Search Results: "otto"

19 February 2024

Matthew Garrett: Debugging an odd inability to stream video

We have a cabin out in the forest, and when I say "out in the forest" I mean "in a national forest subject to regulation by the US Forest Service" which means there's an extremely thick book describing the things we're allowed to do and (somewhat longer) not allowed to do. It's also down in the bottom of a valley surrounded by tall trees (the whole "forest" bit). There used to be AT&T copper but all that infrastructure burned down in a big fire back in 2021 and AT&T no longer supply new copper links, and Starlink isn't viable because of the whole "bottom of a valley surrounded by tall trees" thing along with regulations that prohibit us from putting up a big pole with a dish on top. Thankfully there's LTE towers nearby, so I'm simply using cellular data. Unfortunately my provider rate limits connections to video streaming services in order to push them down to roughly SD resolution. The easy workaround is just to VPN back to somewhere else, which in my case is just a Wireguard link back to San Francisco.

This worked perfectly for most things, but some streaming services simply wouldn't work at all. Attempting to load the video would just spin forever. Running tcpdump at the local end of the VPN endpoint showed a connection being established, some packets being exchanged, and then nothing. The remote service appeared to just stop sending packets. Tcpdumping the remote end of the VPN showed the same thing. It wasn't until I looked at the traffic on the VPN endpoint's external interface that things began to become clear.

This probably needs some background. Most network infrastructure has a maximum allowable packet size, which is referred to as the Maximum Transmission Unit or MTU. For ethernet this defaults to 1500 bytes, and these days most links are able to handle packets of at least this size, so it's pretty typical to just assume that you'll be able to send a 1500 byte packet. But what's important to remember is that that doesn't mean you have 1500 bytes of packet payload - that 1500 bytes includes whatever protocol level headers are on there. For TCP/IP you're typically looking at spending around 40 bytes on the headers, leaving somewhere around 1460 bytes of usable payload. And if you're using a VPN, things get annoying. In this case the original packet becomes the payload of a new packet, which means it needs another set of TCP (or UDP) and IP headers, and probably also some VPN header. This still all needs to fit inside the MTU of the link the VPN packet is being sent over, so if the MTU of that is 1500, the effective MTU of the VPN interface has to be lower. For Wireguard, this works out to an effective MTU of 1420 bytes. That means simply sending a 1500 byte packet over a Wireguard (or any other VPN) link won't work - adding the additional headers gives you a total packet size of over 1500 bytes, and that won't fit into the underlying link's MTU of 1500.

And yet, things work. But how? Faced with a packet that's too big to fit into a link, there are two choices - break the packet up into multiple smaller packets ("fragmentation") or tell whoever's sending the packet to send smaller packets. Fragmentation seems like the obvious answer, so I'd encourage you to read Valerie Aurora's article on how fragmentation is more complicated than you think. tl;dr - if you can avoid fragmentation then you're going to have a better life. You can explicitly indicate that you don't want your packets to be fragmented by setting the Don't Fragment bit in your IP header, and then when your packet hits a link where your packet exceeds the link MTU it'll send back a packet telling the remote that it's too big, what the actual MTU is, and the remote will resend a smaller packet. This avoids all the hassle of handling fragments in exchange for the cost of a retransmit the first time the MTU is exceeded. It also typically works these days, which wasn't always the case - people had a nasty habit of dropping the ICMP packets telling the remote that the packet was too big, which broke everything.

What I saw when I tcpdumped on the remote VPN endpoint's external interface was that the connection was getting established, and then a 1500 byte packet would arrive (this is kind of the behaviour you'd expect for video - the connection handshaking involves a bunch of relatively small packets, and then once you start sending the video stream itself you start sending packets that are as large as possible in order to minimise overhead). This 1500 byte packet wouldn't fit down the Wireguard link, so the endpoint sent back an ICMP packet to the remote telling it to send smaller packets. The remote should then have sent a new, smaller packet - instead, about a second after sending the first 1500 byte packet, it sent that same 1500 byte packet. This is consistent with it ignoring the ICMP notification and just behaving as if the packet had been dropped.

All the services that were failing were failing in identical ways, and all were using Fastly as their CDN. I complained about this on social media and then somehow ended up in contact with the engineering team responsible for this sort of thing - I sent them a packet dump of the failure, they were able to reproduce it, and it got fixed. Hurray!

(Between me identifying the problem and it getting fixed I was able to work around it. The TCP header includes a Maximum Segment Size (MSS) field, which indicates the maximum size of the payload for this connection. iptables allows you to rewrite this, so on the VPN endpoint I simply rewrote the MSS to be small enough that the packets would fit inside the Wireguard MTU. This isn't a complete fix since it's done at the TCP level rather than the IP level - so any large UDP packets would still end up breaking)

I've no idea what the underlying issue was, and at the client end the failure was entirely opaque: the remote simply stopped sending me packets. The only reason I was able to debug this at all was because I controlled the other end of the VPN as well, and even then I wouldn't have been able to do anything about it other than being in the fortuitous situation of someone able to do something about it seeing my post. How many people go through their lives dealing with things just being broken and having no idea why, and how do we fix that?

(Edit: thanks to this comment, it sounds like the underlying issue was a kernel bug that Fastly developed a fix for - under certain configurations, the kernel fails to associate the MTU update with the egress interface and so it continues sending overly large packets)

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Valhalla's Things: Jeans, step one

Posted on February 19, 2024
Tags: madeof:atoms, craft:sewing, FreeSoftWear
CW for body size change mentions A woman wearing a pair of tight jeans. Just like the corset, I also needed a new pair of jeans. Back when my body size changed drastically of course my jeans no longer fit. While I was waiting for my size to stabilize I kept wearing them with a somewhat tight belt, but it was ugly and somewhat uncomfortable. When I had stopped changing a lot I tried to buy new ones in the same model, and found out that I was too thin for the menswear jeans of that shop. I could have gone back to wearing women s jeans, but I didn t want to have to deal with the crappy fabric and short pockets, so I basically spent a few years wearing mostly skirts, and oversized jeans when I really needed trousers. Meanwhile, I had drafted a jeans pattern for my SO, which we had planned to make in technical fabric, but ended up being made in a cotton-wool mystery mix for winter and in linen-cotton for summer, and the technical fabric version was no longer needed (yay for natural fibres!) It was clear what the solution to my jeans problems would have been, I just had to stop getting distracted by other projects and draft a new pattern using a womanswear block instead of a menswear one. Which, in January 2024 I finally did, and I believe it took a bit less time than the previous one, even if it had all of the same fiddly pieces. I already had a cut of the same cotton-linen I had used for my SO, except in black, and used it to make the pair this post is about. The parametric pattern is of course online, as #FreeSoftWear, at the usual place. This time it was faster, since I didn t have to write step-by-step instructions, as they are exactly the same as the other pattern. Same as above, from the back, with the crotch seam pulling a bit. A faint decoration can be seen on the pockets, with the line art version of the logo seen on this blog. Making also went smoothly, and the result was fitting. Very fitting. A big too fitting, and the standard bum adjustment of the back was just enough for what apparently still qualifies as a big bum, so I adjusted the pattern to be able to add a custom amount of ease in a few places. But at least I had a pair of jeans-shaped trousers that fit! Except, at 200 g/m I can t say that fabric is the proper weight for a pair of trousers, and I may have looked around online1 for some denim, and, well, it s 2024, so my no-fabric-buy 2023 has not been broken, right? Let us just say that there may be other jeans-related posts in the near future.

  1. I had already asked years ago for denim at my local fabric shops, but they don t have the proper, sturdy, type I was looking for.

31 January 2024

Valhalla's Things: Macrame Bookbag

Posted on January 31, 2024
Tags: madeof:atoms, craft:macrame
a macrame bag in ~3 mm ecru yarn, with very irregular knots of different types, holding a book with a blue cover. The bottom part has a rigid single layer triangle and a fringe. In late 2022 I prepared a batch of drawstring backpacks in cotton as reusable wrappers for Christmas gifts; however I didn t know what cord to use, didn t want to use paracord, and couldn t find anything that looked right in the local shops. With Christmas getting dangerously closer, I visited a craft materials website for unrelated reasons, found out that they sold macrame cords, and panic-bought a few types in the hope that at least one would work for the backpacks. I got lucky, and my first choice fitted just fine, and I was able to finish the backpacks in time for the holidays. And then I had a box full of macrame cords in various sizes and types that weren t the best match for the drawstring in a backpack, and no real use for them. I don t think I had ever done macrame, but I have made friendship bracelets in primary school, and a few Friendship Bracelets, But For Real Men So We Call Them Survival Bracelets(TM) more recently, so I didn t bother reading instructions or tutorials online, I just grabbed the Ashley Book of Knots to refresh myself on the knots used, and decided to make myself a small bag for an A6 book. I choose one of the thin, ~3 mm cords, Tre Sfere Macram Barbante, of which there was plenty, so that I could stumble around with no real plan. A loop of four cords, with a handle made of square knots that keeps it together. I started by looping 5 m of cord, making iirc 2 rounds of a loop about the right size to go around the book with a bit of ease, then used the ends as filler cords for a handle, wrapped them around the loop and worked square knots all over them to make a handle. Then I cut the rest of the cord into 40 pieces, each 4 m long, because I had no idea how much I was going to need (spoiler: I successfully got it wrong :D ) I joined the cords to the handle with lark head knots, 20 per side, and then I started knotting without a plan or anything, alternating between hitches and square knots, sometimes close together and sometimes leaving some free cord between them. And apparently I also completely forgot to take in-progress pictures. I kept working on this for a few months, knotting a row or two now and then, until the bag was long enough for the book, then I closed the bottom by taking one cord from the front and the corresponding on the back, knotting them together (I don t remember how) and finally I made a rigid triangle of tight square knots with all of the cords, progressively leaving out a cord from each side, and cutting it in a fringe. I then measured the remaining cords, and saw that the shortest ones were about a meter long, but the longest ones were up to 3 meters, I could have cut them much shorter at the beginning (and maybe added a couple more cords). The leftovers will be used, in some way. And then I postponed taking pictures of the finished object for a few months. The same bag, empty and showing how the sides aren't straight. Now the result is functional, but I have to admit it is somewhat ugly: not as much for the lack of a pattern (that I think came out quite fine) but because of how irregular the knots are; I m not confident that the next time I will be happy with their regularity, either, but I hope I will improve, and that s one important thing. And the other important thing is: I enjoyed making this, even if I kept interrupting the work, and I think that there may be some other macrame in my future.

22 January 2024

Chris Lamb: Increasing the Integrity of Software Supply Chains awarded IEEE Best Paper award

IEEE Software recently announced that a paper that I co-authored with Dr. Stefano Zacchiroli has recently been awarded their Best Paper award:
Titled Reproducible Builds: Increasing the Integrity of Software Supply Chains, the abstract reads as follows:
Although it is possible to increase confidence in Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) by reviewing its source code, trusting code is not the same as trusting its executable counterparts. These are typically built and distributed by third-party vendors with severe security consequences if their supply chains are compromised. In this paper, we present reproducible builds, an approach that can determine whether generated binaries correspond with their original source code. We first define the problem and then provide insight into the challenges of making real-world software build in a "reproducible" manner that is, when every build generates bit-for-bit identical results. Through the experience of the Reproducible Builds project making the Debian Linux distribution reproducible, we also describe the affinity between reproducibility and quality assurance (QA).
According to Google Scholar, the paper has accumulated almost 40 citations since publication. The full text of the paper can be found in PDF format.

17 January 2024

Colin Watson: Task management

Now that I m freelancing, I need to actually track my time, which is something I ve had the luxury of not having to do before. That meant something of a rethink of the way I ve been keeping track of my to-do list. Up to now that was a combination of things like the bug lists for the projects I m working on at the moment, whatever task tracking system Canonical was using at the moment (Jira when I left), and a giant flat text file in which I recorded logbook-style notes of what I d done each day plus a few extra notes at the bottom to remind myself of particularly urgent tasks. I could have started manually adding times to each logbook entry, but ugh, let s not. In general, I had the following goals (which were a bit reminiscent of my address book): I didn t do an elaborate evaluation of multiple options, because I m not trying to come up with the best possible solution for a client here. Also, there are a bazillion to-do list trackers out there and if I tried to evaluate them all I d never do anything else. I just wanted something that works well enough for me. Since it came up on Mastodon: a bunch of people swear by Org mode, which I know can do at least some of this sort of thing. However, I don t use Emacs and don t plan to use Emacs. nvim-orgmode does have some support for time tracking, but when I ve tried vim-based versions of Org mode in the past I ve found they haven t really fitted my brain very well. Taskwarrior and Timewarrior One of the other Freexian collaborators mentioned Taskwarrior and Timewarrior, so I had a look at those. The basic idea of Taskwarrior is that you have a task command that tracks each task as a blob of JSON and provides subcommands to let you add, modify, and remove tasks with a minimum of friction. task add adds a task, and you can add metadata like project:Personal (I always make sure every task has a project, for ease of filtering). Just running task shows you a task list sorted by Taskwarrior s idea of urgency, with an ID for each task, and there are various other reports with different filtering and verbosity. task <id> annotate lets you attach more information to a task. task <id> done marks it as done. So far so good, so a redacted version of my to-do list looks like this:
$ task ls
ID A Project     Tags                 Description
17   Freexian                         Add Incus support to autopkgtest [2]
 7   Columbiform                      Figure out Lloyds online banking [1]
 2   Debian                           Fix troffcvt for groff 1.23.0 [1]
11   Personal                         Replace living room curtain rail
Once I got comfortable with it, this was already a big improvement. I haven t bothered to learn all the filtering gadgets yet, but it was easy enough to see that I could do something like task all project:Personal and it d show me both pending and completed tasks in that project, and that all the data was stored in ~/.task - though I have to say that there are enough reporting bells and whistles that I haven t needed to poke around manually. In combination with the regular backups that I do anyway (you do too, right?), this gave me enough confidence to abandon my previous text-file logbook approach. Next was time tracking. Timewarrior integrates with Taskwarrior, albeit in an only semi-packaged way, and it was easy enough to set that up. Now I can do:
$ task 25 start
Starting task 00a9516f 'Write blog post about task tracking'.
Started 1 task.
Note: '"Write blog post about task tracking"' is a new tag.
Tracking Columbiform "Write blog post about task tracking"
  Started 2024-01-10T11:28:38
  Current                  38
  Total               0:00:00
You have more urgent tasks.
Project 'Columbiform' is 25% complete (3 of 4 tasks remaining).
When I stop work on something, I do task active to find the ID, then task <id> stop. Timewarrior does the tedious stopwatch business for me, and I can manually enter times if I forget to start/stop a task. Then the really useful bit: I can do something like timew summary :month <name-of-client> and it tells me how much to bill that client for this month. Perfect. I also started using VIT to simplify the day-to-day flow a little, which means I m normally just using one or two keystrokes rather than typing longer commands. That isn t really necessary from my point of view, but it does save some time. Android integration I left Android integration for a bit later since it wasn t essential. When I got round to it, I have to say that it felt a bit clumsy, but it did eventually work. The first step was to set up a taskserver. Most of the setup procedure was OK, but I wanted to use Let s Encrypt to minimize the amount of messing around with CAs I had to do. Getting this to work involved hitting things with sticks a bit, and there s still a local CA involved for client certificates. What I ended up with was a certbot setup with the webroot authenticator and a custom deploy hook as follows (with cert_name replaced by a DNS name in my house domain):
#! /bin/sh
set -eu
cert_name=taskd.example.org
found=false
for domain in $RENEWED_DOMAINS; do
    case "$domain" in
        $cert_name)
            found=:
            ;;
    esac
done
$found   exit 0
install -m 644 "/etc/letsencrypt/live/$cert_name/fullchain.pem" \
    /var/lib/taskd/pki/fullchain.pem
install -m 640 -g Debian-taskd "/etc/letsencrypt/live/$cert_name/privkey.pem" \
    /var/lib/taskd/pki/privkey.pem
systemctl restart taskd.service
I could then set this in /etc/taskd/config (server.crl.pem and ca.cert.pem were generated using the documented taskserver setup procedure):
server.key=/var/lib/taskd/pki/privkey.pem
server.cert=/var/lib/taskd/pki/fullchain.pem
server.crl=/var/lib/taskd/pki/server.crl.pem
ca.cert=/var/lib/taskd/pki/ca.cert.pem
Then I could set taskd.ca on my laptop to /usr/share/ca-certificates/mozilla/ISRG_Root_X1.crt and otherwise follow the client setup instructions, run task sync init to get things started, and then task sync every so often to sync changes between my laptop and the taskserver. I used TaskWarrior Mobile as the client. I have to say I wouldn t want to use that client as my primary task tracking interface: the setup procedure is clunky even beyond the necessity of copying a client certificate around, it expects you to give it a .taskrc rather than having a proper settings interface for that, and it only seems to let you add a task if you specify a due date for it. It also lacks Timewarrior integration, so I can only really use it when I don t care about time tracking, e.g. personal tasks. But that s really all I need, so it meets my minimum requirements. Next? Considering this is literally the first thing I tried, I have to say I m pretty happy with it. There are a bunch of optional extras I haven t tried yet, but in general it kind of has the vim nature for me: if I need something it s very likely to exist or easy enough to build, but the features I don t use don t get in my way. I wouldn t recommend any of this to somebody who didn t already spend most of their time in a terminal - but I do. I m glad people have gone to all the effort to build this so I didn t have to.

7 January 2024

Jonathan McDowell: Free Software Activities for 2023

This year was hard from a personal and work point of view, which impacted the amount of Free Software bits I ended up doing - even when I had the time I often wasn t in the right head space to make progress on things. However writing this annual recap up has been a useful exercise, as I achieved more than I realised. For previous years see 2019, 2020, 2021 + 2022.

