  • Check the weather of a region before heading there. Low visibility and precipitation can quite literally dampen your experience.
  • Keep your itinerary flexible to accommodate for rest and impromptu plans.
  • Shops and restaurants close by 8pm in Sikkim and Darjeeling. Plan for the same.

Carry
  • a couple of extra pairs of socks (woollen, if possible)
  • a pair of slippers to wear indoors
  • a reusable water bottle
  • an umbrella
  • a power bank
  • a couple of tablets of Diamox. Helps deal with altitude sickness
  • extra clothes and wet bags since you may not get a chance to wash/dry your clothes
  • a few passport size photographs

Shared-cab hacks
  • Intercity rides can be exhausting. If you can afford it, pay for an additional seat.
  • Call shotgun on the drives beyond Lachen and Lachung. The views are breathtaking.
  • Return cabs tend to be cheaper (WB cabs travelling from SK and vice-versa)

Cost
  • My median daily expenditure (back when I went to Sikkim in early March 2021) was INR 1350.
  • This includes stay (bunk bed), food, wine and transit (shared cabs)
  • In my defence, I splurged on food, wine and extra seats in shared cabs, but if you re on a budget, you could easily get by on INR 1 - 1.2k per day.
  • For a 9-day trip, I ended up shelling out nearly INR 15k, including 2AC trains to & from Kolkata
  • Note : Summer (March to May) and Autumn (October to December) are peak seasons, and thereby more expensive to travel around.

Souvenirs and things you should buy

Buddhist souvenirs :
  • Colourful Prayer Flags (great for tying on bikes or behind car windshields)
  • Miniature Prayer/Mani Wheels
  • Lucky Charms, Pendants and Key Chains
  • Cham Dance masks and robes
  • Singing Bowls
  • Common symbols: Om mani padme hum, Ashtamangala, Zodiac signs

Handicrafts & Handlooms
  • Tibetan Yak Wool shawls, scarfs and carpets
  • Sikkimese Ceramic cups
  • Thangka Paintings

Edibles
  • Darjeeling Tea (usually brewed and not boiled)
  • Wine (Arucha Peach & Rhododendron)
  • Dalle Khursani (Chilli) Paste and Pickle

Header Icon made by Freepik from www.flaticon.com is licensed by CC 3.0 BY

6 March 2021

Michael Stapelberg: Debian Code Search: OpenAPI now available

Debian Code Search now offers an OpenAPI-based API! Various developers have created ad-hoc client libraries based on how the web interface works. The goal of offering an OpenAPI-based API is to provide developers with automatically generated client libraries for a large number of programming languages, that target a stable interface independent of the web interface s implementation details.

Getting started
  1. Visit https://codesearch.debian.net/apikeys/ to download your personal API key. Login via Debian s GitLab instance salsa.debian.org; register there if you have no account yet.
  2. Find the Debian Code Search client library for your programming language. If none exists yet, auto-generate a client library on editor.swagger.io: click Generate Client .
  3. Search all code in Debian from your own analysis tool, migration tracking dashboard, etc.

curl example
curl \
  -H "x-dcs-apikey: $(cat dcs-apikey-stapelberg.txt)" \
  -X GET \
  "https://codesearch.debian.net/api/v1/search?query=i3Font&match_mode=regexp" 

Web browser example You can try out the API in your web browser in the OpenAPI documentation.

Code example (Go) Here s an example program that demonstrates how to set up an auto-generated Go client for the Debian Code Search OpenAPI, run a query, and aggregate the results:
func burndown() error  
	cfg := openapiclient.NewConfiguration()
	cfg.AddDefaultHeader("x-dcs-apikey", apiKey)
	client := openapiclient.NewAPIClient(cfg)
	ctx := context.Background()
	// Search through the full Debian Code Search corpus, blocking until all
	// results are available:
	results, _, err := client.SearchApi.Search(ctx, "fmt.Sprint(err)", &openapiclient.SearchApiSearchOpts 
		// Literal searches are faster and do not require escaping special
		// characters, regular expression searches are more powerful.
		MatchMode: optional.NewString("literal"),
	 )
	if err != nil  
		return err
	 
	// Print to stdout a CSV file with the path and number of occurrences:
	wr := csv.NewWriter(os.Stdout)
	header := []string "path", "number of occurrences" 
	if err := wr.Write(header); err != nil  
		return err
	 
	occurrences := make(map[string]int)
	for _, result := range results  
		occurrences[result.Path]++
	 
	for _, result := range results  
		o, ok := occurrences[result.Path]
		if !ok  
			continue
		 
		// Print one CSV record per path:
		delete(occurrences, result.Path)
		record := []string result.Path, strconv.Itoa(o) 
		if err := wr.Write(record); err != nil  
			return err
		 
	 
	wr.Flush()
	return wr.Error()
 
The full example can be found under burndown.go.