Conferences The only Free Software related conference I made it to this year was DebConf23 in Kochi, India. Changes with projects at work meant I couldn t justify anything work related. This year I m planning to make it to FOSDEM, and haven t made a decision on DebConf24 yet.

Debian Most of my contributions to Free software continue to happen within Debian. I started the year working on retrogaming with Kodi on Debian. I got this to a much better state for bookworm, with it being possible to run the bsnes-mercury emulator under Kodi using RetroArch. There are a few other libretro backends available for RetroArch, but Kodi needs some extra controller mappings packaged up first. Plenty of uploads were involved, though some of this was aligning all the dependencies and generally cleaning things up in iterations. I continued to work on a few packages within the Debian Electronics Packaging Team. OpenOCD produced a new release in time for the bookworm release, so I uploaded 0.12.0-1. There were a few minor sigrok cleanups - sigrok 0.3, libsigrokdecode 0.5.3-4 + libsigrok 0.5.2-4 / 0.5.2-5. While I didn t manage to get the work completed I did some renaming of the ESP8266 related packages - gcc-xtensa-lx106 (which saw a 13 upload pre-bookworm) has become gcc-xtensa (with 14) and binutils-xtensa-lx106 has become binutils-xtensa (with 6). Binary packages remain the same, but this is intended to allow for the generation of ESP32 compiler toolchains from the same source. onak saw 0.6.3-1 uploaded to match the upstream release. I also uploaded libgpg-error 1.47-1 (though I can claim no credit for any of the work in preparing the package) to help move things forward on updating gnupg2 in Debian. I NMUed tpm2-pkcs11 1.9.0-0.1 to fix some minor issues pre-bookworm release; I use this package myself to store my SSH key within my laptop TPM, so I care about it being in a decent state. sg3-utils also saw a bit of love with 1.46-2 + 1.46-3 - I don t work in the storage space these days, but I m still listed as an uploaded and there was an RC bug around the library package naming that I was qualified to fix and test pre-bookworm. Related to my retroarch work I sponsored uploads of mgba for Ryan Tandy: 0.10.0+dfsg-1, 0.10.0+dfsg-2, 0.10.1+dfsg-1, 0.10.2+dfsg-1, mgba 0.10.1+dfsg-1+deb12u1. As part of the Data Protection Team I responded to various inbound queries to that team, both from project members and those external to the project. I continue to keep an eye on Debian New Members, even though I m mostly inactive as an application manager - we generally seem to have enough available recently. Mostly my involvement is via Front Desk activities, helping out with queries to the team alias, and contributing to internal discussions as well as our panel at DebConf23. Finally the 3 month rotation for Debian Keyring continues to operate smoothly. I dealt with 2023.03.24, 2023.06.26, 2023.06.29, 2023.09.10, 2023.09.24 + 2023.12.24.

Linux I had a few minor patches accepted to the kernel this year. A pair of safexcel cleanups (improved error logging for firmware load fail and cleanup on load failure) came out of upgrading the kernel running on my RB5009. The rest were related to my work on repurposing my C.H.I.P.. The AXP209 driver needed extended to support GPIO3 (with associated DT schema update). That allowed Bluetooth to be enabled. Adding the AXP209 internal temperature ADC as an iio-hwmon node means it can be tracked using the normal sensor monitoring framework. And finally I added the pinmux settings for mmc2, which I use to support an external microSD slot on my C.H.I.P.

Personal projects 2023 saw another minor release of onak, 0.6.3, which resulted in a corresponding Debian upload (0.6.3-1). It has a couple of bug fixes (including a particularly annoying, if minor, one around systemd socket activation that felt very satisfying to get to the bottom of), but I still lack the time to do any of the major changes I would like to. I wrote listadmin3 to allow easy manipulation of moderation queues for Mailman3. It s basic, but it s drastically improved my timeliness on dealing with held messages.

Valhalla's Things: A Corset or Two

Posted on January 7, 2024
Tags: madeof:atoms, craft:sewing, period:victorian, FreeSoftWear
a black coutil midbust corset, from a 3/4 front view, showing the busk closure, a waist tape and external boning channels made of the same twill tape and placed about 1-2 cm from each other at waist level. CW for body size change mentions I needed a corset, badly. Years ago I had a chance to have my measurements taken by a former professional corset maker and then a lesson in how to draft an underbust corset, and that lead to me learning how nice wearing a well-fitted corset feels. Later I tried to extend that pattern up for a midbust corset, with success. And then my body changed suddenly, and I was no longer able to wear either of those, and after a while I started missing them. Since my body was still changing (if no longer drastically so), and I didn t want to use expensive materials for something that had a risk of not fitting after too little time, I decided to start by making myself a summer lightweight corset in aida cloth and plastic boning (for which I had already bought materials). It fitted, but not as well as the first two ones, and I ve worn it quite a bit. I still wanted back the feeling of wearing a comfy, heavy contraption of coutil and steel, however. After a lot of procrastination I redrafted a new pattern, scrapped everything, tried again, had my measurements taken by a dressmaker [#dressmaker], put them in the draft, cut a first mock-up in cheap cotton, fixed the position of a seam, did a second mock-up in denim [#jeans] from an old pair of jeans, and then cut into the cheap herringbone coutil I was planning to use. And that s when I went to see which one of the busks in my stash would work, and realized that I had used a wrong vertical measurement and the front of the corset was way too long for a midbust corset. a corset busk basted to a mock-up with scraps of fabric between each stud / loop. Luckily I also had a few longer busks, I basted one to the denim mock up and tried to wear it for a few hours, to see if it was too long to be comfortable. It was just a bit, on the bottom, which could be easily fixed with the Power Tools1. Except, the more I looked at it the more doing this felt wrong: what I needed most was a midbust corset, not an overbust one, which is what this was starting to be. I could have trimmed it down, but I knew that I also wanted this corset to be a wearable mockup for the pattern, to refine it and have it available for more corsets. And I still had more than half of the cheap coutil I was using, so I decided to redo the pattern and cut new panels. And this is where the or two comes in: I m not going to waste the overbust panels: I had been wanting to learn some techniques to make corsets with a fashion fabric layer, rather than just a single layer of coutil, and this looks like an excellent opportunity for that, together with a piece of purple silk that I know I have in the stash. This will happen later, however, first I m giving priority to the underbust. Anyway, a second set of panels was cut, all the seam lines marked with tailor tacks, and I started sewing by inserting the busk. And then realized that the pre-made boning channel tape I had was too narrow for the 10 mm spiral steel I had plenty of. And that the 25 mm twill tape was also too narrow for a double boning channel. On the other hand, the 18 mm twill tape I had used for the waist tape was good for a single channel, so I decided to put a single bone on each seam, and then add another piece of boning in the middle of each panel. Since I m making external channels, making them in self fabric would have probably looked better, but I no longer had enough fabric, because of the cutting mishap, and anyway this is going to be a strictly underwear only corset, so it s not a big deal. Once the boning channel situation was taken care of, everything else proceeded quite smoothly and I was able to finish the corset during the Christmas break, enlisting again my SO to take care of the flat steel boning while I cut the spiral steels myself with wire cutters. The same corset straight from the front: the left side is a few mm longer than the right side I could have been a bit more precise with the binding, as it doesn t align precisely at the front edge, but then again, it s underwear, nobody other than me and everybody who reads this post is going to see it and I was in a hurry to see it finished. I will be more careful with the next one. The same corset from the back, showing cross lacing with bunny ears at the waist and a lacing gap of about 8 cm. I also think that I haven t been careful enough when pressing the seams and applying the tape, and I ve lost about a cm of width per part, so I m using a lacing gap that is a bit wider than I planned for, but that may change as the corset gets worn, and is still within tolerance. Also, on the morning after I had finished the corset I woke up and realized that I had forgotten to add garter tabs at the bottom edge. I don t know whether I will ever use them, but I wanted the option, so maybe I ll try to add them later on, especially if I can do it without undoing the binding. The next step would have been flossing, which I proceeded to postpone until I ve worn the corset for a while: not because there is any reason for it, but because I still don t know how I want to do it :) What was left was finishing and uploading the pattern and instructions, that are now on my sewing pattern website as #FreeSoftWear, and finally I could post this on the blog.

  1. i.e. by asking my SO to cut and sand it, because I m lazy and I hate doing that part :D

5 January 2024

Valhalla's Things: Random Sashiko + Crazy Quilt Pocket

Posted on January 5, 2024
Tags: madeof:atoms
A 18th century pocket in black jeans with a random pattern of pink running stitches forming squares and other shapes. The unfinished edges of the pieces of jeans can be seen, running more or less diagonally. Lately I ve seen people on the internet talking about victorian crazy quilting. Years ago I had watched a Numberphile video about Hitomezashi Stitch Patterns based on numbers, words or randomness. Few weeks ago I had cut some fabric piece out of an old pair of jeans and I had a lot of scraps that were too small to do anything useful on their own. It easy to see where this can go, right? The wrong side of a pocket piece, showing a light coloured fabric with a grid drawn in pencil, a line of small stitches all around the edges and a mess of thread ends left hanging. I cut a pocket shape out of old garment mockups (this required some piecing), drew a square grid, arranged scraps of jeans to cover the other side, kept everything together with a lot of pins, carefully avoided basting anything, and started covering everything in sashiko / hitomezashi stitches, starting each line with a stitch on the front or the back of the work based on the result of:
import random
random.choice(["front", "back"])
The wrong side of the other pocket piece, with just three lines of stitching and a piece of paper to mark the pattern. There are bits of jeans peeking out of the sides. For the second piece I tried to use a piece of paper with the square grid instead of drawing it on the fabric: it worked, mostly, I would not do it again as removing the paper was more of a hassle than drawing the lines in the first place. I suspected it, but had to try it anyway. The front of the pocket seen from the wrong side, with a machine seam around the lit, whose end has been cut in a triangle so that it can be turned. Then I added a lining from some plain black cotton from the stash; for the slit I put the lining on the front right sides together, sewn at 2 mm from the marked slit, cut it, turned the lining to the back side, pressed and then topstitched as close as possible to the slit from the front. The finished pocket attached to a belt made from the waistband of a pair of jeans (with button, buttonhole and belt loops still attached) whose raw edges (left when unpicking away the jeans) have been sewn shut by hand. I bound everything with bias tape, adding herringbone tape loops at the top to hang it from a belt (such as one made from the waistband of one of the donor pair of jeans) and that was it. The back of the pocket, showing another random pattern in two different shades of pink for the vertical and horizontal lines of stitching. I like the way the result feels; maybe it s a bit too stiff for a pocket, but I can see it work very well for a bigger bag, and maybe even a jacket or some other outer garment.

2 January 2024

Valhalla's Things: Crescent Shawl

Posted on January 2, 2024
Tags: madeof:atoms
a woman wearing a shawl, seen from the back where it looks like a big dark grey triangle with a light grey border and another light grey border with a grid of holes. There is also a double line of holes in the center of the back, and two single ones towards the sides. One of the knitting projects I m working on is a big bottom-up triangular shawl in less-than-fingering weight yarn (NM 1/15): it feels like a cloud should by all rights feel, and I have good expectations out of it, but it s taking forever and a day. And then one day last spring I started thinking in the general direction of top-down shawls, and decided I couldn t wait until I had finished the first one to see if I could design one. For my first attempt I used an odd ball of 50% wool 50% plastic I had in my stash and worked it on 12 mm tree trunks, and I quickly made something between a scarf and a shawl that got some use during the summer thunderstorms when temperatures got a bit lower, but not really cold. I was happy with the shape, not with the exact position of the increases, but I had ideas for improvements, so I just had to try another time. Digging through the stash I found four balls of Drops Alpaca in two shades of grey: I had bought it with the intent to test its durability in somewhat more demanding situations (such as gloves or even socks), but then the LYS1 no longer carries it, so I might as well use it for something a bit more one-off (and when I received the yarn it felt so soft that doing something for the upper body looked like a better idea anyway). I decided to start working in garter stitch with the darker colour, then some garter stitch in the lighter shade and to finish with yo / k2t lace, to make the shawl sort of fade out. The first half was worked relatively slowly through the summer, and then when I reached the colour change I suddenly picked up working on it and it was finished in a couple of weeks. the same shawl, worn before blocking: the garter stitch part
looks denser in a nice way, but the the lace border is scrunched up.
Then I had doubts on whether I wanted to block it, since I liked the soft feel, but I decided to try it anyway: it didn t lose the feel, and the look is definitely better, even if it was my first attempt at blocking a shawl and I wasn t that good at it. the same shawl, blocked, worn and seen from the front, where it falls in wide falls from the shoulders between the arms and the body. I m glad that I did it, however, as it s still soft and warm, but now also looks nicer. The pattern is of course online as #FreeSoftWear on my fiber craft patterns website.

  1. at least local to somebody: I can t get to a proper yarn shop by foot, so I ve bought this yarn online from one that I could in theory reach on a day trip, but it has not happened yet.

31 December 2023

Chris Lamb: Favourites of 2023

This post should have marked the beginning of my yearly roundups of the favourite books and movies I read and watched in 2023. However, due to coming down with a nasty bout of flu recently and other sundry commitments, I wasn't able to undertake writing the necessary four or five blog posts In lieu of this, however, I will simply present my (unordered and unadorned) highlights for now. Do get in touch if this (or any of my previous posts) have spurred you into picking something up yourself

Books

Peter Watts: Blindsight (2006) Reymer Banham: Los Angeles: The Architecture of Four Ecologies (2006) Joanne McNeil: Lurking: How a Person Became a User (2020) J. L. Carr: A Month in the Country (1980) Hilary Mantel: A Memoir of My Former Self: A Life in Writing (2023) Adam Higginbotham: Midnight in Chernobyl (2019) Tony Judt: Postwar: A History of Europe Since 1945 (2005) Tony Judt: Reappraisals: Reflections on the Forgotten Twentieth Century (2008) Peter Apps: Show Me the Bodies: How We Let Grenfell Happen (2021) Joan Didion: Slouching Towards Bethlehem (1968)Erik Larson: The Devil in the White City (2003)

Films Recent releases

Unenjoyable experiences included Alejandro G mez Monteverde's Sound of Freedom (2023), Alex Garland's Men (2022) and Steven Spielberg's The Fabelmans (2022).
Older releases (Films released before 2022, and not including rewatches from previous years.) Distinctly unenjoyable watches included Ocean's Eleven (1960), El Topo (1970), L olo (1992), Hotel Mumbai (2018), Bulworth (1998) and and The Big Red One (1980).

30 December 2023

Valhalla's Things: I've been influenced

Posted on December 30, 2023
Tags: madeof:atoms
A woman wearing a red sleeveless dress; from the waist up it is fitted, while the skirt flares out. There is a white border with red embroidery and black fringe at the hem and a belt of the same material at the waist. By the influencers on the famous proprietary video platform1. When I m crafting with no powertools I tend to watch videos, and this autumn I ve seen a few in a row that were making red wool dresses, at least one or two medieval kirtles. I don t remember which channels they were, and I ve decided not to go back and look for them, at least for a time. A woman wearing a red shirt with wide sleeves, a short yoke, a small collar band and 3 buttons in the front. Anyway, my brain suddenly decided that I needed a red wool dress, fitted enough to give some bust support. I had already made a dress that satisfied the latter requirement and I still had more than half of the red wool faille I ve used for the Garibaldi blouse (still not blogged, but I will get to it), and this time I wanted it to be ready for this winter. While the pattern I was going to use is Victorian, it was designed for underwear, and this was designed to be outerwear, so from the very start I decided not to bother too much with any kind of historical details or techniques. A few meters of wool-imitation fringe trim rolled up; the fringe is black and is attached to a white band with a line of lozenge outlines in red and brown. I knew that I didn t have enough fabric to add a flounce to the hem, as in the cotton dress, but then I remembered that some time ago I fell for a piece of fringed trim in black, white and red. I did a quick check that the red wasn t clashing (it wasn t) and I knew I had a plan for the hem decoration. Then I spent a week finishing other projects, and the more I thought about this dress, the more I was tempted to have spiral lacing at the front rather than buttons, as a nod to the kirtle inspiration. It may end up be a bit of a hassle, but if it is too much I can always add a hidden zipper on a side seam, and only have to undo a bit of the lacing around the neckhole to wear the dress. Finally, I could start working on the dress: I cut all of the main pieces, and since the seam lines were quite curved I marked them with tailor s tacks, which I don t exactly enjoy doing or removing, but are the only method that was guaranteed to survive while manipulating this fabric (and not leave traces afterwards). A shaped piece of red fabric with the long edges bound in navy blue bias tape and all the seamlines marked with basting thread. While cutting the front pieces I accidentally cut the high neck line instead of the one I had used on the cotton dress: I decided to go for it also on the back pieces and decide later whether I wanted to lower it. Since this is a modern dress, with no historical accuracy at all, and I have access to a serger, I decided to use some dark blue cotton voile I ve had in my stash for quite some time, cut into bias strip, to bind the raw edges before sewing. This works significantly better than bought bias tape, which is a bit too stiff for this. A bigger piece of fabric with tailor's tacks for the seams and darts; at the top edge there is a strip of navy blue fabric sewn to a wide seaming allowance, with two rows of cording closest to the center front line. For the front opening, I ve decided to reinforce the areas where the lacing holes will be with cotton: I ve used some other navy blue cotton, also from the stash, and added two lines of cording to stiffen the front edge. So I ve cut the front in two pieces rather than on the fold, sewn the reinforcements to the sewing allowances in such a way that the corded edge was aligned with the center front and then sewn the bottom of the front seam from just before the end of the reinforcements to the hem. The front opening being worked on: on one side there are hand sewn eyelets in red silk that matches the fabric, on the other side the position for more eyelets are still marked with pins. There is also still basting to keep the folded allowance in place. The allowances are then folded back, and then they are kept in place by the worked lacing holes. The cotton was pinked, while for the wool I used the selvedge of the fabric and there was no need for any finishing. Behind the opening I ve added a modesty placket: I ve cut a strip of red wool, a strip of cotton, folded the edge of the strip of cotton to the center, added cording to the long sides, pressed the allowances of the wool towards the wrong side, and then handstitched the cotton to the wool, wrong sides facing. This was finally handstitched to one side of the sewing allowance of the center front. I ve also decided to add real pockets, rather than just slits, and for some reason I decided to add them by hand after I had sewn the dress, so I ve left opening in the side back seams, where the slits were in the cotton dress. I ve also already worn the dress, but haven t added the pockets yet, as I m still debating about their shape. This will be fixed in the near future. Another thing that will have to be fixed is the trim situation: I like the fringe at the bottom, and I had enough to also make a belt, but this makes the top of the dress a bit empty. I can t use the same fringe tape, as it is too wide, but it would be nice to have something smaller that matches the patterned part. And I think I can make something suitable with tablet weaving, but I m not sure on which materials to use, so it will have to be on hold for a while, until I decide on the supplies and have the time for making it. Another improvement I d like to add are detached sleeves, both matching (I should still have just enough fabric) and contrasting, but first I want to learn more about real kirtle construction, and maybe start making sleeves that would be suitable also for a real kirtle. Meanwhile, I ve worn it on Christmas (over my 1700s menswear shirt with big sleeves) and may wear it again tomorrow (if I bother to dress up to spend New Year s Eve at home :D )

  1. yep, that s YouTube, of course.

29 December 2023

Ulrike Uhlig: How do kids conceive the internet? - part 4

Read all parts of the series Part 1 // Part 2 // Part 3 // Part 4 I ve been wanting to write this post for over a year, but lacked energy and time. Before 2023 is coming to an end, I want to close this series and share some more insights with you and hopefully provide you with a smile here and there. For this round of interviews, four more kids around the ages of 8 to 13 were interviewed, 3 of them have a US background these 3 interviews were done by a friend who recorded these interviews for me, thank you! As opposed to the previous interviews, these four kids have parents who have a more technical professional background. And this seems to make a difference: even though none of these kids actually knew much better how the internet really works than the other kids that I interviewed, specifically in terms of physical infrastructures, they were much more confident in using the internet, they were able to more correctly name things they see on the internet, and they had partly radical ideas about what they would like to learn or what they would want to change about the internet! Looking at these results, I think it s safe to say that social reproduction is at work and that we need to improve education for kids who do not profit from this type of social and cultural wealth at home. But let s dive into the details.

The boy and the aliens (I ll be mostly transribing the interview, which was short, and which I find difficult to sum up because some of the questions are written in a way to encourage the kids to tell a story, and this particular kid had a thing going on with aliens.) He s a 13 year old boy living in the US. He has his own computer, which technically belongs to his school but can be used by him freely and he can also take it home. He s the first kid saying he s reading the news on the internet; he does not actually use social media, besides sometimes watching TikTok. When asked: Imagine that aliens land and come to you and say: We ve heard about this internet thing you all talk about, what is it? What do you tell them? he replied:
Well, I mean they re aliens, so I don t know if I wanna tell them much.
(Parents laughing in the background.) Let s assume they re friendly aliens.
Well, I would say you can look anything up and play different games. And there are alien games. But mostly the enemies are aliens which you might be a little offended by. And you can get work done, if you needed to spy on humans. There s cameras, you can film yourself, yeah. And you can text people and call people who are far away
And what would be in a drawing that would explain the internet? Google, an alien using Twitch, Google search results, and the interface of an IM software on an iPhone drawn by a 13 year old boy And here s what he explains about his drawing:
First, I would draw what I see when you open a new tab, Google.
On the right side of the drawing we see something like Twitch.
I don t wanna offend the aliens, but you can film yourself playing a game, so here is the alien and he s playing a game.
And then you can ask questions like: How did aliens come to the Earth? And the answer will be here (below). And there ll be different websites that you can click on.
And you can also look up Who won the alien contest? And that would be Usmushgagu, and that guy won the alien contest.
Do you think the information about alien intergalactic football is already on the internet?
Yeah! That s how fast the internet is.
On the bottom of the drawing we see an iPhone and an instant messaging software.
There s also a device called an iPhone and with it you can text your friends. So here s the alien asking: How was ur day? and the friend might answer IDK [I don t know].
Imagine that a wise and friendly dragon could teach you one thing about the internet that you ve always wanted to know. What would you ask the dragon to teach you about?
Is there a way you don t have to pay for any channels or subscriptions and you can get through any firewall?
Imagine you could make the internet better for everyone. What would you do first?
Well you wouldn t have to pay for it [paywalls].
Can you describe what happens between your device and a website when you visit a website?
Well, it takes 0.025 seconds. [ ] It s connecting.
Wow, that s indeed fast! We were not able to obtain more details about what is that fast thing that s happening exactly

The software engineer s kid This kid identifies as neither boy nor girl, is 10 years old and lives in Germany. Their father works as a software engineer, or in the words of the child:
My dad knows everything.
The kid has a laptop and a mobile phone, both with parental control they don t think that the controlling is fair. This kid uses the internet foremostly for listening to music and watching prank channels on Youtube but also to work with Purple Mash (a teaching platform for the computing curriculum used at their school), finding 3d printing models (that they ask their father to print with them because they did not manage to use the printer by themselves yet). Interestingly, and very differently from the non-tech-parent kids, this kid insists on using Firefox and Signal - the latter is not only used by their dad to tell them to come downstairs for dinner, but also to call their grandmother. This kid also shops online, with the help of the father who does the actual shopping for them using money that the kid earned by reading books. If you would need to explain to an alien who has landed on Earth what the internet is, what would you tell them?
The internet is something where you search, for example, you can look for music. You can also watch videos from around the world, and you can program stuff.
Like most of the kids interviewed, this kid uses the internet mostly for media consumption, but with the difference that they also engage with technology by way of programming using Purple Mash. drawing of the internet by a 10 year old showing a Youtube prank channel, an external device trackpad, and headphones In their drawing we see a Youtube prank channel on a screen, an external trackpad on the right (likely it s not a touch screen), and headphones. Notice how there is no keyboard, or maybe it s folded away. If you could ask a nice and friendly dragon anything you d like to learn about the internet, what would it be?
How do I shutdown my dad s computer forever?
And what is it that he would do to improve the internet for everyone? Contrary to the kid living in the US, they think that
It takes too much time to load stuff!
I wonder if this kid experiences the internet as being slow because they use the mobile network or because their connection somehow gets throttled as a way to control media consumption, or if the German internet infrastructure is just so much worse in certain regions If you could improve the internet for everyone, what would you do first? I d make a new Firefox app that loads the internet much faster.

The software engineer s daughter This girl is only 8 years old, she hates unicorns, and her dad is also a software engineer. She uses a smartphone, controlled by her parents. My impression of the interview is that at this age, kids slightly mix up the internet with the devices that they use to access the internet. drawing of the internet by an 8 year old girl, Showing Google and the interface to call and text someone In her drawing, we see again Google - it s clearly everywhere - and also the interfaces for calling and texting someone. To explain what the internet is, besides the fact that one can use it for calling and listening to music, she says:
[The internet] is something that you can [use to] see someone who is far away, so that you don t need to take time to get to them.
Now, that s a great explanation, the internet providing the possibility for communication over a distance :) If she could ask a friendly dragon something she always wanted to know, she d ask how to make her phone come alive:
that it can talk to you, that it can see you, that it can smile and has eyes. It s like a new family member, you can talk to it.
Sounds a bit like Siri, Alexa, or Furby, doesn t it? If you could improve the internet for everyone, what would you do first? She d have the phone be able to decide over her free time, her phone time. That would make the world better, not for the kids, but certainly for the parents.

The antifascist kid This German boy s dad has a background in electrotechnical engineering. He s 10 years old and he told me he s using the internet a lot for searching things for example about his passion: the firefighters. For him, the internet is:
An invisible world. A virtual world. But there s also the darknet.
He told me he always watches that German show on public TV for kids that explains stuff: Checker Tobi. (In 2014, Checker Tobi actually produced an episode about the internet, which I d criticize for having only male characters, except for one female character: a secretary Google, a nice and friendly woman guiding the way through the huge library that s the internet ) This kid was the only one interviewed who managed to actually explain something about the internet, or rather about the hypertextual structure of the web. When I asked him to draw the internet, he made a drawing of a pin board. He explained:
Many items are attached to the pin board, and on the top left corner there s a computer, for example with Youtube and one can navigate like that between all the items, and start again from the beginning when done.
hypertext structure representing the internet drawn by a kid When I asked if he knew what actually happens between the device and a website he visits, he put forth the hypothesis of the existence of some kind of
Waves, internet waves - all this stuff somehow needs to be transmitted.
What he d like to learn:
How to get into the darknet? How do you become a Whitehat? I ve heard these words on the internet, the internet makes me clever.
And what would he change on the internet if he could?
I want that right wing extreme stuff is not accessible anymore, or at least, that it rains turds ( Kackw rste ) whenever people watch such stuff. Or that people are always told: This video is scum.
I suspect that his father has been talking with him about these things, and maybe these are also subjects he heard about when listening to punk music (he told me he does), or browsing Youtube.

Future projects To me this has been pretty insightful. I might share some more internet drawings by adults in the future, which I think are also really interesting, as they show very different things depending on the age of the person. I ve been using the information gathered to work on a children s book which I hope to be able to share with you next year.

12 December 2023

Raju Devidas: Nextcloud AIO install with docker-compose and nginx reverse proxy

Nextcloud AIO install with docker-compose and nginx reverse proxyNextcloud is a popular self-hosted solution for file sync and share as well as cloud apps such as document editing, chat and talk, calendar, photo gallery etc. This guide will walk you through setting up Nextcloud AIO using Docker Compose. This blog post would not be possible without immense help from Sahil Dhiman a.k.a. sahilisterThere are various ways in which the installation could be done, in our setup here are the pre-requisites.

Step 1 : The docker-compose file for nextcloud AIOThe original compose.yml file is present in nextcloud AIO&aposs git repo here . By taking a reference of that file, we have own compose.yml here.
services:
  nextcloud-aio-mastercontainer:
    image: nextcloud/all-in-one:latest
    init: true
    restart: always
    container_name: nextcloud-aio-mastercontainer # This line is not allowed to be changed as otherwise AIO will not work correctly
    volumes:
      - nextcloud_aio_mastercontainer:/mnt/docker-aio-config # This line is not allowed to be changed as otherwise the built-in backup solution will not work
      - /var/run/docker.sock:/var/run/docker.sock:ro # May be changed on macOS, Windows or docker rootless. See the applicable documentation. If adjusting, don&apost forget to also set &aposWATCHTOWER_DOCKER_SOCKET_PATH&apos!
    ports:
      - 8080:8080
    environment: # Is needed when using any of the options below
      # - AIO_DISABLE_BACKUP_SECTION=false # Setting this to true allows to hide the backup section in the AIO interface. See https://github.com/nextcloud/all-in-one#how-to-disable-the-backup-section
      - APACHE_PORT=32323 # Is needed when running behind a web server or reverse proxy (like Apache, Nginx, Cloudflare Tunnel and else). See https://github.com/nextcloud/all-in-one/blob/main/reverse-proxy.md
      - APACHE_IP_BINDING=127.0.0.1 # Should be set when running behind a web server or reverse proxy (like Apache, Nginx, Cloudflare Tunnel and else) that is running on the same host. See https://github.com/nextcloud/all-in-one/blob/main/reverse-proxy.md
      # - BORG_RETENTION_POLICY=--keep-within=7d --keep-weekly=4 --keep-monthly=6 # Allows to adjust borgs retention policy. See https://github.com/nextcloud/all-in-one#how-to-adjust-borgs-retention-policy
      # - COLLABORA_SECCOMP_DISABLED=false # Setting this to true allows to disable Collabora&aposs Seccomp feature. See https://github.com/nextcloud/all-in-one#how-to-disable-collaboras-seccomp-feature
      - NEXTCLOUD_DATADIR=/opt/docker/cloud.raju.dev/nextcloud # Allows to set the host directory for Nextcloud&aposs datadir.   Warning: do not set or adjust this value after the initial Nextcloud installation is done! See https://github.com/nextcloud/all-in-one#how-to-change-the-default-location-of-nextclouds-datadir
      # - NEXTCLOUD_MOUNT=/mnt/ # Allows the Nextcloud container to access the chosen directory on the host. See https://github.com/nextcloud/all-in-one#how-to-allow-the-nextcloud-container-to-access-directories-on-the-host
      # - NEXTCLOUD_UPLOAD_LIMIT=10G # Can be adjusted if you need more. See https://github.com/nextcloud/all-in-one#how-to-adjust-the-upload-limit-for-nextcloud
      # - NEXTCLOUD_MAX_TIME=3600 # Can be adjusted if you need more. See https://github.com/nextcloud/all-in-one#how-to-adjust-the-max-execution-time-for-nextcloud
      # - NEXTCLOUD_MEMORY_LIMIT=512M # Can be adjusted if you need more. See https://github.com/nextcloud/all-in-one#how-to-adjust-the-php-memory-limit-for-nextcloud
      # - NEXTCLOUD_TRUSTED_CACERTS_DIR=/path/to/my/cacerts # CA certificates in this directory will be trusted by the OS of the nexcloud container (Useful e.g. for LDAPS) See See https://github.com/nextcloud/all-in-one#how-to-trust-user-defined-certification-authorities-ca
      # - NEXTCLOUD_STARTUP_APPS=deck twofactor_totp tasks calendar contacts notes # Allows to modify the Nextcloud apps that are installed on starting AIO the first time. See https://github.com/nextcloud/all-in-one#how-to-change-the-nextcloud-apps-that-are-installed-on-the-first-startup
      # - NEXTCLOUD_ADDITIONAL_APKS=imagemagick # This allows to add additional packages to the Nextcloud container permanently. Default is imagemagick but can be overwritten by modifying this value. See https://github.com/nextcloud/all-in-one#how-to-add-os-packages-permanently-to-the-nextcloud-container
      # - NEXTCLOUD_ADDITIONAL_PHP_EXTENSIONS=imagick # This allows to add additional php extensions to the Nextcloud container permanently. Default is imagick but can be overwritten by modifying this value. See https://github.com/nextcloud/all-in-one#how-to-add-php-extensions-permanently-to-the-nextcloud-container
      # - NEXTCLOUD_ENABLE_DRI_DEVICE=true # This allows to enable the /dev/dri device in the Nextcloud container.   Warning: this only works if the &apos/dev/dri&apos device is present on the host! If it should not exist on your host, don&apost set this to true as otherwise the Nextcloud container will fail to start! See https://github.com/nextcloud/all-in-one#how-to-enable-hardware-transcoding-for-nextcloud
      # - NEXTCLOUD_KEEP_DISABLED_APPS=false # Setting this to true will keep Nextcloud apps that are disabled in the AIO interface and not uninstall them if they should be installed. See https://github.com/nextcloud/all-in-one#how-to-keep-disabled-apps
      # - TALK_PORT=3478 # This allows to adjust the port that the talk container is using. See https://github.com/nextcloud/all-in-one#how-to-adjust-the-talk-port
      # - WATCHTOWER_DOCKER_SOCKET_PATH=/var/run/docker.sock # Needs to be specified if the docker socket on the host is not located in the default &apos/var/run/docker.sock&apos. Otherwise mastercontainer updates will fail. For macos it needs to be &apos/var/run/docker.sock&apos
    # networks: # Is needed when you want to create the nextcloud-aio network with ipv6-support using this file, see the network config at the bottom of the file
      # - nextcloud-aio # Is needed when you want to create the nextcloud-aio network with ipv6-support using this file, see the network config at the bottom of the file
      # - SKIP_DOMAIN_VALIDATION=true
    # # Uncomment the following line when using SELinux
    # security_opt: ["label:disable"]
volumes: # If you want to store the data on a different drive, see https://github.com/nextcloud/all-in-one#how-to-store-the-filesinstallation-on-a-separate-drive
  nextcloud_aio_mastercontainer:
    name: nextcloud_aio_mastercontainer # This line is not allowed to be changed as otherwise the built-in backup solution will not work
I have not removed many of the commented options in the compose file, for a possibility of me using them in the future.If you want a smaller cleaner compose with the extra options, you can refer to
services:
  nextcloud-aio-mastercontainer:
    image: nextcloud/all-in-one:latest
    init: true
    restart: always
    container_name: nextcloud-aio-mastercontainer
    volumes:
      - nextcloud_aio_mastercontainer:/mnt/docker-aio-config
      - /var/run/docker.sock:/var/run/docker.sock:ro
    ports:
      - 8080:8080
    environment:
      - APACHE_PORT=32323
      - APACHE_IP_BINDING=127.0.0.1
      - NEXTCLOUD_DATADIR=/opt/docker/nextcloud
volumes:
  nextcloud_aio_mastercontainer:
    name: nextcloud_aio_mastercontainer
I am using a separate directory to store nextcloud data. As per nextcloud documentation you should be using a separate partition if you want to use this feature, however I did not have that option on my server, so I used a separate directory instead. Also we use a custom port on which nextcloud listens for operations, we have set it up as 32323 above, but you can use any in the permissible port range. The 8080 port is used the setup the AIO management interface. Both 8080 and the APACHE_PORT do not need to be open on the host machine, as we will be using reverse proxy setup with nginx to direct requests. once you have your preferred compose.yml file, you can start the containers using
$ docker-compose -f compose.yml up -d 
Creating network "clouddev_default" with the default driver
Creating volume "nextcloud_aio_mastercontainer" with default driver
Creating nextcloud-aio-mastercontainer ... done
once your container&aposs are running, we can do the nginx setup.