Feedback? File a GitHub issue on github.com/Debian/dcs please!

Migration status I m aware of the following third-party projects using Debian Code Search:
Tool Migration status
Debian Code Search CLI tool Updated to OpenAPI
identify-incomplete-xs-go-import-path Update pending
gnome-codesearch makes no API queries
If you find any others, please point them to this post in case they are not using Debian Code Search s OpenAPI yet.

23 September 2020

Vincent Fourmond: Tutorial: analyze Km data of CODHs

This is the first post of a series in which we will provide the readers with simple tutorial approaches to reproduce the data analysis of some of our published papers. All our data analysis is performed using QSoas. Today, we will show you how to analyze the experiments we used to characterize the behaviour of an enzyme, the Nickel-Iron CO dehydrogenase IV from Carboxytothermus hydrogenoformans. The experiments we analyze here are described in much more details in the original publication, Domnik et al, Angewandte Chemie, 2017. The only things you need to know for now are the following: This means that we expect a response of the type: $$i(t) = \frac i_m 1 + \frac K_m [\mathrm CO ](t) $$ in which $$[\mathrm CO ](t) = \begin cases 0, & \text for t < t_0 \\ C_0 \exp \frac t_0 - t \tau , & \text for t\geq t_0 %> \end cases $$ To begin this tutorial, first download the files from the github repository (direct links: data, parameter file and ruby script). Start QSoas, go to the directory where you saved the files, load the data file, and remove spikes in the data using the following commands:
QSoas> cd
QSoas> l Km-CODH-IV.dat
QSoas> R
First fitThen, to fit the above equation to the data, the simplest is to take advantage of the time-dependent parameters features of QSoas. Run simply:
QSoas> fit-arb im/(1+km/s) /with=s:1,exp
This simply launches the fit interface to fit the exact equations above. The im/(1+km/s) is simply the translation of the Michaelis-Menten equation above, and the /with=s:1,exp specifies that s is the result of the sum of 1 exponential like for the definition of above. Then, load the Km-CODH-IV.params parameter files (using the "Parameters.../Load from file" action at the bottom, or the Ctrl+L keyboard shortcut). Your window should now look like this:
To fit the data, just hit the "Fit" button ! (or Ctrl+F). Including an offset The fit is not bad, but not perfect. In particular, it is easy to see why: the current predicted by the fit goes to 0 at large times, but the actual current is below 0. We need therefore to include an offset to take this into consideration. Close the fit window, and re-run a fit, but now with this command:
QSoas> fit-arb im/(1+km/s)+io /with=s:1,exp
Notice the +io bit that corresponds to the addition of an offset current. Load again the base parameters, run the fit again... Your fit window show now look like:
See how the offset current is now much better taken into account. Let's talk a bit more about the parameters: Taking into account mass-transport limitations However, the fit is still unsatisfactory: the predicted curve fails to reproduce the curvature at the beginning and at the end of the decrease. This is due to issues linked to mass-transport limitations, which are discussed in details in Merrouch et al, Electrochimica Acta, 2017. In short, what you need to do is to close the fit window again, load the transport.rb Ruby file that contains the definition of the itrpt function, and re-launch the fit window using:
QSoas> ruby-run transport.rb
QSoas> fit-arb itrprt(s,km,nFAm,nFAmu)+io /with=s:1,exp
Load again the parameter file... but this time you'll have to play a bit more with the starting parameters for QSoas to find the right values when you fit. Here are some tips: A successful fit should look like this:
Here you are ! I hope you enjoyed analyzing our data, and that it will help you analyze yours ! Feel free to comment and ask for clarifications.

About QSoasQSoas is a powerful open source data analysis program that focuses on flexibility and powerful fitting capacities. It is released under the GNU General Public License. It is described in Fourmond, Anal. Chem., 2016, 88 (10), pp 5050 5052. Current version is 2.2. You can download its source code or buy precompiled versions for MacOS and Windows there.

18 September 2020

Sven Hoexter: Avoiding the GitHub WebUI

Now that GitHub released v1.0 of the gh cli tool, and this is all over HN, it might make sense to write a note about my clumsy aliases and shell functions I cobbled together in the past month. Background story is that my dayjob moved to GitHub coming from Bitbucket. From my point of view the WebUI for Bitbucket is mediocre, but the one at GitHub is just awful and painful to use, especially for PR processing. So I longed for the terminal and ended up with gh and wtfutil as a dashboard. The setup we have is painful on its own, with several orgs and repos which are more like monorepos covering several corners of infrastructure, and some which are very focused on a single component. All workflows are anti GitHub workflows, so you must have permission on the repo, create a branch in that repo as a feature branch, and open a PR for the merge back into master. gh functions and aliases
# setup a token with perms to everything, dealing with SAML is a PITA
export GITHUB_TOKEN="c0ffee4711"
# I use a light theme on my terminal, so adjust the gh theme
export GLAMOUR_STYLE="light"
#simple aliases to poke at a PR
alias gha="gh pr review --approve"
alias ghv="gh pr view"
alias ghd="gh pr diff"
### github support functions, most invoked with a PR ID as $1
#primary function to review PRs
function ghs  
    gh pr view $ 1 
    gh pr checks $ 1 
    gh pr diff $ 1 
 