Step 2: Configuring nginx reverse proxy for our domain on host. A reference nginx configuration for nextcloud AIO is given in the nextcloud git repository here . You can modify the configuration file according to your needs and setup. Here is configuration that we are using

map $http_upgrade $connection_upgrade  
    default upgrade;
    &apos&apos close;
 
server  
    listen 80;
    #listen [::]:80;            # comment to disable IPv6
    if ($scheme = "http")  
        return 301 https://$host$request_uri;
     
    listen 443 ssl http2;      # for nginx versions below v1.25.1
    #listen [::]:443 ssl http2; # for nginx versions below v1.25.1 - comment to disable IPv6
    # listen 443 ssl;      # for nginx v1.25.1+
    # listen [::]:443 ssl; # for nginx v1.25.1+ - keep comment to disable IPv6
    # http2 on;                                 # uncomment to enable HTTP/2        - supported on nginx v1.25.1+
    # http3 on;                                 # uncomment to enable HTTP/3 / QUIC - supported on nginx v1.25.0+
    # quic_retry on;                            # uncomment to enable HTTP/3 / QUIC - supported on nginx v1.25.0+
    # add_header Alt-Svc &aposh3=":443"; ma=86400&apos; # uncomment to enable HTTP/3 / QUIC - supported on nginx v1.25.0+
    # listen 443 quic reuseport;       # uncomment to enable HTTP/3 / QUIC - supported on nginx v1.25.0+ - please remove "reuseport" if there is already another quic listener on port 443 with enabled reuseport
    # listen [::]:443 quic reuseport;  # uncomment to enable HTTP/3 / QUIC - supported on nginx v1.25.0+ - please remove "reuseport" if there is already another quic listener on port 443 with enabled reuseport - keep comment to disable IPv6
    server_name cloud.example.com;
    location /  
        proxy_pass http://127.0.0.1:32323$request_uri;
        proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
        proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Port $server_port;
        proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Scheme $scheme;
        proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Proto $scheme;
        proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
        proxy_set_header Accept-Encoding "";
        proxy_set_header Host $host;
    
        client_body_buffer_size 512k;
        proxy_read_timeout 86400s;
        client_max_body_size 0;
        # Websocket
        proxy_http_version 1.1;
        proxy_set_header Upgrade $http_upgrade;
        proxy_set_header Connection $connection_upgrade;
     
    ssl_certificate /etc/letsencrypt/live/cloud.example.com/fullchain.pem; # managed by Certbot
    ssl_certificate_key /etc/letsencrypt/live/cloud.example.com/privkey.pem; # managed by Certbot
    ssl_session_timeout 1d;
    ssl_session_cache shared:MozSSL:10m; # about 40000 sessions
    ssl_session_tickets off;
    ssl_protocols TLSv1.2 TLSv1.3;
    ssl_ciphers ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256:ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384:ECDHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384:ECDHE-ECDSA-CHACHA20-POLY1305:ECDHE-RSA-CHACHA20-POLY1305:DHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256:DHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384:DHE-RSA-CHACHA20-POLY1305;
    ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;
    # Optional settings:
    # OCSP stapling
    # ssl_stapling on;
    # ssl_stapling_verify on;
    # ssl_trusted_certificate /etc/letsencrypt/live/<your-nc-domain>/chain.pem;
    # replace with the IP address of your resolver
    # resolver 127.0.0.1; # needed for oscp stapling: e.g. use 94.140.15.15 for adguard / 1.1.1.1 for cloudflared or 8.8.8.8 for google - you can use the same nameserver as listed in your /etc/resolv.conf file
 
Please note that you need to have valid SSL certificates for your domain for this configuration to work. Steps on getting valid SSL certificates for your domain are beyond the scope of this article. You can give a web search on getting SSL certificates with letsencrypt and you will get several resources on that, or may write a blog post on it separately in the future.once your configuration for nginx is done, you can test the nginx configuration using
$ sudo nginx -t 
nginx: the configuration file /etc/nginx/nginx.conf syntax is ok
nginx: configuration file /etc/nginx/nginx.conf test is successful
and then reload nginx with
$ sudo nginx -s reload

Step 3: Setup of Nextcloud AIO from the browser.To setup nextcloud AIO, we need to access it using the web browser on URL of our domain.tld:8080, however we do not want to open the 8080 port publicly to do this, so to complete the setup, here is a neat hack from sahilister
ssh -L 8080:127.0.0.1:8080 username:<server-ip>
you can bind the 8080 port of your server to the 8080 of your localhost using Unix socket forwarding over SSH.The port forwarding only last for the duration of your SSH session, if the SSH session breaks, your port forwarding will to. So, once you have the port forwarded, you can open the nextcloud AIO instance in your web browser at 127.0.0.1:8080
Nextcloud AIO install with docker-compose and nginx reverse proxy
you will get this error because you are trying to access a page on localhost over HTTPS. You can click on advanced and then continue to proceed to the next page. Your data is encrypted over SSH for this session as we are binding the port over SSH. Depending on your choice of browser, the above page might look different.once you have proceeded, the nextcloud AIO interface will open and will look something like this.
Nextcloud AIO install with docker-compose and nginx reverse proxynextcloud AIO initial screen with capsicums as password
It will show an auto generated passphrase, you need to save this passphrase and make sure to not loose it. For the purposes of security, I have masked the passwords with capsicums. once you have noted down your password, you can proceed to the Nextcloud AIO login, enter your password and then login. After login you will be greeted with a screen like this.
Nextcloud AIO install with docker-compose and nginx reverse proxy
now you can put the domain that you want to use in the Submit domain field. Once the domain check is done, you will proceed to the next step and see another screen like this
Nextcloud AIO install with docker-compose and nginx reverse proxy
here you can select any optional containers for the features that you might want. IMPORTANT: Please make sure to also change the time zone at the bottom of the page according to the time zone you wish to operate in.
Nextcloud AIO install with docker-compose and nginx reverse proxy
The timezone setup is also important because the data base will get initialized according to the set time zone. This could result in wrong initialization of database and you ending up in a startup loop for nextcloud. I faced this issue and could only resolve it after getting help from sahilister . Once you are done changing the timezone, and selecting any additional features you want, you can click on Download and start the containersIt will take some time for this process to finish, take a break and look at the farthest object in your room and take a sip of water. Once you are done, and the process has finished you will see a page similar to the following one.
Nextcloud AIO install with docker-compose and nginx reverse proxy
wait patiently for everything to turn green.
Nextcloud AIO install with docker-compose and nginx reverse proxy
once all the containers have started properly, you can open the nextcloud login interface on your configured domain, the initial login details are auto generated as you can see from the above screenshot. Again you will see a password that you need to note down or save to enter the nextcloud interface. Capsicums will not work as passwords. I have masked the auto generated passwords using capsicums.Now you can click on Open your Nextcloud button or go to your configured domain to access the login screen.
Nextcloud AIO install with docker-compose and nginx reverse proxy
You can use the login details from the previous step to login to the administrator account of your Nextcloud instance. There you have it, your very own cloud!

Additional Notes:

How to properly reset Nextcloud setup?While following the above steps, or while following steps from some other tutorial, you may have made a mistake, and want to start everything again from scratch. The instructions for it are present in the Nextcloud documentation here . Here is the TLDR for a docker-compose setup. These steps will delete all data, do not use these steps on an existing nextcloud setup unless you know what you are doing.
  • Stop your master container.
docker-compose -f compose.yml down -v
The above command will also remove the volume associated with the master container
  • Stop all the child containers that has been started by the master container.
docker stop nextcloud-aio-apache nextcloud-aio-notify-push nextcloud-aio-nextcloud nextcloud-aio-imaginary nextcloud-aio-fulltextsearch nextcloud-aio-redis nextcloud-aio-database nextcloud-aio-talk nextcloud-aio-collabora
  • Remove all the child containers that has been started by the master container
docker rm nextcloud-aio-apache nextcloud-aio-notify-push nextcloud-aio-nextcloud nextcloud-aio-imaginary nextcloud-aio-fulltextsearch nextcloud-aio-redis nextcloud-aio-database nextcloud-aio-talk nextcloud-aio-collabora
  • If you also wish to remove all images associated with nextcloud you can do it with
docker rmi $(docker images --filter "reference=nextcloud/*" -q)
  • remove all volumes associated with child containers
docker volume rm <volume-name>
  • remove the network associated with nextcloud
docker network rm nextcloud-aio

Additional references.
  1. Nextcloud Github
  2. Nextcloud reverse proxy documentation
  3. Nextcloud Administration Guide
  4. Nextcloud User Manual
  5. Nextcloud Developer&aposs manual

16 November 2023

Dimitri John Ledkov: Ubuntu 23.10 significantly reduces the installed kernel footprint


Photo by Pixabay
Ubuntu systems typically have up to 3 kernels installed, before they are auto-removed by apt on classic installs. Historically the installation was optimized for metered download size only. However, kernel size growth and usage no longer warrant such optimizations. During the 23.10 Mantic Minatour cycle, I led a coordinated effort across multiple teams to implement lots of optimizations that together achieved unprecedented install footprint improvements.

Given a typical install of 3 generic kernel ABIs in the default configuration on a regular-sized VM (2 CPU cores 8GB of RAM) the following metrics are achieved in Ubuntu 23.10 versus Ubuntu 22.04 LTS:

  • 2x less disk space used (1,417MB vs 2,940MB, including initrd)

  • 3x less peak RAM usage for the initrd boot (68MB vs 204MB)

  • 0.5x increase in download size (949MB vs 600MB)

  • 2.5x faster initrd generation (4.5s vs 11.3s)

  • approximately the same total time (103s vs 98s, hardware dependent)


For minimal cloud images that do not install either linux-firmware or modules extra the numbers are:

  • 1.3x less disk space used (548MB vs 742MB)

  • 2.2x less peak RAM usage for initrd boot (27MB vs 62MB)

  • 0.4x increase in download size (207MB vs 146MB)


Hopefully, the compromise of download size, relative to the disk space & initrd savings is a win for the majority of platforms and use cases. For users on extremely expensive and metered connections, the likely best saving is to receive air-gapped updates or skip updates.

This was achieved by precompressing kernel modules & firmware files with the maximum level of Zstd compression at package build time; making actual .deb files uncompressed; assembling the initrd using split cpio archives - uncompressed for the pre-compressed files, whilst compressing only the userspace portions of the initrd; enabling in-kernel module decompression support with matching kmod; fixing bugs in all of the above, and landing all of these things in time for the feature freeze. Whilst leveraging the experience and some of the design choices implementations we have already been shipping on Ubuntu Core. Some of these changes are backported to Jammy, but only enough to support smooth upgrades to Mantic and later. Complete gains are only possible to experience on Mantic and later.

The discovered bugs in kernel module loading code likely affect systems that use LoadPin LSM with kernel space module uncompression as used on ChromeOS systems. Hopefully, Kees Cook or other ChromeOS developers pick up the kernel fixes from the stable trees. Or you know, just use Ubuntu kernels as they do get fixes and features like these first.

The team that designed and delivered these changes is large: Benjamin Drung, Andrea Righi, Juerg Haefliger, Julian Andres Klode, Steve Langasek, Michael Hudson-Doyle, Robert Kratky, Adrien Nader, Tim Gardner, Roxana Nicolescu - and myself Dimitri John Ledkov ensuring the most optimal solution is implemented, everything lands on time, and even implementing portions of the final solution.

Hi, It's me, I am a Staff Engineer at Canonical and we are hiring https://canonical.com/careers.

Lots of additional technical details and benchmarks on a huge range of diverse hardware and architectures, and bikeshedding all the things below:

For questions and comments please post to Kernel section on Ubuntu Discourse.



7 November 2023

Melissa Wen: AMD Driver-specific Properties for Color Management on Linux (Part 2)

TL;DR: This blog post explores the color capabilities of AMD hardware and how they are exposed to userspace through driver-specific properties. It discusses the different color blocks in the AMD Display Core Next (DCN) pipeline and their capabilities, such as predefined transfer functions, 1D and 3D lookup tables (LUTs), and color transformation matrices (CTMs). It also highlights the differences in AMD HW blocks for pre and post-blending adjustments, and how these differences are reflected in the available driver-specific properties. Overall, this blog post provides a comprehensive overview of the color capabilities of AMD hardware and how they can be controlled by userspace applications through driver-specific properties. This information is valuable for anyone who wants to develop applications that can take advantage of the AMD color management pipeline. Get a closer look at each hardware block s capabilities, unlock a wealth of knowledge about AMD display hardware, and enhance your understanding of graphics and visual computing. Stay tuned for future developments as we embark on a quest for GPU color capabilities in the ever-evolving realm of rainbow treasures.
Operating Systems can use the power of GPUs to ensure consistent color reproduction across graphics devices. We can use GPU-accelerated color management to manage the diversity of color profiles, do color transformations to convert between High-Dynamic-Range (HDR) and Standard-Dynamic-Range (SDR) content and color enhacements for wide color gamut (WCG). However, to make use of GPU display capabilities, we need an interface between userspace and the kernel display drivers that is currently absent in the Linux/DRM KMS API. In the previous blog post I presented how we are expanding the Linux/DRM color management API to expose specific properties of AMD hardware. Now, I ll guide you to the color features for the Linux/AMD display driver. We embark on a journey through DRM/KMS, AMD Display Manager, and AMD Display Core and delve into the color blocks to uncover the secrets of color manipulation within AMD hardware. Here we ll talk less about the color tools and more about where to find them in the hardware. We resort to driver-specific properties to reach AMD hardware blocks with color capabilities. These blocks display features like predefined transfer functions, color transformation matrices, and 1-dimensional (1D LUT) and 3-dimensional lookup tables (3D LUT). Here, we will understand how these color features are strategically placed into color blocks both before and after blending in Display Pipe and Plane (DPP) and Multiple Pipe/Plane Combined (MPC) blocks. That said, welcome back to the second part of our thrilling journey through AMD s color management realm!

AMD Display Driver in the Linux/DRM Subsystem: The Journey In my 2022 XDC talk I m not an AMD expert, but , I briefly explained the organizational structure of the Linux/AMD display driver where the driver code is bifurcated into a Linux-specific section and a shared-code portion. To reveal AMD s color secrets through the Linux kernel DRM API, our journey led us through these layers of the Linux/AMD display driver s software stack. It includes traversing the DRM/KMS framework, the AMD Display Manager (DM), and the AMD Display Core (DC) [1]. The DRM/KMS framework provides the atomic API for color management through KMS properties represented by struct drm_property. We extended the color management interface exposed to userspace by leveraging existing resources and connecting them with driver-specific functions for managing modeset properties. On the AMD DC layer, the interface with hardware color blocks is established. The AMD DC layer contains OS-agnostic components that are shared across different platforms, making it an invaluable resource. This layer already implements hardware programming and resource management, simplifying the external developer s task. While examining the DC code, we gain insights into the color pipeline and capabilities, even without direct access to specifications. Additionally, AMD developers provide essential support by answering queries and reviewing our work upstream. The primary challenge involved identifying and understanding relevant AMD DC code to configure each color block in the color pipeline. However, the ultimate goal was to bridge the DC color capabilities with the DRM API. For this, we changed the AMD DM, the OS-dependent layer connecting the DC interface to the DRM/KMS framework. We defined and managed driver-specific color properties, facilitated the transport of user space data to the DC, and translated DRM features and settings to the DC interface. Considerations were also made for differences in the color pipeline based on hardware capabilities.

Exploring Color Capabilities of the AMD display hardware Now, let s dive into the exciting realm of AMD color capabilities, where a abundance of techniques and tools await to make your colors look extraordinary across diverse devices. First, we need to know a little about the color transformation and calibration tools and techniques that you can find in different blocks of the AMD hardware. I borrowed some images from [2] [3] [4] to help you understand the information.

Predefined Transfer Functions (Named Fixed Curves): Transfer functions serve as the bridge between the digital and visual worlds, defining the mathematical relationship between digital color values and linear scene/display values and ensuring consistent color reproduction across different devices and media. You can learn more about curves in the chapter GPU Gems 3 - The Importance of Being Linear by Larry Gritz and Eugene d Eon. ITU-R 2100 introduces three main types of transfer functions:
  • OETF: the opto-electronic transfer function, which converts linear scene light into the video signal, typically within a camera.
  • EOTF: electro-optical transfer function, which converts the video signal into the linear light output of the display.
  • OOTF: opto-optical transfer function, which has the role of applying the rendering intent .
AMD s display driver supports the following pre-defined transfer functions (aka named fixed curves):
  • Linear/Unity: linear/identity relationship between pixel value and luminance value;
  • Gamma 2.2, Gamma 2.4, Gamma 2.6: pure power functions;
  • sRGB: 2.4: The piece-wise transfer function from IEC 61966-2-1:1999;
  • BT.709: has a linear segment in the bottom part and then a power function with a 0.45 (~1/2.22) gamma for the rest of the range; standardized by ITU-R BT.709-6;
  • PQ (Perceptual Quantizer): used for HDR display, allows luminance range capability of 0 to 10,000 nits; standardized by SMPTE ST 2084.
These capabilities vary depending on the hardware block, with some utilizing hardcoded curves and others relying on AMD s color module to construct curves from standardized coefficients. It also supports user/custom curves built from a lookup table.

1D LUTs (1-dimensional Lookup Table): A 1D LUT is a versatile tool, defining a one-dimensional color transformation based on a single parameter. It s very well explained by Jeremy Selan at GPU Gems 2 - Chapter 24 Using Lookup Tables to Accelerate Color Transformations It enables adjustments to color, brightness, and contrast, making it ideal for fine-tuning. In the Linux AMD display driver, the atomic API offers a 1D LUT with 4096 entries and 8-bit depth, while legacy gamma uses a size of 256.