# very custom PR create function relying on ORG and TEAM settings hard coded
# main idea is to create the PR with my team directly assigned as reviewer
function ghc  
    if git status   grep -q 'Untracked'; then
        echo "ERROR: untracked files in branch"
        git status
        return 1
    fi
    git push --set-upstream origin HEAD
    gh pr create -f -r "$(git remote -v   grep push   grep -oE 'myorg-[a-z]+')/myteam"
 
# merge a PR and update master if we're not in a different branch
function ghm  
    gh pr merge -d -r $ 1 
    if [[ "$(git rev-parse --abbrev-ref HEAD)" == "master" ]]; then
        git pull
    fi
 
# get an overview over the files changed in a PR
function ghf  
    gh pr diff $ 1    diffstat -l
 
# generate a link to a commit in the WebUI to pass on to someone else
# input is a git commit hash
function ghlink  
    local repo="$(git remote -v   grep -E "github.+push"   cut -d':' -f 2   cut -d'.' -f 1)"
    echo "https://github.com/$ repo /commit/$ 1 "
 
wtfutil I have a terminal covering half my screensize with small dashboards listing PRs for the repos I care about. For other repos I reverted back to mail notifications which get sorted and processed from time to time. A sample dashboard config looks like this:
github_admin:
  apiKey: "c0ffee4711"
  baseURL: ""
  customQueries:
    othersPRs:
      title: "Pull Requests"
      filter: "is:open is:pr -author:hoexter -label:dependencies"
  enabled: true
  enableStatus: true
  showOpenReviewRequests: false
  showStats: false
  position:
    top: 0
    left: 0
    height: 3
    width: 1
  refreshInterval: 30
  repositories:
    - "myorg/admin"
  uploadURL: ""
  username: "hoexter"
  type: github
The -label:dependencies is used here to filter out dependabot PRs in the dashboard. Workflow Look at a PR with ghv $ID, if it's ok ACK it with gha $ID. Create a PR from a feature branch with ghc and later on merge it with ghm $ID. The $ID is retrieved from looking at my wtfutil based dashboard. Security Considerations The world is full of bad jokes. For the WebUI access I've the full array of pain with SAML auth, which expires too often, and 2nd factor verification for my account backed by a Yubikey. But to work with the CLI you basically need an API token with full access, everything else drives you insane. So I gave in and generated exactly that. End result is that I now have an API token - which is basically a password - which has full power, and is stored in config files and environment variables. So the security features created around the login are all void now. Was that the aim of it after all?

17 May 2020

Matthew Palmer: Private Key Redaction: UR DOIN IT RONG

Because posting private keys on the Internet is a bad idea, some people like to redact their private keys, so that it looks kinda-sorta like a private key, but it isn t actually giving away anything secret. Unfortunately, due to the way that private keys are represented, it is easy to redact a key in such a way that it doesn t actually redact anything at all. RSA private keys are particularly bad at this, but the problem can (potentially) apply to other keys as well. I ll show you a bit of Inside Baseball with key formats, and then demonstrate the practical implications. Finally, we ll go through a practical worked example from an actual not-really-redacted key I recently stumbled across in my travels.

The Private Lives of Private Keys Here is what a typical private key looks like, when you come across it:
-----BEGIN RSA PRIVATE KEY-----
MGICAQACEQCxjdTmecltJEz2PLMpS4BXAgMBAAECEDKtuwD17gpagnASq1zQTYEC
CQDVTYVsjjF7IQIJANUYZsIjRsR3AgkAkahDUXL0RSECCB78r2SnsJC9AghaOK3F
sKoELg==
-----END RSA PRIVATE KEY-----
Obviously, there s some hidden meaning in there computers don t encrypt things by shouting BEGIN RSA PRIVATE KEY! , after all. What is between the BEGIN/END lines above is, in fact, a base64-encoded DER format ASN.1 structure representing a PKCS#1 private key. In simple terms, it s a list of numbers very important numbers. The list of numbers is, in order:
  • A version number (0);
  • The public modulus , commonly referred to as n ;
  • The public exponent , or e (which is almost always 65,537, for various unimportant reasons);
  • The private exponent , or d ;
  • The two private primes , or p and q ;
  • Two exponents, which are known as dmp1 and dmq1 ; and
  • A coefficient, known as iqmp .

Why Is This a Problem? The thing is, only three of those numbers are actually required in a private key. The rest, whilst useful to allow the RSA encryption and decryption to be more efficient, aren t necessary. The three absolutely required values are e, p, and q. Of the other numbers, most of them are at least about the same size as each of p and q. So of the total data in an RSA key, less than a quarter of the data is required. Let me show you with the above toy key, by breaking it down piece by piece1:
  • MGI DER for this is a sequence
  • CAQ version (0)
  • CxjdTmecltJEz2PLMpS4BX n
  • AgMBAA e
  • ECEDKtuwD17gpagnASq1zQTY d
  • ECCQDVTYVsjjF7IQ p
  • IJANUYZsIjRsR3 q
  • AgkAkahDUXL0RS dmp1
  • ECCB78r2SnsJC9 dmq1
  • AghaOK3FsKoELg== iqmp
Remember that in order to reconstruct all of these values, all I need are e, p, and q and e is pretty much always 65,537. So I could redact almost all of this key, and still give all the important, private bits of this key. Let me show you:
-----BEGIN RSA PRIVATE KEY-----
..............................................................EC
CQDVTYVsjjF7IQIJANUYZsIjRsR3....................................
........
-----END RSA PRIVATE KEY-----
Now, I doubt that anyone is going to redact a key precisely like this but then again, this isn t a typical RSA key. They usually look a lot more like this:
-----BEGIN RSA PRIVATE KEY-----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-----END RSA PRIVATE KEY-----
People typically redact keys by deleting whole lines, and usually replacing them with [...] and the like. But only about 345 of those 1588 characters (excluding the header and footer) are required to construct the entire key. You can redact about 4/5ths of that giant blob of stuff, and your private parts (or at least, those of your key) are still left uncomfortably exposed.

But Wait! There s More! Remember how I said that everything in the key other than e, p, and q could be derived from those three numbers? Let s talk about one of those numbers: n. This is known as the public modulus (because, along with e, it is also present in the public key). It is very easy to calculate: n = p * q. It is also very early in the key (the second number, in fact). Since n = p * q, it follows that q = n / p. Thus, as long as the key is intact up to p, you can derive q by simple division.

Real World Redaction At this point, I d like to introduce an acquaintance of mine: Mr. Johan Finn. He is the proud owner of the GitHub repo johanfinn/scripts. For a while, his repo contained a script that contained a poorly-redacted private key. He since deleted it, by making a new commit, but of course because git never really deletes anything, it s still available. Of course, Mr. Finn may delete the repo, or force-push a new history without that commit, so here is the redacted private key, with a bit of the surrounding shell script, for our illustrative pleasure:
#Add private key to .ssh folder
cd /home/johan/.ssh/
echo  "-----BEGIN RSA PRIVATE KEY-----
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK
 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:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::.::
:::::::::::::::::::::::::::.::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLlL
 
 
 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-----END RSA PRIVATE KEY-----" >> id_rsa
Now, if you try to reconstruct this key by removing the obvious garbage lines (the ones that are all repeated characters, some of which aren t even valid base64 characters), it still isn t a key at least, openssl pkey doesn t want anything to do with it. The key is very much still in there, though, as we shall soon see. Using a gem I wrote and a quick bit of Ruby, we can extract a complete private key. The irb session looks something like this:
>> require "derparse"
>> b64 = <<EOF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>> b64 += <<EOF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>> der = b64.unpack("m").first
>> c = DerParse.new(der).first_node.first_child
>> version = c.value
=> 0
>> c = c.next_node
>> n = c.value
=> 80071596234464993385068908004931... # (etc)
>> c = c.next_node
>> e = c.value
=> 65537
>> c = c.next_node
>> d = c.value
=> 58438813486895877116761996105770... # (etc)
>> c = c.next_node
>> p = c.value
=> 29635449580247160226960937109864... # (etc)
>> c = c.next_node
>> q = c.value
=> 27018856595256414771163410576410... # (etc)
What I ve done, in case you don t speak Ruby, is take the two chunks of plausible-looking base64 data, chuck them together into a variable named b64, unbase64 it into a variable named der, pass that into a new DerParse instance, and then walk the DER value tree until I got all the values I need. Interestingly, the q value actually traverses the split in the two chunks, which means that there s always the possibility that there are lines missing from the key. However, since p and q are supposed to be prime, we can sanity check them to see if corruption is likely to have occurred:
>> require "openssl"
>> OpenSSL::BN.new(p).prime?
=> true
>> OpenSSL::BN.new(q).prime?
=> true
Excellent! The chances of a corrupted file producing valid-but-incorrect prime numbers isn t huge, so we can be fairly confident that we ve got the real p and q. Now, with the help of another one of my creations we can use e, p, and q to create a fully-operational battle key:
>> require "openssl/pkey/rsa"
>> k = OpenSSL::PKey::RSA.from_factors(p, q, e)
=> #<OpenSSL::PKey::RSA:0x0000559d5903cd38>
>> k.valid?
=> true
>> k.verify(OpenSSL::Digest::SHA256.new, k.sign(OpenSSL::Digest::SHA256.new, "bob"), "bob")
=> true
and there you have it. One fairly redacted-looking private key brought back to life by maths and far too much free time. Sorry Mr. Finn, I hope you re not still using that key on anything Internet-facing.