3D LUTs (3-dimensional Lookup Table): These tables work in three dimensions red, green, and blue. They re perfect for complex color transformations and adjustments between color channels. It s also more complex to manage and require more computational resources. Jeremy also explains 3D LUT at GPU Gems 2 - Chapter 24 Using Lookup Tables to Accelerate Color Transformations

CTM (Color Transformation Matrices): Color transformation matrices facilitate the transition between different color spaces, playing a crucial role in color space conversion.

HDR Multiplier: HDR multiplier is a factor applied to the color values of an image to increase their overall brightness.

AMD Color Capabilities in the Hardware Pipeline First, let s take a closer look at the AMD Display Core Next hardware pipeline in the Linux kernel documentation for AMDGPU driver - Display Core Next In the AMD Display Core Next hardware pipeline, we encounter two hardware blocks with color capabilities: the Display Pipe and Plane (DPP) and the Multiple Pipe/Plane Combined (MPC). The DPP handles color adjustments per plane before blending, while the MPC engages in post-blending color adjustments. In short, we expect DPP color capabilities to match up with DRM plane properties, and MPC color capabilities to play nice with DRM CRTC properties. Note: here s the catch there are some DRM CRTC color transformations that don t have a corresponding AMD MPC color block, and vice versa. It s like a puzzle, and we re here to solve it!

AMD Color Blocks and Capabilities We can finally talk about the color capabilities of each AMD color block. As it varies based on the generation of hardware, let s take the DCN3+ family as reference. What s possible to do before and after blending depends on hardware capabilities describe in the kernel driver by struct dpp_color_caps and struct mpc_color_caps. The AMD Steam Deck hardware provides a tangible example of these capabilities. Therefore, we take SteamDeck/DCN301 driver as an example and look at the Color pipeline capabilities described in the file: driver/gpu/drm/amd/display/dcn301/dcn301_resources.c
/* Color pipeline capabilities */
dc->caps.color.dpp.dcn_arch = 1; // If it is a Display Core Next (DCN): yes. Zero means DCE.
dc->caps.color.dpp.input_lut_shared = 0;
dc->caps.color.dpp.icsc = 1; // Intput Color Space Conversion  (CSC) matrix.
dc->caps.color.dpp.dgam_ram = 0; // The old degamma block for degamma curve (hardcoded and LUT).  Gamma correction  is the new one.
dc->caps.color.dpp.dgam_rom_caps.srgb = 1; // sRGB hardcoded curve support
dc->caps.color.dpp.dgam_rom_caps.bt2020 = 1; // BT2020 hardcoded curve support (seems not actually in use)
dc->caps.color.dpp.dgam_rom_caps.gamma2_2 = 1; // Gamma 2.2 hardcoded curve support
dc->caps.color.dpp.dgam_rom_caps.pq = 1; // PQ hardcoded curve support
dc->caps.color.dpp.dgam_rom_caps.hlg = 1; // HLG hardcoded curve support
dc->caps.color.dpp.post_csc = 1; // CSC matrix
dc->caps.color.dpp.gamma_corr = 1; // New  Gamma Correction  block for degamma user LUT;
dc->caps.color.dpp.dgam_rom_for_yuv = 0;
dc->caps.color.dpp.hw_3d_lut = 1; // 3D LUT support. If so, it's always preceded by a shaper curve. 
dc->caps.color.dpp.ogam_ram = 1; //  Blend Gamma  block for custom curve just after blending
// no OGAM ROM on DCN301
dc->caps.color.dpp.ogam_rom_caps.srgb = 0;
dc->caps.color.dpp.ogam_rom_caps.bt2020 = 0;
dc->caps.color.dpp.ogam_rom_caps.gamma2_2 = 0;
dc->caps.color.dpp.ogam_rom_caps.pq = 0;
dc->caps.color.dpp.ogam_rom_caps.hlg = 0;
dc->caps.color.dpp.ocsc = 0;
dc->caps.color.mpc.gamut_remap = 1; // Post-blending CTM (pre-blending CTM is always supported)
dc->caps.color.mpc.num_3dluts = pool->base.res_cap->num_mpc_3dlut; // Post-blending 3D LUT (preceded by shaper curve)
dc->caps.color.mpc.ogam_ram = 1; // Post-blending regamma.
// No pre-defined TF supported for regamma.
dc->caps.color.mpc.ogam_rom_caps.srgb = 0;
dc->caps.color.mpc.ogam_rom_caps.bt2020 = 0;
dc->caps.color.mpc.ogam_rom_caps.gamma2_2 = 0;
dc->caps.color.mpc.ogam_rom_caps.pq = 0;
dc->caps.color.mpc.ogam_rom_caps.hlg = 0;
dc->caps.color.mpc.ocsc = 1; // Output CSC matrix.
I included some inline comments in each element of the color caps to quickly describe them, but you can find the same information in the Linux kernel documentation. See more in struct dpp_color_caps, struct mpc_color_caps and struct rom_curve_caps. Now, using this guideline, we go through color capabilities of DPP and MPC blocks and talk more about mapping driver-specific properties to corresponding color blocks.

DPP Color Pipeline: Before Blending (Per Plane) Let s explore the capabilities of DPP blocks and what you can achieve with a color block. The very first thing to pay attention is the display architecture of the display hardware: previously AMD uses a display architecture called DCE
  • Display and Compositing Engine, but newer hardware follows DCN - Display Core Next.
The architectute is described by: dc->caps.color.dpp.dcn_arch

AMD Plane Degamma: TF and 1D LUT Described by: dc->caps.color.dpp.dgam_ram, dc->caps.color.dpp.dgam_rom_caps,dc->caps.color.dpp.gamma_corr AMD Plane Degamma data is mapped to the initial stage of the DPP pipeline. It is utilized to transition from scanout/encoded values to linear values for arithmetic operations. Plane Degamma supports both pre-defined transfer functions and 1D LUTs, depending on the hardware generation. DCN2 and older families handle both types of curve in the Degamma RAM block (dc->caps.color.dpp.dgam_ram); DCN3+ separate hardcoded curves and 1D LUT into two block: Degamma ROM (dc->caps.color.dpp.dgam_rom_caps) and Gamma correction block (dc->caps.color.dpp.gamma_corr), respectively. Pre-defined transfer functions:
  • they are hardcoded curves (read-only memory - ROM);
  • supported curves: sRGB EOTF, BT.709 inverse OETF, PQ EOTF and HLG OETF, Gamma 2.2, Gamma 2.4 and Gamma 2.6 EOTF.
The 1D LUT currently accepts 4096 entries of 8-bit. The data is interpreted as an array of struct drm_color_lut elements. Setting TF = Identity/Default and LUT as NULL means bypass. References:

AMD Plane 3x4 CTM (Color Transformation Matrix) AMD Plane CTM data goes to the DPP Gamut Remap block, supporting a 3x4 fixed point (s31.32) matrix for color space conversions. The data is interpreted as a struct drm_color_ctm_3x4. Setting NULL means bypass. References:

AMD Plane Shaper: TF + 1D LUT Described by: dc->caps.color.dpp.hw_3d_lut The Shaper block fine-tunes color adjustments before applying the 3D LUT, optimizing the use of the limited entries in each dimension of the 3D LUT. On AMD hardware, a 3D LUT always means a preceding shaper 1D LUT used for delinearizing and/or normalizing the color space before applying a 3D LUT, so this entry on DPP color caps dc->caps.color.dpp.hw_3d_lut means support for both shaper 1D LUT and 3D LUT. Pre-defined transfer function enables delinearizing content with or without shaper LUT, where AMD color module calculates the resulted shaper curve. Shaper curves go from linear values to encoded values. If we are already in a non-linear space and/or don t need to normalize values, we can set a Identity TF for shaper that works similar to bypass and is also the default TF value. Pre-defined transfer functions:
  • there is no DPP Shaper ROM. Curves are calculated by AMD color modules. Check calculate_curve() function in the file amd/display/modules/color/color_gamma.c.
  • supported curves: Identity, sRGB inverse EOTF, BT.709 OETF, PQ inverse EOTF, HLG OETF, and Gamma 2.2, Gamma 2.4, Gamma 2.6 inverse EOTF.
The 1D LUT currently accepts 4096 entries of 8-bit. The data is interpreted as an array of struct drm_color_lut elements. When setting Plane Shaper TF (!= Identity) and LUT at the same time, the color module will combine the pre-defined TF and the custom LUT values into the LUT that s actually programmed. Setting TF = Identity/Default and LUT as NULL works as bypass. References:

AMD Plane 3D LUT Described by: dc->caps.color.dpp.hw_3d_lut The 3D LUT in the DPP block facilitates complex color transformations and adjustments. 3D LUT is a three-dimensional array where each element is an RGB triplet. As mentioned before, the dc->caps.color.dpp.hw_3d_lut describe if DPP 3D LUT is supported. The AMD driver-specific property advertise the size of a single dimension via LUT3D_SIZE property. Plane 3D LUT is a blog property where the data is interpreted as an array of struct drm_color_lut elements and the number of entries is LUT3D_SIZE cubic. The array contains samples from the approximated function. Values between samples are estimated by tetrahedral interpolation The array is accessed with three indices, one for each input dimension (color channel), blue being the outermost dimension, red the innermost. This distribution is better visualized when examining the code in [RFC PATCH 5/5] drm/amd/display: Fill 3D LUT from userspace by Alex Hung:
+	for (nib = 0; nib < 17; nib++)  
+		for (nig = 0; nig < 17; nig++)  
+			for (nir = 0; nir < 17; nir++)  
+				ind_lut = 3 * (nib + 17*nig + 289*nir);
+
+				rgb_area[ind].red = rgb_lib[ind_lut + 0];
+				rgb_area[ind].green = rgb_lib[ind_lut + 1];
+				rgb_area[ind].blue = rgb_lib[ind_lut + 2];
+				ind++;
+			 
+		 
+	 
In our driver-specific approach we opted to advertise it s behavior to the userspace instead of implicitly dealing with it in the kernel driver. AMD s hardware supports 3D LUTs with 17-size or 9-size (4913 and 729 entries respectively), and you can choose between 10-bit or 12-bit. In the current driver-specific work we focus on enabling only 17-size 12-bit 3D LUT, as in [PATCH v3 25/32] drm/amd/display: add plane 3D LUT support:
+		/* Stride and bit depth are not programmable by API yet.
+		 * Therefore, only supports 17x17x17 3D LUT (12-bit).
+		 */
+		lut->lut_3d.use_tetrahedral_9 = false;
+		lut->lut_3d.use_12bits = true;
+		lut->state.bits.initialized = 1;
+		__drm_3dlut_to_dc_3dlut(drm_lut, drm_lut3d_size, &lut->lut_3d,
+					lut->lut_3d.use_tetrahedral_9,
+					MAX_COLOR_3DLUT_BITDEPTH);
A refined control of 3D LUT parameters should go through a follow-up version or generic API. Setting 3D LUT to NULL means bypass. References:

AMD Plane Blend/Out Gamma: TF + 1D LUT Described by: dc->caps.color.dpp.ogam_ram The Blend/Out Gamma block applies the final touch-up before blending, allowing users to linearize content after 3D LUT and just before the blending. It supports both 1D LUT and pre-defined TF. We can see Shaper and Blend LUTs as 1D LUTs that are sandwich the 3D LUT. So, if we don t need 3D LUT transformations, we may want to only use Degamma block to linearize and skip Shaper, 3D LUT and Blend. Pre-defined transfer function:
  • there is no DPP Blend ROM. Curves are calculated by AMD color modules;
  • supported curves: Identity, sRGB EOTF, BT.709 inverse OETF, PQ EOTF, HLG inverse OETF, and Gamma 2.2, Gamma 2.4, Gamma 2.6 EOTF.
The 1D LUT currently accepts 4096 entries of 8-bit. The data is interpreted as an array of struct drm_color_lut elements. If plane_blend_tf_property != Identity TF, AMD color module will combine the user LUT values with pre-defined TF into the LUT parameters to be programmed. Setting TF = Identity/Default and LUT to NULL means bypass. References:

MPC Color Pipeline: After Blending (Per CRTC)

DRM CRTC Degamma 1D LUT The degamma lookup table (LUT) for converting framebuffer pixel data before apply the color conversion matrix. The data is interpreted as an array of struct drm_color_lut elements. Setting NULL means bypass. Not really supported. The driver is currently reusing the DPP degamma LUT block (dc->caps.color.dpp.dgam_ram and dc->caps.color.dpp.gamma_corr) for supporting DRM CRTC Degamma LUT, as explaning by [PATCH v3 20/32] drm/amd/display: reject atomic commit if setting both plane and CRTC degamma.

DRM CRTC 3x3 CTM Described by: dc->caps.color.mpc.gamut_remap It sets the current transformation matrix (CTM) apply to pixel data after the lookup through the degamma LUT and before the lookup through the gamma LUT. The data is interpreted as a struct drm_color_ctm. Setting NULL means bypass.

DRM CRTC Gamma 1D LUT + AMD CRTC Gamma TF Described by: dc->caps.color.mpc.ogam_ram After all that, you might still want to convert the content to wire encoding. No worries, in addition to DRM CRTC 1D LUT, we ve got a AMD CRTC gamma transfer function (TF) to make it happen. Possible TF values are defined by enum amdgpu_transfer_function. Pre-defined transfer functions:
  • there is no MPC Gamma ROM. Curves are calculated by AMD color modules.
  • supported curves: Identity, sRGB inverse EOTF, BT.709 OETF, PQ inverse EOTF, HLG OETF, and Gamma 2.2, Gamma 2.4, Gamma 2.6 inverse EOTF.
The 1D LUT currently accepts 4096 entries of 8-bit. The data is interpreted as an array of struct drm_color_lut elements. When setting CRTC Gamma TF (!= Identity) and LUT at the same time, the color module will combine the pre-defined TF and the custom LUT values into the LUT that s actually programmed. Setting TF = Identity/Default and LUT to NULL means bypass. References:

Others

AMD CRTC Shaper and 3D LUT We have previously worked on exposing CRTC shaper and CRTC 3D LUT, but they were removed from the AMD driver-specific color series because they lack userspace case. CRTC shaper and 3D LUT works similar to plane shaper and 3D LUT but after blending (MPC block). The difference here is that setting (not bypass) Shaper and Gamma blocks together are not expected, since both blocks are used to delinearize the input space. In summary, we either set Shaper + 3D LUT or Gamma.

Input and Output Color Space Conversion There are two other color capabilities of AMD display hardware that were integrated to DRM by previous works and worth a brief explanation here. The DC Input CSC sets pre-defined coefficients from the values of DRM plane color_range and color_encoding properties. It is used for color space conversion of the input content. On the other hand, we have de DC Output CSC (OCSC) sets pre-defined coefficients from DRM connector colorspace properties. It is uses for color space conversion of the composed image to the one supported by the sink. References:

The search for rainbow treasures is not over yet If you want to understand a little more about this work, be sure to watch Joshua and I presented two talks at XDC 2023 about AMD/Steam Deck colors on Gamescope: In the time between the first and second part of this blog post, Uma Shashank and Chaitanya Kumar Borah published the plane color pipeline for Intel and Harry Wentland implemented a generic API for DRM based on VKMS support. We discussed these two proposals and the next steps for Color on Linux during the Color Management workshop at XDC 2023 and I briefly shared workshop results in the 2023 XDC lightning talk session. The search for rainbow treasures is not over yet! We plan to meet again next year in the 2024 Display Hackfest in Coru a-Spain (Igalia s HQ) to keep up the pace and continue advancing today s display needs on Linux. Finally, a HUGE thank you to everyone who worked with me on exploring AMD s color capabilities and making them available in userspace.

22 October 2023

Daniel Lange: Removing the New Event Button from Thunderbird v115 Calendar

Thunderbird in Debian stable (Bookworm) has received Thunderbird v115.3.1 as a security update. With it comes "Supernova", a UI redesign. There is a Mozilla blogpost with a walk-through of the new UI. Unfortunately it features a super eye-catching "New Message" button that - thankfully - can be disabled. Even the whole space above the email folder pane can be recovered by disabling the folder pane header at Burger Menu ( ) -> View -> Folders -> Folder Pane Header. Unfortunately there is no way to remove the same eye-catching "New Event" button for the Calendar view via a UI setting. Thunderbird New event button, German locale This needs a user CSS file to override the button as non-visible. To make it process the user CSS Thunderbird needs a config setting to be enabled:
  1. Burger Menu ( ) -> Settings -> General
  2. Scroll down all the way
  3. Click the Config editor... button on the bottom right
  4. Accept that hell will freeze over because you configure software
  5. Search for toolkit.legacyUserProfileCustomizations.stylesheets
  6. Toggle the value to true to enable the user CSS
You can manually add user_pref("toolkit.legacyUserProfileCustomizations.stylesheets", true); to ~/.thunderbird/abcdefgh.default/prefs.js to the same effect (do this while Thunderbird is not running; replace abcdefgh with your Thunderbird profile ID). Now create a new directory ~/.thunderbird/abcdefgh.default/chrome/, again replacing abcdefgh with your profile ID. Inside the new directory create a userChrome.css file with the following content:
/* Hide Calendar New Event button */
#primaryButtonSidePanel
display: none !important;
Restart Thunderbird. And enjoy less visual obstruction when using the Calendar.

16 October 2023

Wouter Verhelst: New toy: ASUS ZenScreen Go MB16AHP

A while ago, I saw Stefano's portable monitor, and thought it was very useful. Personally, I rent a desk at an office space where I have a 27" Dell monitor; but I do sometimes use my laptop away from that desk, and then I do sometimes miss the external monitor. So a few weeks before DebConf, I bought me one myself. The one I got is about a mid-range model; there are models that are less than half the price of the one that I bought, and there are models that are more than double its price, too. ASUS has a very wide range of these monitors; the cheapest model that I could find locally is a 720p monitor that only does USB-C and requires power from the connected device, which presumably if I were to connect it to my laptop with no power connected would half its battery life. More expensive models have features such as wifi connectivity and miracast support, builtin batteries, more connection options, and touchscreen fancyness. While I think some of these features are not worth the money, I do think that a builtin battery has its uses, and that I would want a decent resolution, so I got a FullHD model with builtin battery. 20231016_215332 The device comes with a number of useful accessories: a USB-C to USB-C cable for the USB-C connectivity as well as to charge the battery; an HDMI-to-microHDMI cable for HDMI connectivity; a magnetic sleeve that doubles as a back stand; a beefy USB-A charger and USB-A-to-USB-C convertor (yes, I know); and a... pen. No, really, a pen. You can write with it. Yes, on paper. No, not a stylus. It's really a pen. Sigh, OK. This one: 20231016_222024 OK, believe me now? Good. Don't worry, I was as confused about this as you just were when I first found that pen. Why would anyone do that, I thought. So I read the manual. Not something I usually do with new hardware, but here you go. It turns out that the pen doubles as a kickstand. If you look closely at the picture of the laptop and the monitor above, you may see a little hole at the bottom right of the monitor, just to the right of the power button/LED. The pen fits right there. Now I don't know what the exact thought process was here, but I imagine it went something like this: It's an interesting concept, especially given the fact that the magnetic sleeve works very well as a stand. But hey. Anyway, the monitor is very nice; the battery lives longer than the battery of my laptop usually does, so that's good, and it allows me to have a dual-monitor setup when I'm on the road. And when I'm at the office? Well, now I have a triple-monitor setup. That works well, too.

11 October 2023

Russell Coker: The PineTime

I have just got a PineTime smart watch [1] from Pine64. They cost $US27 each which ended up as $144.63 Australian for three including postage when I ordered on the 16th of September, it s annoying that you can t order more than 3 at a time to reduce postage costs. The Australian online store Kogan has smart watches starting at about $15 [2] with Bluetooth and support for phone notifications so the $48.21 for a PineTime doesn t compare well on just price and features. The watches Kogan sells start getting into high resolution at around the $25 price and many of them have features like 24*7 heart monitoring that the PineTime lacks (it just measures when you request it). No-one would order a PineTime for being cheap or having lots of features, you order it because you want open hardware that allows you to do things your way. Also the PineTime isn t going to be orphaned while it s likely that in a few years most of the cheap watches sold by Kogan etc won t support the new phones running the latest version of Android. The screen of the PineTime is 240*240 resolution (about 260dpi) with 64k colors. The screen resolution is lower than some high-end smart watches but higher than most phones and almost all monitors. I doubt that much benefit could be gained from higher resolution. Even on minimum brightness the screen is easy to read on all but the brightest sunny days. The compute capabilities are 4.5MB of flash storage, 64k of RAM, and a 64MHz CPU this can t run Linux and nothing like it will run Linux for a long time. I ve had the PineTime for 6 days now, I charged it once and it s now at 55% battery. It looks like it will last close to 2 weeks on a single charge and it s claimed that a newer firmware will make the battery last longer. Software The main Android app for using with the PineTime is GadgetBridge which I installed from the f-droid repository. It had lots of click-through menus for allowing access to various Android features (contacts, bluetooth, draw over foreground, location, and more) but after that it was easy to setup. It was the first bluetooth device I ve used which had a 6 digit PIN for connecting to a phone. Initially I used the PineTime with my Huawei Nova 7i [3]. The aim is to eventually have it run from my PinePhonePro but my test of the PinePhonePro didn t go as well as hoped [4]. Now I m using it on my Huawei Mate 10 Pro. It comes with InfiniTime [5] installed as the default firmware, mine had 1.11.0 which is a fairly recent version. I will probably upgrade it soon to get the better power optimisation and weather alerts in the watch face. I don t have any plans to use different watch firmware and I don t have any plans to contribute to firmware development I just can t hack on every FOSS project around it s better to do big contributions to a small number of projects. For people who don t want the default firmware the Wasp-OS project seems interesting as it s written in Python [6], I don t like Python but it s very popular. Python is particularly popular in ML development, it will be interesting to see if Wasp-OS becomes a preferred platform for smart watches that talk to GPT servers. Generally the software works well, one annoyance is that when a notification goes away on the phone it remains on the PineTime and has to be manually dismissed. It would be nice if clearing notifications on the phone would clear them on the PineTime too. The music control works with RocketPlayer on Android, it displays the track name and has options for pause/play and skipping forward and backward one track. Annoyingly the current firmware doesn t allow configuring the main screens, from the primary screen you swipe down for notifications, right for settings, up for menus, and there s nothing defined for swipe left. I d like to make swipe left the command to get to music control. Hardware It has a detachable band that appears to be within the common range of watch bands. According to the PineTime Wiki page [7] there are a selection of alternate bands that will fit it, but some don t because the band is recessed into the watch. It is IP67 rated which means you can probably wear it while swimming. The charging contacts are exposed on the bottom of the case which means that any chemicals left by pool water can be cleaned off and also as they are apparently not expected to be harmed by sweat and skin oil there shouldn t be a problem charging it. I have significant experience using a Samsung Galaxy S5 Mini which is rated at IP67 in swimming pools. I had two problems with the S5 Mini when getting out of the pool, firstly water in the headphone socket made the phone consider that it was in headphone mode and turn off the speakers and secondly it took hours to become dry enough to charge and after many swims the charge rate dropped presumably due to oxide on the contacts. There are reports of success when swimming with a PineTime. Generally it feels well made and appears more solid than the cheapest Kogan devices appear to be. Conclusion If I wanted monitoring for medical reasons then I would choose a different smart watch. I ve read about people doing things like tracking their body stats 24*7 and trying to discover useful things, the PineTime is not a good option for BioHacking type use. However if I did have a need for such things I d probably just buy a second smart watch and have one on each wrist. The PineTime generally works well. It s a pity it has fewer hardware features than closed devices that are cheaper. But having a firmware that can be continually improved by the community is good. The continually expanding use of mobile phone technology devices for custom use in corporations (such as mobile phone in custom case for scanning prices etc in a supermarket) has some potential for use with this. I can imagine someone adding some custom features to a PineTime for such use. When a supermarket chain has 200,000 employees (as Woolworths in Australia does) then paying for a few months of software development work to make a smart watch do specific things for that company could provide significant value. There are probably some business opportunities for FOSS developers to hack on extra hardware on a PineTime and write software to support it. I recommend that everyone who s into FOSS buy one of these. Preferably make a deal with two friends to get the minimum postage cost.

28 September 2023

Lisandro Dami n Nicanor P rez Meyer: sd-mux-ctrl in Debian

Part of what I love to do is to play with embedded devices running Linux. And many times I need to juggle with an SD card in order to copy a filesystem to a board... until I found SDWire. SDWire v1.4, top view SDWire v1.4, bottom view This little gadget is an SD muxer: it allows you to use it as a "normal" card reader or switch the SD card to the SD card slot. So next time I need to copy contents to a SD card and then push it to a board I can just do it from the command line. Now the software to control this device was not in Debian, so I fixed that. I am keeping the code and the packaging on GitLab, as "The Tizen project is not anymore really active". At the time of writing the package was just accepted, so it might take a couple of hours to be available on the archive. Enjoy!