What About Other Key Types? EC keys are very different beasts, but they have much the same problems as RSA keys. A typical EC key contains both private and public data, and the public portion is twice the size so only about 1/3 of the data in the key is private material. It is quite plausible that you can redact an EC key and leave all the actually private bits exposed.

What Do We Do About It? In short: don t ever try and redact real private keys. For documentation purposes, just put KEY GOES HERE in the appropriate spot, or something like that. Store your secrets somewhere that isn t a public (or even private!) git repo. Generating a dummy private key and sticking it in there isn t a great idea, for different reasons: people have this odd habit of reusing demo keys in real life. There s no need to encourage that sort of thing.
  1. Technically the pieces aren t 100% aligned with the underlying DER, because of how base64 works. I felt it was easier to understand if I stuck to chopping up the base64, rather than decoding into DER and then chopping up the DER.

17 March 2020

Norbert Preining: Brave broken (on Debian?)

Update a few hours later: an update came in, version 1.7.62, which fixed this misbehavior!!!! I have been using the Brave browser now for many months without any problem, in particular I use the -dev version, which is rather on the edge of development. Unfortunately, either due to Linux kernel changes (I am using the latest stable kernel, at the moment 5.5.9) or due to Brave changes, the browser has become completely unusable: CPU spikes consistently to 100% and more, and the dev browser tries to upload crash reports every 5sec. The problem is shown in the kernel log as
traps: brave[36513] trap invalid opcode ip:55d4e0cb1895 sp:7ffc4b08ff00 error:0 in brave[55d4dfe01000+78e5000]
I have checked older versions, as well as beta versions, all of them exhibit the same problem. I have disabled all extensions, without any change in behavior. I also have reported this problem in the Brave community forum, without any answer. This means, for now I have to switch back to Firefox, which works smoothly.

6 March 2020

Reproducible Builds: Reproducible Builds in February 2020

Welcome to the February 2020 report from the Reproducible Builds project. One of the original promises of open source software is that distributed peer review and transparency of process results in enhanced end-user security. However, whilst anyone may inspect the source code of free and open source software for malicious flaws, almost all software today is distributed as pre-compiled binaries. This allows nefarious third-parties to compromise systems by injecting malicious code into ostensibly secure software during the various compilation and distribution processes. The motivation behind the reproducible builds effort is to provide the ability to demonstrate these binaries originated from a particular, trusted, source release: if identical results are generated from a given source in all circumstances, reproducible builds provides the means for multiple third-parties to reach a consensus on whether a build was compromised via distributed checksum validation or some other scheme. In this month s report, we cover:

If you are interested in contributing to the project, please visit our Contribute page on our website.

Media coverage & upstream news Omar Navarro Leija, a PhD student at the University Of Pennsylvania, published a paper entitled Reproducible Containers that describes in detail the workings of a new user-space container tool called DetTrace:
All computation that occurs inside a DetTrace container is a pure function of the initial filesystem state of the container. Reproducible containers can be used for a variety of purposes, including replication for fault-tolerance, reproducible software builds and reproducible data analytics. We use DetTrace to achieve, in an automatic fashion, reproducibility for 12,130 Debian package builds, containing over 800 million lines of code, as well as bioinformatics and machine learning workflows.
There was also considerable discussion on our mailing list regarding this research and a presentation based on the paper will occur at the ASPLOS 2020 conference between March 16th 20th in Lausanne, Switzerland. The many virtues of Reproducible Builds were touted as benefits for software compliance in a talk at FOSDEM 2020, debating whether the Careful Inventory of Licensing Bill of Materials Have Impact of FOSS License Compliance which pitted Jeff McAffer and Carol Smith against Bradley Kuhn and Max Sills. (~47 minutes in). Nobuyoshi Nakada updated the canonical implementation of the Ruby programming language a change such that filesystem globs (ie. calls to list the contents of filesystem directories) will henceforth be sorted in ascending order. Without this change, the underlying nondeterministic ordering of the filesystem is exposed to the language which often results in an unreproducible build. Vagrant Cascadian reported on our mailing list regarding a quick reproducible test for the GNU Guix distribution, which resulted in 81.9% of packages registering as reproducible in his installation:
$ guix challenge --verbose --diff=diffoscope ...
2,463 store items were analyzed:
  - 2,016 (81.9%) were identical
  - 37 (1.5%) differed
  - 410 (16.6%) were inconclusive
Jeremiah Orians announced on our mailing list the release of a number of tools related to cross-compilation such as M2-Planet and mescc-tools-seed. This project attemps a full bootstrap of a cross-platform compiler for the C programming language (written in C itself) from hex, the ultimate goal being able to demonstrate fully-bootstrapped compiler from hex to the GCC GNU Compiler Collection. This has many implications in and around Ken Thompson s Trusting Trust attack outlined in Thompson s 1983 Turing Award Lecture. Twitter user @TheYoctoJester posted an executive summary of reproducible builds in the Yocto Project: Finally, Reddit user tofflos posted to the /r/Java subreddit asking about how to achieve reproducible builds with Maven and Chris Lamb noticed that the Linux kernel documentation about reproducible builds of it is available on the kernel.org homepages in an attractive HTML format.