25 September 2023

Michael Prokop: Postfix failing with no shared cipher

I m one of the few folks left who run and maintain mail servers. Recently I had major troubles receiving mails from the mail servers used by a bank, and when asking my favourite search engine, I m clearly not the only one who ran into such an issue. Actually, I should have checked off the issue and not become a customer at that bank, but the tech nerd in me couldn t resist getting to the bottom of the problem. Since I got it working and this might be useful for others, here we are. :) I was trying to get an online banking account set up, but the corresponding account creation mail didn t arrive me, at all. Looking at my mail server logs, my postfix mail server didn t accept the mail due to:
postfix/smtpd[3319640]: warning: TLS library problem: error:1417A0C1:SSL routines:tls_post_process_client_hello:no shared cipher:../ssl/statem/statem_srvr.c:2283:
postfix/smtpd[3319640]: lost connection after STARTTLS from mx01.arz.at[193.110.182.61]
Huh, what s going on here?! Let s increase the TLS loglevel (setting smtpd_tls_loglevel = 2) and retry. But how can I retry receiving yet another mail? Luckily, on the registration website of the bank there was a URL available, that let me request a one-time password. This triggered another mail, so I did that and managed to grab this in the logs:
postfix/smtpd[3320018]: initializing the server-side TLS engine
postfix/tlsmgr[3320020]: open smtpd TLS cache btree:/var/lib/postfix/smtpd_scache
postfix/tlsmgr[3320020]: tlsmgr_cache_run_event: start TLS smtpd session cache cleanup
postfix/smtpd[3320018]: connect from mx01.arz.at[193.110.182.61]
postfix/smtpd[3320018]: setting up TLS connection from mx01.arz.at[193.110.182.61]
postfix/smtpd[3320018]: mx01.arz.at[193.110.182.61]: TLS cipher list "aNULL:-aNULL:HIGH:MEDIUM:+RC4:@STRENGTH"
postfix/smtpd[3320018]: SSL_accept:before SSL initialization
postfix/smtpd[3320018]: SSL_accept:before SSL initialization
postfix/smtpd[3320018]: SSL3 alert write:fatal:handshake failure
postfix/smtpd[3320018]: SSL_accept:error in error
postfix/smtpd[3320018]: SSL_accept error from mx01.arz.at[193.110.182.61]: -1
postfix/smtpd[3320018]: warning: TLS library problem: error:1417A0C1:SSL routines:tls_post_process_client_hello:no shared cipher:../ssl/statem/statem_srvr.c:2283:
postfix/smtpd[3320018]: lost connection after STARTTLS from mx01.arz.at[193.110.182.61]
postfix/smtpd[3320018]: disconnect from mx01.arz.at[193.110.182.61] ehlo=1 starttls=0/1 commands=1/2
postfix/smtpd[3320018]: connect from mx01.arz.at[193.110.182.61]
postfix/smtpd[3320018]: disconnect from mx01.arz.at[193.110.182.61] ehlo=1 quit=1 commands=2
Ok, so this TLS cipher list aNULL:-aNULL:HIGH:MEDIUM:+RC4:@STRENGTH looked like the tls_medium_cipherlist setting in postfix, but which ciphers might we expect? Let s see what their SMTP server would speak to us:
% testssl --cipher-per-proto -t=smtp mx01.arz.at:25
[...]
Hexcode  Cipher Suite Name (OpenSSL)       KeyExch.   Encryption  Bits     Cipher Suite Name (IANA/RFC)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
SSLv2
SSLv3
TLS 1
TLS 1.1
TLS 1.2
 xc030   ECDHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384       ECDH 256   AESGCM      256      TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384
 xc028   ECDHE-RSA-AES256-SHA384           ECDH 256   AES         256      TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA384
 xc014   ECDHE-RSA-AES256-SHA              ECDH 256   AES         256      TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA
 x9d     AES256-GCM-SHA384                 RSA        AESGCM      256      TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384
 x3d     AES256-SHA256                     RSA        AES         256      TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA256
 x35     AES256-SHA                        RSA        AES         256      TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA
 xc02f   ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256       ECDH 256   AESGCM      128      TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256
 xc027   ECDHE-RSA-AES128-SHA256           ECDH 256   AES         128      TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256
 xc013   ECDHE-RSA-AES128-SHA              ECDH 256   AES         128      TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
 x9c     AES128-GCM-SHA256                 RSA        AESGCM      128      TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256
 x3c     AES128-SHA256                     RSA        AES         128      TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256
 x2f     AES128-SHA                        RSA        AES         128      TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
TLS 1.3
Looks like a very small subset of ciphers, and they don t seem to be talking TLS v1.3 at all? Not great. :( A nice web service to verify the situation from another point of view is checktls, which also confirmed this:
[000.705] 	<-- 	220 2.0.0 Ready to start TLS
[000.705] 		STARTTLS command works on this server
[001.260] 		Connection converted to SSL
		SSLVersion in use: TLSv1_2
		Cipher in use: ECDHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384
		Perfect Forward Secrecy: yes
		Session Algorithm in use: Curve P-256 DHE(256 bits)
		Certificate #1 of 3 (sent by MX):
		Cert VALIDATED: ok
		Cert Hostname VERIFIED (mx01.arz.at = *.arz.at   DNS:*.arz.at   DNS:arz.at)
[...]
[001.517] 		TLS successfully started on this server
I got distracted by some other work, and when coming back to this problem, the one-time password procedure no longer worked, as the password reset URL was no longer valid. :( I managed to find the underlying URL, and with some web developer tools tinkering I could still use the website to let me trigger sending further one-time password mails, phew. Let s continue, so my mail server was running Debian/bullseye with postfix v3.5.18-0+deb11u1 and openssl v1.1.1n-0+deb11u5, let s see what it offers:
% testssl --cipher-per-proto -t=smtp mail.example.com:25
[...]
Hexcode  Cipher Suite Name (OpenSSL)       KeyExch.   Encryption  Bits     Cipher Suite Name (IANA/RFC)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
SSLv2
SSLv3
TLS 1
 xc00a   ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-SHA            ECDH 253   AES         256      TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA
 xc019   AECDH-AES256-SHA                  ECDH 253   AES         256      TLS_ECDH_anon_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA
 x3a     ADH-AES256-SHA                    DH 2048    AES         256      TLS_DH_anon_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA
 x89     ADH-CAMELLIA256-SHA               DH 2048    Camellia    256      TLS_DH_anon_WITH_CAMELLIA_256_CBC_SHA
 xc009   ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-SHA            ECDH 253   AES         128      TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
 xc018   AECDH-AES128-SHA                  ECDH 253   AES         128      TLS_ECDH_anon_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
 x34     ADH-AES128-SHA                    DH 2048    AES         128      TLS_DH_anon_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
 x9b     ADH-SEED-SHA                      DH 2048    SEED        128      TLS_DH_anon_WITH_SEED_CBC_SHA
 x46     ADH-CAMELLIA128-SHA               DH 2048    Camellia    128      TLS_DH_anon_WITH_CAMELLIA_128_CBC_SHA
TLS 1.1
 xc00a   ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-SHA            ECDH 253   AES         256      TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA
 xc019   AECDH-AES256-SHA                  ECDH 253   AES         256      TLS_ECDH_anon_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA
 x3a     ADH-AES256-SHA                    DH 2048    AES         256      TLS_DH_anon_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA
 x89     ADH-CAMELLIA256-SHA               DH 2048    Camellia    256      TLS_DH_anon_WITH_CAMELLIA_256_CBC_SHA
 xc009   ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-SHA            ECDH 253   AES         128      TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
 xc018   AECDH-AES128-SHA                  ECDH 253   AES         128      TLS_ECDH_anon_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
 x34     ADH-AES128-SHA                    DH 2048    AES         128      TLS_DH_anon_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
 x9b     ADH-SEED-SHA                      DH 2048    SEED        128      TLS_DH_anon_WITH_SEED_CBC_SHA
 x46     ADH-CAMELLIA128-SHA               DH 2048    Camellia    128      TLS_DH_anon_WITH_CAMELLIA_128_CBC_SHA
TLS 1.2
 xc02c   ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384     ECDH 253   AESGCM      256      TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384
 xc024   ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-SHA384         ECDH 253   AES         256      TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA384
 xc00a   ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-SHA            ECDH 253   AES         256      TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA
 xcca9   ECDHE-ECDSA-CHACHA20-POLY1305     ECDH 253   ChaCha20    256      TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_CHACHA20_POLY1305_SHA256
 xc0af   ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-CCM8           ECDH 253   AESCCM8     256      TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_256_CCM_8
 xc0ad   ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-CCM            ECDH 253   AESCCM      256      TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_256_CCM
 xc073   ECDHE-ECDSA-CAMELLIA256-SHA384    ECDH 253   Camellia    256      TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_CAMELLIA_256_CBC_SHA384
 xc019   AECDH-AES256-SHA                  ECDH 253   AES         256      TLS_ECDH_anon_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA
 xa7     ADH-AES256-GCM-SHA384             DH 2048    AESGCM      256      TLS_DH_anon_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384
 x6d     ADH-AES256-SHA256                 DH 2048    AES         256      TLS_DH_anon_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA256
 x3a     ADH-AES256-SHA                    DH 2048    AES         256      TLS_DH_anon_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA
 xc5     ADH-CAMELLIA256-SHA256            DH 2048    Camellia    256      TLS_DH_anon_WITH_CAMELLIA_256_CBC_SHA256
 x89     ADH-CAMELLIA256-SHA               DH 2048    Camellia    256      TLS_DH_anon_WITH_CAMELLIA_256_CBC_SHA
 xc05d   ECDHE-ECDSA-ARIA256-GCM-SHA384    ECDH 253   ARIAGCM     256      TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_ARIA_256_GCM_SHA384
 xc02b   ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256     ECDH 253   AESGCM      128      TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256
 xc023   ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-SHA256         ECDH 253   AES         128      TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256
 xc009   ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-SHA            ECDH 253   AES         128      TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
 xc0ae   ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-CCM8           ECDH 253   AESCCM8     128      TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_CCM_8
 xc0ac   ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-CCM            ECDH 253   AESCCM      128      TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_CCM
 xc072   ECDHE-ECDSA-CAMELLIA128-SHA256    ECDH 253   Camellia    128      TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_CAMELLIA_128_CBC_SHA256
 xc018   AECDH-AES128-SHA                  ECDH 253   AES         128      TLS_ECDH_anon_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
 xa6     ADH-AES128-GCM-SHA256             DH 2048    AESGCM      128      TLS_DH_anon_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256
 x6c     ADH-AES128-SHA256                 DH 2048    AES         128      TLS_DH_anon_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256
 x34     ADH-AES128-SHA                    DH 2048    AES         128      TLS_DH_anon_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
 xbf     ADH-CAMELLIA128-SHA256            DH 2048    Camellia    128      TLS_DH_anon_WITH_CAMELLIA_128_CBC_SHA256
 x9b     ADH-SEED-SHA                      DH 2048    SEED        128      TLS_DH_anon_WITH_SEED_CBC_SHA
 x46     ADH-CAMELLIA128-SHA               DH 2048    Camellia    128      TLS_DH_anon_WITH_CAMELLIA_128_CBC_SHA
 xc05c   ECDHE-ECDSA-ARIA128-GCM-SHA256    ECDH 253   ARIAGCM     128      TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_ARIA_128_GCM_SHA256
TLS 1.3
 x1302   TLS_AES_256_GCM_SHA384            ECDH 253   AESGCM      256      TLS_AES_256_GCM_SHA384
 x1303   TLS_CHACHA20_POLY1305_SHA256      ECDH 253   ChaCha20    256      TLS_CHACHA20_POLY1305_SHA256
 x1301   TLS_AES_128_GCM_SHA256            ECDH 253   AESGCM      128      TLS_AES_128_GCM_SHA256
Not so bad, but sadly no overlap with any of the ciphers that mx01.arz.at offers. What about disabling STARTTLS for the mx01.arz.at (+ mx02.arz.at being another one used by the relevant domain) mail servers when talking to mine? Let s try that:
% sudo postconf -nf smtpd_discard_ehlo_keyword_address_maps
smtpd_discard_ehlo_keyword_address_maps =
    hash:/etc/postfix/smtpd_discard_ehlo_keywords
% cat /etc/postfix/smtpd_discard_ehlo_keywords
# *disable* starttls for mx01.arz.at / mx02.arz.at:
193.110.182.61 starttls
193.110.182.62 starttls
But the remote mail server doesn t seem to send mails without TLS:
postfix/smtpd[4151799]: connect from mx01.arz.at[193.110.182.61]
postfix/smtpd[4151799]: discarding EHLO keywords: STARTTLS
postfix/smtpd[4151799]: disconnect from mx01.arz.at[193.110.182.61] ehlo=1 quit=1 commands=2
Let s verify this further, but without fiddling with the main mail server too much. We can add a dedicated service to postfix (see serverfault), and run it in verbose mode, to get more detailled logging:
% sudo postconf -Mf
[...]
10025      inet  n       -       -       -       -       smtpd
    -o syslog_name=postfix/smtpd/badstarttls
    -o smtpd_tls_security_level=none
    -o smtpd_helo_required=yes
    -o smtpd_helo_restrictions=pcre:/etc/postfix/helo_badstarttls_allow,reject
    -v
[...]
% cat /etc/postfix/helo_badstarttls_allow
/mx01.arz.at/ OK
/mx02.arz.at/ OK
/193.110.182.61/ OK
/193.110.182.62/ OK
We redirect the traffic from mx01.arz.at + mx02.arz.at towards our new postfix service, listening on port 10025:
% sudo iptables -t nat -A PREROUTING -p tcp -s 193.110.182.61 --dport 25 -j REDIRECT --to-port 10025
% sudo iptables -t nat -A PREROUTING -p tcp -s 193.110.182.62 --dport 25 -j REDIRECT --to-port 10025
With this setup we get very detailed logging, and it seems to confirm our suspicion that the mail server doesn t want to talk unencrypted with us:
[...]
postfix/smtpd/badstarttls/smtpd[3491900]: connect from mx01.arz.at[193.110.182.61]
[...]
postfix/smtpd/badstarttls/smtpd[3491901]: disconnect from mx01.arz.at[193.110.182.61] ehlo=1 quit=1 commands=2
postfix/smtpd/badstarttls/smtpd[3491901]: master_notify: status 1
postfix/smtpd/badstarttls/smtpd[3491901]: connection closed
[...]
Let s step back and revert those changes, back to our original postfix setup. Might the problem be related to our Let s Encrypt certificate? Let s see what we have:
% echo QUIT   openssl s_client -connect mail.example.com:25 -starttls
[...]
issuer=C = US, O = Let's Encrypt, CN = R3
---
No client certificate CA names sent
Peer signing digest: SHA384
Peer signature type: ECDSA
Server Temp Key: X25519, 253 bits
---
SSL handshake has read 4455 bytes and written 427 bytes
Verification: OK
---
New, TLSv1.3, Cipher is TLS_AES_256_GCM_SHA384
Server public key is 384 bit
[...]
We have an ECDSA based certificate, what about switching to RSA instead? Thanks to the wonderful dehydrated, this is as easy as:
% echo KEY_ALGO=rsa > certs/mail.example.com/config
% ./dehydrated -c --domain mail.example.com --force
% sudo systemctl reload postfix
With switching to RSA type key we get:
% echo QUIT   openssl s_client -connect mail.example.com:25 -starttls smtp
CONNECTED(00000003)
[...]
issuer=C = US, O = Let's Encrypt, CN = R3
---
No client certificate CA names sent
Peer signing digest: SHA256
Peer signature type: RSA-PSS
Server Temp Key: X25519, 253 bits
---
SSL handshake has read 5295 bytes and written 427 bytes
Verification: OK
---
New, TLSv1.3, Cipher is TLS_AES_256_GCM_SHA384
Server public key is 4096 bit
Which ciphers do we offer now? Let s check:
% testssl --cipher-per-proto -t=smtp mail.example.com:25
[...]
Hexcode  Cipher Suite Name (OpenSSL)       KeyExch.   Encryption  Bits     Cipher Suite Name (IANA/RFC)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
SSLv2
SSLv3
TLS 1
 xc014   ECDHE-RSA-AES256-SHA              ECDH 253   AES         256      TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA
 x39     DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA                DH 2048    AES         256      TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA
 x88     DHE-RSA-CAMELLIA256-SHA           DH 2048    Camellia    256      TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_CAMELLIA_256_CBC_SHA
 xc019   AECDH-AES256-SHA                  ECDH 253   AES         256      TLS_ECDH_anon_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA
 x3a     ADH-AES256-SHA                    DH 2048    AES         256      TLS_DH_anon_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA
 x89     ADH-CAMELLIA256-SHA               DH 2048    Camellia    256      TLS_DH_anon_WITH_CAMELLIA_256_CBC_SHA
 x35     AES256-SHA                        RSA        AES         256      TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA
 x84     CAMELLIA256-SHA                   RSA        Camellia    256      TLS_RSA_WITH_CAMELLIA_256_CBC_SHA
 xc013   ECDHE-RSA-AES128-SHA              ECDH 253   AES         128      TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
 x33     DHE-RSA-AES128-SHA                DH 2048    AES         128      TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
 x9a     DHE-RSA-SEED-SHA                  DH 2048    SEED        128      TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_SEED_CBC_SHA
 x45     DHE-RSA-CAMELLIA128-SHA           DH 2048    Camellia    128      TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_CAMELLIA_128_CBC_SHA
 xc018   AECDH-AES128-SHA                  ECDH 253   AES         128      TLS_ECDH_anon_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
 x34     ADH-AES128-SHA                    DH 2048    AES         128      TLS_DH_anon_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
 x9b     ADH-SEED-SHA                      DH 2048    SEED        128      TLS_DH_anon_WITH_SEED_CBC_SHA
 x46     ADH-CAMELLIA128-SHA               DH 2048    Camellia    128      TLS_DH_anon_WITH_CAMELLIA_128_CBC_SHA
 x2f     AES128-SHA                        RSA        AES         128      TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
 x96     SEED-SHA                          RSA        SEED        128      TLS_RSA_WITH_SEED_CBC_SHA
 x41     CAMELLIA128-SHA                   RSA        Camellia    128      TLS_RSA_WITH_CAMELLIA_128_CBC_SHA
TLS 1.1
 xc014   ECDHE-RSA-AES256-SHA              ECDH 253   AES         256      TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA
 x39     DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA                DH 2048    AES         256      TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA
 x88     DHE-RSA-CAMELLIA256-SHA           DH 2048    Camellia    256      TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_CAMELLIA_256_CBC_SHA
 xc019   AECDH-AES256-SHA                  ECDH 253   AES         256      TLS_ECDH_anon_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA
 x3a     ADH-AES256-SHA                    DH 2048    AES         256      TLS_DH_anon_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA
 x89     ADH-CAMELLIA256-SHA               DH 2048    Camellia    256      TLS_DH_anon_WITH_CAMELLIA_256_CBC_SHA
 x35     AES256-SHA                        RSA        AES         256      TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA
 x84     CAMELLIA256-SHA                   RSA        Camellia    256      TLS_RSA_WITH_CAMELLIA_256_CBC_SHA
 xc013   ECDHE-RSA-AES128-SHA              ECDH 253   AES         128      TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
 x33     DHE-RSA-AES128-SHA                DH 2048    AES         128      TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
 x9a     DHE-RSA-SEED-SHA                  DH 2048    SEED        128      TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_SEED_CBC_SHA
 x45     DHE-RSA-CAMELLIA128-SHA           DH 2048    Camellia    128      TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_CAMELLIA_128_CBC_SHA
 xc018   AECDH-AES128-SHA                  ECDH 253   AES         128      TLS_ECDH_anon_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
 x34     ADH-AES128-SHA                    DH 2048    AES         128      TLS_DH_anon_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
 x9b     ADH-SEED-SHA                      DH 2048    SEED        128      TLS_DH_anon_WITH_SEED_CBC_SHA
 x46     ADH-CAMELLIA128-SHA               DH 2048    Camellia    128      TLS_DH_anon_WITH_CAMELLIA_128_CBC_SHA
 x2f     AES128-SHA                        RSA        AES         128      TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
 x96     SEED-SHA                          RSA        SEED        128      TLS_RSA_WITH_SEED_CBC_SHA
 x41     CAMELLIA128-SHA                   RSA        Camellia    128      TLS_RSA_WITH_CAMELLIA_128_CBC_SHA
TLS 1.2
 xc030   ECDHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384       ECDH 253   AESGCM      256      TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384
 xc028   ECDHE-RSA-AES256-SHA384           ECDH 253   AES         256      TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA384
 xc014   ECDHE-RSA-AES256-SHA              ECDH 253   AES         256      TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA
 x9f     DHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384         DH 2048    AESGCM      256      TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384
 xcca8   ECDHE-RSA-CHACHA20-POLY1305       ECDH 253   ChaCha20    256      TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_CHACHA20_POLY1305_SHA256
 xccaa   DHE-RSA-CHACHA20-POLY1305         DH 2048    ChaCha20    256      TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_CHACHA20_POLY1305_SHA256
 xc0a3   DHE-RSA-AES256-CCM8               DH 2048    AESCCM8     256      TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CCM_8
 xc09f   DHE-RSA-AES256-CCM                DH 2048    AESCCM      256      TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CCM
 x6b     DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA256             DH 2048    AES         256      TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA256
 x39     DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA                DH 2048    AES         256      TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA
 xc077   ECDHE-RSA-CAMELLIA256-SHA384      ECDH 253   Camellia    256      TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_CAMELLIA_256_CBC_SHA384