Distribution work

Debian Chris Lamb created a merge request for the core debian-installer package to allow all arguments and options from sources.list files (such as [check-valid-until=no] , etc.) in order that we can test the reproducibility of the installer images on the Reproducible Builds own testing infrastructure. (#13) Thorsten Glaser followed-up to a bug filed against the dpkg-source component that was originally filed in late 2015 that claims that the build tool does not respect permissions when unpacking tarballs if the umask is set to 0002. Matthew Garrett posted to the debian-devel mailing list on the topic of Producing verifiable initramfs images as part of a wider conversation on being able to trust the entire software stack on our computers. 59 reviews of Debian packages were added, 30 were updated and 42 were removed this month adding to our knowledge about identified issues. Many issue types were noticed and categorised by Chris Lamb, including:

openSUSE In openSUSE, Bernhard M. Wiedemann published his monthly Reproducible Builds status update as well as provided the following patches:

Software development

diffoscope diffoscope is our in-depth and content-aware diff-like utility that can locate and diagnose reproducibility issues. It is run countless times a day on our testing infrastructure and is essential for identifying fixes and causes of nondeterministic behaviour. Chris Lamb made the following changes this month, including uploading version 137 to Debian:
  • The sng image utility appears to return with an exit code of 1 if there are even minor errors in the file. (#950806)
  • Also extract classes2.dex, classes3.dex from .apk files extracted by apktool. (#88)
  • No need to use str.format if we are just returning the string. [ ]
  • Add generalised support for ignoring returncodes [ ] and move special-casing of returncodes in zip to use Command.VALID_RETURNCODES. [ ]

Other tools disorderfs is our FUSE-based filesystem that deliberately introduces non-determinism into directory system calls in order to flush out reproducibility issues. This month, Vagrant Cascadian updated the Vcs-Git to specify the debian packaging branch. [ ] reprotest is our end-user tool to build same source code twice in widely differing environments and then checks the binaries produced by each build for any differences. This month, versions 0.7.13 and 0.7.14 were uploaded to Debian unstable by Holger Levsen after Vagrant Cascadian added support for GNU Guix [ ].

Project documentation & website There was more work performed on our documentation and website this month. Bernhard M. Wiedemann added a Java Gradle Build Tool snippet to the SOURCE_DATE_EPOCH documentation [ ] and normalised various terms to unreproducible [ ]. Chris Lamb added a Meson.build example [ ] and improved the documentation for the CMake [ ] to the SOURCE_DATE_EPOCH documentation, replaced anyone can with anyone may as, well, not everyone has the resources, skills, time or funding to actually do what it refers to [ ] and improved the pre-processing for our report generation [ ][ ][ ][ ] etc. In addition, Holger Levsen updated our news page to improve the list of reports [ ], added an explicit mention of the weekly news time span [ ] and reverted sorting of news entries to have latest on top [ ] and Mattia Rizzolo added Codethink as a non-fiscal sponsor [ ] and lastly Tianon Gravi added a Docker Images link underneath the Debian project on our Projects page [ ].

Upstream patches The Reproducible Builds project detects, dissects and attempts to fix as many currently-unreproducible packages as possible. We endeavour to send all of our patches upstream where appropriate. This month, we wrote a large number of such patches, including: Vagrant Cascadian submitted patches via the Debian bug tracking system targeting the packages the Civil Infrastructure Platform has identified via the CIP and CIP build depends package sets:

Testing framework We operate a fully-featured and comprehensive Jenkins-based testing framework that powers tests.reproducible-builds.org. This month, the following changes were made by Holger Levsen: In addition, Mattia Rizzolo added an Apache web server redirect for buildinfos.debian.net [ ] and reverted the reshuffling of arm64 architecture builders [ ]. The usual build node maintenance was performed by Holger Levsen, Mattia Rizzolo [ ][ ] and Vagrant Cascadian.

Getting in touch If you are interested in contributing to the Reproducible Builds project, please visit our Contribute page on our website. However, you can get in touch with us via:

This month s report was written by Bernhard M. Wiedemann, Chris Lamb and Holger Levsen. It was subsequently reviewed by a bunch of Reproducible Builds folks on IRC and the mailing list.