 xc4     DHE-RSA-CAMELLIA256-SHA256        DH 2048    Camellia    256      TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_CAMELLIA_256_CBC_SHA256
 x88     DHE-RSA-CAMELLIA256-SHA           DH 2048    Camellia    256      TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_CAMELLIA_256_CBC_SHA
 xc019   AECDH-AES256-SHA                  ECDH 253   AES         256      TLS_ECDH_anon_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA
 xa7     ADH-AES256-GCM-SHA384             DH 2048    AESGCM      256      TLS_DH_anon_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384
 x6d     ADH-AES256-SHA256                 DH 2048    AES         256      TLS_DH_anon_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA256
 x3a     ADH-AES256-SHA                    DH 2048    AES         256      TLS_DH_anon_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA
 xc5     ADH-CAMELLIA256-SHA256            DH 2048    Camellia    256      TLS_DH_anon_WITH_CAMELLIA_256_CBC_SHA256
 x89     ADH-CAMELLIA256-SHA               DH 2048    Camellia    256      TLS_DH_anon_WITH_CAMELLIA_256_CBC_SHA
 x9d     AES256-GCM-SHA384                 RSA        AESGCM      256      TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384
 xc0a1   AES256-CCM8                       RSA        AESCCM8     256      TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CCM_8
 xc09d   AES256-CCM                        RSA        AESCCM      256      TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CCM
 x3d     AES256-SHA256                     RSA        AES         256      TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA256
 x35     AES256-SHA                        RSA        AES         256      TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA
 xc0     CAMELLIA256-SHA256                RSA        Camellia    256      TLS_RSA_WITH_CAMELLIA_256_CBC_SHA256
 x84     CAMELLIA256-SHA                   RSA        Camellia    256      TLS_RSA_WITH_CAMELLIA_256_CBC_SHA
 xc051   ARIA256-GCM-SHA384                RSA        ARIAGCM     256      TLS_RSA_WITH_ARIA_256_GCM_SHA384
 xc053   DHE-RSA-ARIA256-GCM-SHA384        DH 2048    ARIAGCM     256      TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_ARIA_256_GCM_SHA384
 xc061   ECDHE-ARIA256-GCM-SHA384          ECDH 253   ARIAGCM     256      TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_ARIA_256_GCM_SHA384
 xc02f   ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256       ECDH 253   AESGCM      128      TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256
 xc027   ECDHE-RSA-AES128-SHA256           ECDH 253   AES         128      TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256
 xc013   ECDHE-RSA-AES128-SHA              ECDH 253   AES         128      TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
 x9e     DHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256         DH 2048    AESGCM      128      TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256
 xc0a2   DHE-RSA-AES128-CCM8               DH 2048    AESCCM8     128      TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CCM_8
 xc09e   DHE-RSA-AES128-CCM                DH 2048    AESCCM      128      TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CCM
 xc0a0   AES128-CCM8                       RSA        AESCCM8     128      TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CCM_8
 xc09c   AES128-CCM                        RSA        AESCCM      128      TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CCM
 x67     DHE-RSA-AES128-SHA256             DH 2048    AES         128      TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256
 x33     DHE-RSA-AES128-SHA                DH 2048    AES         128      TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
 xc076   ECDHE-RSA-CAMELLIA128-SHA256      ECDH 253   Camellia    128      TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_CAMELLIA_128_CBC_SHA256
 xbe     DHE-RSA-CAMELLIA128-SHA256        DH 2048    Camellia    128      TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_CAMELLIA_128_CBC_SHA256
 x9a     DHE-RSA-SEED-SHA                  DH 2048    SEED        128      TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_SEED_CBC_SHA
 x45     DHE-RSA-CAMELLIA128-SHA           DH 2048    Camellia    128      TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_CAMELLIA_128_CBC_SHA
 xc018   AECDH-AES128-SHA                  ECDH 253   AES         128      TLS_ECDH_anon_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
 xa6     ADH-AES128-GCM-SHA256             DH 2048    AESGCM      128      TLS_DH_anon_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256
 x6c     ADH-AES128-SHA256                 DH 2048    AES         128      TLS_DH_anon_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256
 x34     ADH-AES128-SHA                    DH 2048    AES         128      TLS_DH_anon_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
 xbf     ADH-CAMELLIA128-SHA256            DH 2048    Camellia    128      TLS_DH_anon_WITH_CAMELLIA_128_CBC_SHA256
 x9b     ADH-SEED-SHA                      DH 2048    SEED        128      TLS_DH_anon_WITH_SEED_CBC_SHA
 x46     ADH-CAMELLIA128-SHA               DH 2048    Camellia    128      TLS_DH_anon_WITH_CAMELLIA_128_CBC_SHA
 x9c     AES128-GCM-SHA256                 RSA        AESGCM      128      TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256
 x3c     AES128-SHA256                     RSA        AES         128      TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256
 x2f     AES128-SHA                        RSA        AES         128      TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
 xba     CAMELLIA128-SHA256                RSA        Camellia    128      TLS_RSA_WITH_CAMELLIA_128_CBC_SHA256
 x96     SEED-SHA                          RSA        SEED        128      TLS_RSA_WITH_SEED_CBC_SHA
 x41     CAMELLIA128-SHA                   RSA        Camellia    128      TLS_RSA_WITH_CAMELLIA_128_CBC_SHA
 xc050   ARIA128-GCM-SHA256                RSA        ARIAGCM     128      TLS_RSA_WITH_ARIA_128_GCM_SHA256
 xc052   DHE-RSA-ARIA128-GCM-SHA256        DH 2048    ARIAGCM     128      TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_ARIA_128_GCM_SHA256
 xc060   ECDHE-ARIA128-GCM-SHA256          ECDH 253   ARIAGCM     128      TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_ARIA_128_GCM_SHA256
TLS 1.3
 x1302   TLS_AES_256_GCM_SHA384            ECDH 253   AESGCM      256      TLS_AES_256_GCM_SHA384
 x1303   TLS_CHACHA20_POLY1305_SHA256      ECDH 253   ChaCha20    256      TLS_CHACHA20_POLY1305_SHA256
 x1301   TLS_AES_128_GCM_SHA256            ECDH 253   AESGCM      128      TLS_AES_128_GCM_SHA256
With switching our SSL certificate to RSA, we gained around 51 new cipher options, amongst them being ones that also mx01.arz.at claimed to support. FTR, the result from above is what you get with the default settings for postfix v3.5.18, being:
smtpd_tls_ciphers = medium
smtpd_tls_mandatory_ciphers = medium
smtpd_tls_mandatory_exclude_ciphers =
smtpd_tls_mandatory_protocols = !SSLv2, !SSLv3
But the delay between triggering the password reset mail and getting a mail server connect was getting bigger and bigger. Therefore while waiting for the next mail to arrive, I decided to capture the network traffic, to be able to look further into this if it should continue to be failing:
% sudo tshark -n -i eth0 -s 65535 -w arz.pcap -f "host 193.110.182.61 or host 193.110.182.62"
A few hours later the mail server connected again, and the mail went through!
postfix/smtpd[4162835]: connect from mx01.arz.at[193.110.182.61]
postfix/smtpd[4162835]: Anonymous TLS connection established from mx01.arz.at[193.110.182.61]: TLSv1.2 with cipher ECDHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384 (256/256 bits)
postfix/smtpd[4162835]: E50D6401E6: client=mx01.arz.at[193.110.182.61]
postfix/smtpd[4162835]: disconnect from mx01.arz.at[193.110.182.61] ehlo=2 starttls=1 mail=1 rcpt=1 data=1 quit=1 commands=7
Now also having the captured network traffic, we can check the details there:
[...]
% tshark -o smtp.decryption:true -r arz.pcap
    1 0.000000000 193.110.182.61   203.0.113.42 TCP 74 24699   25 [SYN] Seq=0 Win=29200 Len=0 MSS=1460 SACK_PERM=1 TSval=2261106119 TSecr=0 WS=128
    2 0.000042827 203.0.113.42   193.110.182.61 TCP 74 25   24699 [SYN, ACK] Seq=0 Ack=1 Win=65160 Len=0 MSS=1460 SACK_PERM=1 TSval=3233422181 TSecr=2261106119 WS=128
    3 0.020719269 193.110.182.61   203.0.113.42 TCP 66 24699   25 [ACK] Seq=1 Ack=1 Win=29312 Len=0 TSval=2261106139 TSecr=3233422181
    4 0.022883259 203.0.113.42   193.110.182.61 SMTP 96 S: 220 mail.example.com ESMTP
    5 0.043682626 193.110.182.61   203.0.113.42 TCP 66 24699   25 [ACK] Seq=1 Ack=31 Win=29312 Len=0 TSval=2261106162 TSecr=3233422203
    6 0.043799047 193.110.182.61   203.0.113.42 SMTP 84 C: EHLO mx01.arz.at
    7 0.043811363 203.0.113.42   193.110.182.61 TCP 66 25   24699 [ACK] Seq=31 Ack=19 Win=65280 Len=0 TSval=3233422224 TSecr=2261106162
    8 0.043898412 203.0.113.42   193.110.182.61 SMTP 253 S: 250-mail.example.com   PIPELINING   SIZE 20240000   VRFY   ETRN   AUTH PLAIN   AUTH=PLAIN   ENHANCEDSTATUSCODES   8BITMIME   DSN   SMTPUTF8   CHUNKING
    9 0.064625499 193.110.182.61   203.0.113.42 SMTP 72 C: QUIT
   10 0.064750257 203.0.113.42   193.110.182.61 SMTP 81 S: 221 2.0.0 Bye
   11 0.064760200 203.0.113.42   193.110.182.61 TCP 66 25   24699 [FIN, ACK] Seq=233 Ack=25 Win=65280 Len=0 TSval=3233422245 TSecr=2261106183
   12 0.085573715 193.110.182.61   203.0.113.42 TCP 66 24699   25 [FIN, ACK] Seq=25 Ack=234 Win=30336 Len=0 TSval=2261106204 TSecr=3233422245
   13 0.085610229 203.0.113.42   193.110.182.61 TCP 66 25   24699 [ACK] Seq=234 Ack=26 Win=65280 Len=0 TSval=3233422266 TSecr=2261106204
   14 1799.888108373 193.110.182.61   203.0.113.42 TCP 74 10330   25 [SYN] Seq=0 Win=29200 Len=0 MSS=1460 SACK_PERM=1 TSval=2262906007 TSecr=0 WS=128
   15 1799.888161311 203.0.113.42   193.110.182.61 TCP 74 25   10330 [SYN, ACK] Seq=0 Ack=1 Win=65160 Len=0 MSS=1460 SACK_PERM=1 TSval=3235222069 TSecr=2262906007 WS=128
   16 1799.909030335 193.110.182.61   203.0.113.42 TCP 66 10330   25 [ACK] Seq=1 Ack=1 Win=29312 Len=0 TSval=2262906028 TSecr=3235222069
   17 1799.956621011 203.0.113.42   193.110.182.61 SMTP 96 S: 220 mail.example.com ESMTP
   18 1799.977229656 193.110.182.61   203.0.113.42 TCP 66 10330   25 [ACK] Seq=1 Ack=31 Win=29312 Len=0 TSval=2262906096 TSecr=3235222137
   19 1799.977229698 193.110.182.61   203.0.113.42 SMTP 84 C: EHLO mx01.arz.at
   20 1799.977266759 203.0.113.42   193.110.182.61 TCP 66 25   10330 [ACK] Seq=31 Ack=19 Win=65280 Len=0 TSval=3235222158 TSecr=2262906096
   21 1799.977351663 203.0.113.42   193.110.182.61 SMTP 267 S: 250-mail.example.com   PIPELINING   SIZE 20240000   VRFY   ETRN   STARTTLS   AUTH PLAIN   AUTH=PLAIN   ENHANCEDSTATUSCODES   8BITMIME   DSN   SMTPUTF8   CHUNKING
   22 1800.011494861 193.110.182.61   203.0.113.42 SMTP 76 C: STARTTLS
   23 1800.011589267 203.0.113.42   193.110.182.61 SMTP 96 S: 220 2.0.0 Ready to start TLS
   24 1800.032812294 193.110.182.61   203.0.113.42 TLSv1 223 Client Hello
   25 1800.032987264 203.0.113.42   193.110.182.61 TLSv1.2 2962 Server Hello
   26 1800.032995513 203.0.113.42   193.110.182.61 TCP 1266 25   10330 [PSH, ACK] Seq=3158 Ack=186 Win=65152 Len=1200 TSval=3235222214 TSecr=2262906151 [TCP segment of a reassembled PDU]
   27 1800.053546755 193.110.182.61   203.0.113.42 TCP 66 10330   25 [ACK] Seq=186 Ack=3158 Win=36096 Len=0 TSval=2262906172 TSecr=3235222214
   28 1800.092852469 193.110.182.61   203.0.113.42 TCP 66 10330   25 [ACK] Seq=186 Ack=4358 Win=39040 Len=0 TSval=2262906212 TSecr=3235222214
   29 1800.092892905 203.0.113.42   193.110.182.61 TLSv1.2 900 Certificate, Server Key Exchange, Server Hello Done
   30 1800.113546769 193.110.182.61   203.0.113.42 TCP 66 10330   25 [ACK] Seq=186 Ack=5192 Win=41856 Len=0 TSval=2262906232 TSecr=3235222273
   31 1800.114763363 193.110.182.61   203.0.113.42 TLSv1.2 192 Client Key Exchange, Change Cipher Spec, Encrypted Handshake Message
   32 1800.115000416 203.0.113.42   193.110.182.61 TLSv1.2 117 Change Cipher Spec, Encrypted Handshake Message
   33 1800.136070200 193.110.182.61   203.0.113.42 TLSv1.2 113 Application Data
   34 1800.136155526 203.0.113.42   193.110.182.61 TLSv1.2 282 Application Data
   35 1800.158854473 193.110.182.61   203.0.113.42 TLSv1.2 162 Application Data
   36 1800.159254794 203.0.113.42   193.110.182.61 TLSv1.2 109 Application Data
   37 1800.180286407 193.110.182.61   203.0.113.42 TLSv1.2 144 Application Data
   38 1800.223005960 203.0.113.42   193.110.182.61 TCP 66 25   10330 [ACK] Seq=5502 Ack=533 Win=65152 Len=0 TSval=3235222404 TSecr=2262906299
   39 1802.230300244 203.0.113.42   193.110.182.61 TLSv1.2 146 Application Data
   40 1802.251994333 193.110.182.61   203.0.113.42 TCP 2962 [TCP segment of a reassembled PDU]
   41 1802.252034015 203.0.113.42   193.110.182.61 TCP 66 25   10330 [ACK] Seq=5582 Ack=3429 Win=63616 Len=0 TSval=3235224433 TSecr=2262908371
   42 1802.252279083 193.110.182.61   203.0.113.42 TLSv1.2 1295 Application Data
   43 1802.252288316 203.0.113.42   193.110.182.61 TCP 66 25   10330 [ACK] Seq=5582 Ack=4658 Win=64128 Len=0 TSval=3235224433 TSecr=2262908371
   44 1802.272816060 193.110.182.61   203.0.113.42 TLSv1.2 833 Application Data, Application Data
   45 1802.272827542 203.0.113.42   193.110.182.61 TCP 66 25   10330 [ACK] Seq=5582 Ack=5425 Win=64128 Len=0 TSval=3235224453 TSecr=2262908392
   46 1802.338807683 203.0.113.42   193.110.182.61 TLSv1.2 131 Application Data
   47 1802.398968611 193.110.182.61   203.0.113.42 TCP 66 10330   25 [ACK] Seq=5425 Ack=5647 Win=44800 Len=0 TSval=2262908518 TSecr=3235224519
   48 1863.257457500 193.110.182.61   203.0.113.42 TLSv1.2 101 Application Data
   49 1863.257495688 203.0.113.42   193.110.182.61 TCP 66 25   10330 [ACK] Seq=5647 Ack=5460 Win=64128 Len=0 TSval=3235285438 TSecr=2262969376
   50 1863.257654942 203.0.113.42   193.110.182.61 TLSv1.2 110 Application Data
   51 1863.257721010 203.0.113.42   193.110.182.61 TLSv1.2 97 Encrypted Alert
   52 1863.278242216 193.110.182.61   203.0.113.42 TCP 66 10330   25 [ACK] Seq=5460 Ack=5691 Win=44800 Len=0 TSval=2262969397 TSecr=3235285438
   53 1863.278464176 193.110.182.61   203.0.113.42 TCP 66 10330   25 [RST, ACK] Seq=5460 Ack=5723 Win=44800 Len=0 TSval=2262969397 TSecr=3235285438
% tshark -O tls -r arz.pcap
[...]
Transport Layer Security
    TLSv1 Record Layer: Handshake Protocol: Client Hello
        Content Type: Handshake (22)
        Version: TLS 1.0 (0x0301)
        Length: 152
        Handshake Protocol: Client Hello
            Handshake Type: Client Hello (1)
            Length: 148
            Version: TLS 1.2 (0x0303)
            Random: 4575d1e7c93c09a564edc00b8b56ea6f5d826f8cfe78eb980c451a70a9c5123f
                GMT Unix Time: Dec  5, 2006 21:09:11.000000000 CET
                Random Bytes: c93c09a564edc00b8b56ea6f5d826f8cfe78eb980c451a70a9c5123f
            Session ID Length: 0
            Cipher Suites Length: 26
            Cipher Suites (13 suites)
                Cipher Suite: TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384 (0xc030)
                Cipher Suite: TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256 (0xc02f)
                Cipher Suite: TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA384 (0xc028)
                Cipher Suite: TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256 (0xc027)
                Cipher Suite: TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA (0xc014)
                Cipher Suite: TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA (0xc013)
                Cipher Suite: TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384 (0x009d)
                Cipher Suite: TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256 (0x009c)
                Cipher Suite: TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA256 (0x003d)
                Cipher Suite: TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256 (0x003c)
                Cipher Suite: TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA (0x0035)
                Cipher Suite: TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA (0x002f)
                Cipher Suite: TLS_EMPTY_RENEGOTIATION_INFO_SCSV (0x00ff)
[...]
Transport Layer Security
    TLSv1.2 Record Layer: Handshake Protocol: Server Hello
        Content Type: Handshake (22)
        Version: TLS 1.2 (0x0303)
        Length: 89
        Handshake Protocol: Server Hello
            Handshake Type: Server Hello (2)
            Length: 85
            Version: TLS 1.2 (0x0303)
            Random: cf2ed24e3300e95e5f56023bf8b4e5904b862bb2ed8a5796444f574e47524401
                GMT Unix Time: Feb 23, 2080 23:16:46.000000000 CET
                Random Bytes: 3300e95e5f56023bf8b4e5904b862bb2ed8a5796444f574e47524401
            Session ID Length: 32
            Session ID: 63d041b126ecebf857d685abd9d4593c46a3672e1ad76228f3eacf2164f86fb9
            Cipher Suite: TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384 (0xc030)
[...]
In this network dump we see what cipher suites are offered, and the TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384 here is the Cipher Suite Name in IANA/RFC speak. Whis corresponds to the ECDHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384 in openssl speak (see Mozilla s Mozilla s cipher suite correspondence table), which we also saw in the postfix log. Mission accomplished! :) Now, if we re interested in avoiding certain ciphers and increase security level, we can e.g. get rid of the SEED, CAMELLIA and all anonymous ciphers, and could accept only TLS v1.2 + v1.3, by further adjusting postfix s main.cf:
smtpd_tls_ciphers = high
smtpd_tls_exclude_ciphers = aNULL CAMELLIA
smtpd_tls_mandatory_ciphers = high
smtpd_tls_mandatory_protocols = TLSv1.2 TLSv1.3
smtpd_tls_protocols = TLSv1.2 TLSv1.3
Which would then gives us:
% testssl --cipher-per-proto -t=smtp mail.example.com:25
[...]
Hexcode  Cipher Suite Name (OpenSSL)       KeyExch.   Encryption  Bits     Cipher Suite Name (IANA/RFC)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
SSLv2
SSLv3
TLS 1
TLS 1.1
TLS 1.2
 xc030   ECDHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384       ECDH 253   AESGCM      256      TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384
 xc028   ECDHE-RSA-AES256-SHA384           ECDH 253   AES         256      TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA384
 xc014   ECDHE-RSA-AES256-SHA              ECDH 253   AES         256      TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA
 x9f     DHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384         DH 2048    AESGCM      256      TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384
 xcca8   ECDHE-RSA-CHACHA20-POLY1305       ECDH 253   ChaCha20    256      TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_CHACHA20_POLY1305_SHA256
 xccaa   DHE-RSA-CHACHA20-POLY1305         DH 2048    ChaCha20    256      TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_CHACHA20_POLY1305_SHA256
 xc0a3   DHE-RSA-AES256-CCM8               DH 2048    AESCCM8     256      TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CCM_8
 xc09f   DHE-RSA-AES256-CCM                DH 2048    AESCCM      256      TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CCM
 x6b     DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA256             DH 2048    AES         256      TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA256
 x39     DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA                DH 2048    AES         256      TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA
 x9d     AES256-GCM-SHA384                 RSA        AESGCM      256      TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384
 xc0a1   AES256-CCM8                       RSA        AESCCM8     256      TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CCM_8
 xc09d   AES256-CCM                        RSA        AESCCM      256      TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CCM
 x3d     AES256-SHA256                     RSA        AES         256      TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA256
 x35     AES256-SHA                        RSA        AES         256      TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA
 xc051   ARIA256-GCM-SHA384                RSA        ARIAGCM     256      TLS_RSA_WITH_ARIA_256_GCM_SHA384
 xc053   DHE-RSA-ARIA256-GCM-SHA384        DH 2048    ARIAGCM     256      TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_ARIA_256_GCM_SHA384
 xc061   ECDHE-ARIA256-GCM-SHA384          ECDH 253   ARIAGCM     256      TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_ARIA_256_GCM_SHA384
 xc02f   ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256       ECDH 253   AESGCM      128      TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256
 xc027   ECDHE-RSA-AES128-SHA256           ECDH 253   AES         128      TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256
 xc013   ECDHE-RSA-AES128-SHA              ECDH 253   AES         128      TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
 x9e     DHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256         DH 2048    AESGCM      128      TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256
 xc0a2   DHE-RSA-AES128-CCM8               DH 2048    AESCCM8     128      TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CCM_8
 xc09e   DHE-RSA-AES128-CCM                DH 2048    AESCCM      128      TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CCM
 xc0a0   AES128-CCM8                       RSA        AESCCM8     128      TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CCM_8
 xc09c   AES128-CCM                        RSA        AESCCM      128      TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CCM
 x67     DHE-RSA-AES128-SHA256             DH 2048    AES         128      TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256
 x33     DHE-RSA-AES128-SHA                DH 2048    AES         128      TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
 x9c     AES128-GCM-SHA256                 RSA        AESGCM      128      TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256
 x3c     AES128-SHA256                     RSA        AES         128      TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256
 x2f     AES128-SHA                        RSA        AES         128      TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
 xc050   ARIA128-GCM-SHA256                RSA        ARIAGCM     128      TLS_RSA_WITH_ARIA_128_GCM_SHA256
 xc052   DHE-RSA-ARIA128-GCM-SHA256        DH 2048    ARIAGCM     128      TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_ARIA_128_GCM_SHA256
 xc060   ECDHE-ARIA128-GCM-SHA256          ECDH 253   ARIAGCM     128      TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_ARIA_128_GCM_SHA256
TLS 1.3
 x1302   TLS_AES_256_GCM_SHA384            ECDH 253   AESGCM      256      TLS_AES_256_GCM_SHA384
 x1303   TLS_CHACHA20_POLY1305_SHA256      ECDH 253   ChaCha20    256      TLS_CHACHA20_POLY1305_SHA256
 x1301   TLS_AES_128_GCM_SHA256            ECDH 253   AESGCM      128      TLS_AES_128_GCM_SHA256
Don t forget to also adjust the smpt_tls_* accordingly (for your sending side). For further information see the Postfix TLS Support documentation. Also check out options like tls_ssl_options (setting it to e.g. NO_COMPRESSION) and tls_preempt_cipherlist (setting it to yes would prefer the servers order of ciphers over clients). Conclusions:

Next.