16 November 2017

Colin Watson: Kitten Block equivalent for Firefox 57

I ve been using Kitten Block for years, since I don t really need the blood pressure spike caused by accidentally following links to certain UK newspapers. Unfortunately it hasn t been ported to Firefox 57. I tried emailing the author a couple of months ago, but my email bounced. However, if your primary goal is just to block the websites in question rather than seeing kitten pictures as such (let s face it, the internet is not short of alternative sources of kitten pictures), then it s easy to do with uBlock Origin. After installing the extension if necessary, go to Tools Add-ons Extensions uBlock Origin Preferences My filters, and add www.dailymail.co.uk and www.express.co.uk, each on its own line. (Of course you can easily add more if you like.) Voil : instant tranquility. Incidentally, this also works fine on Android. The fact that it was easy to install a good ad blocker without having to mess about with a rooted device or strange proxy settings was the main reason I switched to Firefox on my phone.

23 August 2017

Antoine Beaupr : The supposed decline of copyleft

At DebConf17, John Sullivan, the executive director of the FSF, gave a talk on the supposed decline of the use of copyleft licenses use free-software projects. In his presentation, Sullivan questioned the notion that permissive licenses, like the BSD or MIT licenses, are gaining ground at the expense of the traditionally dominant copyleft licenses from the FSF. While there does seem to be a rise in the use of permissive licenses, in general, there are several possible explanations for the phenomenon.

When the rumor mill starts Sullivan gave a recent example of the claim of the decline of copyleft in an article on Opensource.com by Jono Bacon from February 2017 that showed a histogram of license usage between 2010 and 2017 (seen below).
[Black Duck   histogram]
From that, Bacon elaborates possible reasons for the apparent decline of the GPL. The graphic used in the article was actually generated by Stephen O'Grady in a January article, The State Of Open Source Licensing, which said:
In Black Duck's sample, the most popular variant of the GPL version 2 is less than half as popular as it was (46% to 19%). Over the same span, the permissive MIT has gone from 8% share to 29%, while its permissive cousin the Apache License 2.0 jumped from 5% to 15%.
Sullivan, however, argued that the methodology used to create both articles was problematic. Neither contains original research: the graphs actually come from the Black Duck Software "KnowledgeBase" data, which was partly created from the old Ohloh web site now known as Open Hub. To show one problem with the data, Sullivan mentioned two free-software projects, GNU Bash and GNU Emacs, that had been showcased on the front page of Ohloh.net in 2012. On the site, Bash was (and still is) listed as GPLv2+, whereas it changed to GPLv3 in 2011. He also claimed that "Emacs was listed as licensed under GPLv3-only, which is a license Emacs has never had in its history", although I wasn't able to verify that information from the Internet archive. Basically, according to Sullivan, "the two projects featured on the front page of a site that was using [the Black Duck] data set were wrong". This, in turn, seriously brings into question the quality of the data:
I reported this problem and we'll continue to do that but when someone is not sharing the data set that they're using for other people to evaluate it and we see glimpses of it which are incorrect, that should give us a lot of hesitation about accepting any conclusion that comes out of it.
Reproducible observations are necessary to the establishment of solid theories in science. Sullivan didn't try to contact Black Duck to get access to the database, because he assumed (rightly, as it turned out) that he would need to "pay for the data under terms that forbid you to share that information with anybody else". So I wrote Black Duck myself to confirm this information. In an email interview, Patrick Carey from Black Duck confirmed its data set is proprietary. He believes, however, that through a "combination of human and automated techniques", Black Duck is "highly confident at the accuracy and completeness of the data in the KnowledgeBase". He did point out, however, that "the way we track the data may not necessarily be optimal for answering the question on license use trend" as "that would entail examination of new open source projects coming into existence each year and the licenses used by them". In other words, even according to Black Duck, its database may not be useful to establish the conclusions drawn by those articles. Carey did agree with those conclusions intuitively, however, saying that "there seems to be a shift toward Apache and MIT licenses in new projects, though I don't have data to back that up". He suggested that "an effective way to answer the trend question would be to analyze the new projects on GitHub over the last 5-10 years." Carey also suggested that "GitHub has become so dominant over the recent years that just looking at projects on GitHub would give you a reasonable sampling from which to draw conclusions".
[GitHub   graph]
Indeed, GitHub published a report in 2015 that also seems to confirm MIT's popularity (45%), surpassing copyleft licenses (24%). The data is, however, not without its own limitations. For example, in the above graph going back to the inception of GitHub in 2008, we see a rather abnormal spike in 2013, which seems to correlate with the launch of the choosealicense.com site, described by GitHub as "our first pass at making open source licensing on GitHub easier". In his talk, Sullivan was critical of the initial version of the site which he described as biased toward permissive licenses. Because the GitHub project creation page links to the site, Sullivan explained that the site's bias could have actually influenced GitHub users' license choices. Following a talk from Sullivan at FOSDEM 2016, GitHub addressed the problem later that year by rewording parts of the front page to be more accurate, but that any change in license choice obviously doesn't show in the report produced in 2015 and won't affect choices users have already made. Therefore, there can be reasonable doubts that GitHub's subset of software projects may not actually be that representative of the larger free-software community.

In search of solid evidence So it seems we are missing good, reproducible results to confirm or dispel these claims. Sullivan explained that it is a difficult problem, if only in the way you select which projects to analyze: the impact of a MIT-licensed personal wiki will obviously be vastly different from, say, a GPL-licensed C compiler or kernel. We may want to distinguish between active and inactive projects. Then there is the problem of code duplication, both across publication platforms (a project may be published on GitHub and SourceForge for example) but also across projects (code may be copy-pasted between projects). We should think about how to evaluate the license of a given project: different files in the same code base regularly have different licenses often none at all. This is why having a clear, documented and publicly available data set and methodology is critical. Without this, the assumptions made are not clear and it is unreasonable to draw certain conclusions from the results. It turns out that some researchers did that kind of open research in 2016 in a paper called "The Debsources Dataset: Two Decades of Free and Open Source Software" [PDF] by Matthieu Caneill, Daniel M. Germ n, and Stefano Zacchiroli. The Debsources data set is the complete Debian source code that covers a large history of the Debian project and therefore includes thousands of free-software projects of different origins. According to the paper:
The long history of Debian creates a perfect subject to evaluate how FOSS licenses use has evolved over time, and the popularity of licenses currently in use.
Sullivan argued that the Debsources data set is interesting because of its quality: every package in Debian has been reviewed by multiple humans, including the original packager, but also by the FTP masters to ensure that the distribution can legally redistribute the software. The existence of a package in Debian provides a minimal "proof of use": unmaintained packages get removed from Debian on a regular basis and the mere fact that a piece of software gets packaged in Debian means at least some users found it important enough to work on packaging it. Debian packagers make specific efforts to avoid code duplication between packages in order to ease security maintenance. The data set covers a period longer than Black Duck's or GitHub's, as it goes all the way back to the Hamm 2.0 release in 1998. The data and how to reproduce it are freely available under a CC BY-SA 4.0 license.
[Debsource   graph]
Sullivan presented the above graph from the research paper that showed the evolution of software license use in the Debian archive. Whereas previous graphs showed statistics in percentages, this one showed actual absolute numbers, where we can't actually distinguish a decline in copyleft licenses. To quote the paper again:
The top license is, once again, GPL-2.0+, followed by: Artistic-1.0/GPL dual-licensing (the licensing choice of Perl and most Perl libraries), GPL-3.0+, and Apache-2.0.
Indeed, looking at the graph, at most do we see a rise of the Apache and MIT licenses and no decline of the GPL per se, although its adoption does seem to slow down in recent years. We should also mention the possibility that Debian's data set has the opposite bias: toward GPL software. The Debian project is culturally quite different from the GitHub community and even the larger free-software ecosystem, naturally, which could explain the disparity in the results. We can only hope a similar analysis can be performed on the much larger Software Heritage data set eventually, which may give more representative results. The paper acknowledges this problem:
Debian is likely representative of enterprise use of FOSS as a base operating system, where stable, long-term and seldomly updated software products are desirable. Conversely Debian is unlikely representative of more dynamic FOSS environments (e.g., modern Web-development with micro libraries) where users, who are usually developers themselves, expect to receive library updates on a daily basis.
The Debsources research also shares methodology limitations with Black Duck: while Debian packages are reviewed before uploading and we can rely on the copyright information provided by Debian maintainers, the research also relies on automated tools (specifically FOSSology) to retrieve license information. Sullivan also warned against "ascribing reason to numbers": people may have different reasons for choosing a particular license. Developers may choose the MIT license because it has fewer words, for compatibility reasons, or simply because "their lawyers told them to". It may not imply an actual deliberate philosophical or ideological choice. Finally, he brought up the theory that the rise of non-copyleft licenses isn't necessarily at the detriment of the GPL. He explained that, even if there is an actual decline, it may not be much of a problem if there is an overall growth of free software to the detriment of proprietary software. He reminded the audience that non-copyleft licenses are still free software, according to the FSF and the Debian Free Software Guidelines, so their rise is still a positive outcome. Even if the GPL is a better tool to accomplish the goal of a free-software world, we can all acknowledge that the conversion of proprietary software to more permissive and certainly simpler licenses is definitely heading in the right direction.
[I would like to thank the DebConf organizers for providing meals for me during the conference.] Note: this article first appeared in the Linux Weekly News.

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