Search Results: "jas"

1 June 2020

Paul Wise: FLOSS Activities May 2020

Focus This month I didn't have any particular focus. I just worked on issues in my info bubble.

Changes

Issues

Review

Administration
  • nsntrace: talk to upstream about collaborative maintenance
  • Debian: deploy changes, debug issue with GPS markers file generation, migrate bls/DUCK from alioth-archive to salsa
  • Debian website: ran map cron job, synced mirrors
  • Debian wiki: approve accounts, ping folks with bouncing email

Communication

Sponsors The apt-offline work and the libfile-libmagic-perl backports were sponsored. All other work was done on a volunteer basis.

27 May 2020

Kees Cook: security things in Linux v5.5

Previously: v5.4. I got a bit behind on this blog post series! Let s get caught up. Here are a bunch of security things I found interesting in the Linux kernel v5.5 release: restrict perf_event_open() from LSM
Given the recurring flaws in the perf subsystem, there has been a strong desire to be able to entirely disable the interface. While the kernel.perf_event_paranoid sysctl knob has existed for a while, attempts to extend its control to block all perf_event_open() calls have failed in the past. Distribution kernels have carried the rejected sysctl patch for many years, but now Joel Fernandes has implemented a solution that was deemed acceptable: instead of extending the sysctl, add LSM hooks so that LSMs (e.g. SELinux, Apparmor, etc) can make these choices as part of their overall system policy. generic fast full refcount_t
Will Deacon took the recent refcount_t hardening work for both x86 and arm64 and distilled the implementations into a single architecture-agnostic C version. The result was almost as fast as the x86 assembly version, but it covered more cases (e.g. increment-from-zero), and is now available by default for all architectures. (There is no longer any Kconfig associated with refcount_t; the use of the primitive provides full coverage.) linker script cleanup for exception tables
When Rick Edgecombe presented his work on building Execute-Only memory under a hypervisor, he noted a region of memory that the kernel was attempting to read directly (instead of execute). He rearranged things for his x86-only patch series to work around the issue. Since I d just been working in this area, I realized the root cause of this problem was the location of the exception table (which is strictly a lookup table and is never executed) and built a fix for the issue and applied it to all architectures, since it turns out the exception tables for almost all architectures are just a data table. Hopefully this will help clear the path for more Execute-Only memory work on all architectures. In the process of this, I also updated the section fill bytes on x86 to be a trap (0xCC, int3), instead of a NOP instruction so functions would need to be targeted more precisely by attacks. KASLR for 32-bit PowerPC
Joining many other architectures, Jason Yan added kernel text base-address offset randomization (KASLR) to 32-bit PowerPC. seccomp for RISC-V
After a bit of long road, David Abdurachmanov has added seccomp support to the RISC-V architecture. The series uncovered some more corner cases in the seccomp self tests code, which is always nice since then we get to make it more robust for the future! seccomp USER_NOTIF continuation
When the seccomp SECCOMP_RET_USER_NOTIF interface was added, it seemed like it would only be used in very limited conditions, so the idea of needing to handle normal requests didn t seem very onerous. However, since then, it has become clear that the overhead of a monitor process needing to perform lots of normal open() calls on behalf of the monitored process started to look more and more slow and fragile. To deal with this, it became clear that there needed to be a way for the USER_NOTIF interface to indicate that seccomp should just continue as normal and allow the syscall without any special handling. Christian Brauner implemented SECCOMP_USER_NOTIF_FLAG_CONTINUE to get this done. It comes with a bit of a disclaimer due to the chance that monitors may use it in places where ToCToU is a risk, and for possible conflicts with SECCOMP_RET_TRACE. But overall, this is a net win for container monitoring tools. EFI_RNG_PROTOCOL for x86
Some EFI systems provide a Random Number Generator interface, which is useful for gaining some entropy in the kernel during very early boot. The arm64 boot stub has been using this for a while now, but Dominik Brodowski has now added support for x86 to do the same. This entropy is useful for kernel subsystems performing very earlier initialization whre random numbers are needed (like randomizing aspects of the SLUB memory allocator). FORTIFY_SOURCE for MIPS
As has been enabled on many other architectures, Dmitry Korotin got MIPS building with CONFIG_FORTIFY_SOURCE, so compile-time (and some run-time) buffer overflows during calls to the memcpy() and strcpy() families of functions will be detected. limit copy_ to,from _user() size to INT_MAX
As done for VFS, vsnprintf(), and strscpy(), I went ahead and limited the size of copy_to_user() and copy_from_user() calls to INT_MAX in order to catch any weird overflows in size calculations. Other things
Alexander Popov pointed out some more v5.5 features that I missed in this blog post. I m repeating them here, with some minor edits/clarifications. Thank you Alexander! Edit: added Alexander Popov s notes That s it for v5.5! Let me know if there s anything else that I should call out here. Next up: Linux v5.6.

2020, Kees Cook. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License.
Creative Commons License

13 November 2017

Markus Koschany: My Free Software Activities in October 2017

Welcome to gambaru.de. Here is my monthly report that covers what I have been doing for Debian. If you re interested in Java, Games and LTS topics, this might be interesting for you. Debian Games Debian Java Debian LTS This was my twentieth month as a paid contributor and I have been paid to work 19 hours on Debian LTS, a project started by Rapha l Hertzog. I will catch up with the remaining 1,75 hours in November. In that time I did the following: Misc Thanks for reading and see you next time.

3 November 2017

Joerg Jaspert: Automated wifi login, update 2

Seems my blog lately just consist of updates to my automated login script for the ICE wifi But I do hate the entirely useless Click a button crap, every day, twice. I ve seen it once, now leave me alone, please. Updated script:
#!/bin/bash
# (Some) docs at
# https://wiki.ubuntuusers.de/NetworkManager/Dispatcher/
IFACE=$ 1:-"none" 
ACTION=$ 2:-"up" 
TMPDIR=$ TMPDIR:-"/tmp" 
WGET="/usr/bin/wget"
TIMEOUT="/usr/bin/timeout -k 20 15"
case $ ACTION  in
    up)
        CONID=$ CONNECTION_ID:-$(iwconfig $IFACE   grep ESSID   cut -d":" -f2   sed 's/^[^"]*"\ "[^"]*$//g') 
        if [[ $ CONID  == WIFIonICE ]]; then
            REFERER="http://www.wifionice.de/de/"
            LOGIN="http://www.wifionice.de/de/"
            COOKIETMP=$(mktemp -p $ TMPDIR  nmwifionice.XXXXXXXXX)
            trap "rm -f $ COOKIETMP " EXIT TERM HUP INT QUIT
            csrftoken=$($ TIMEOUT  $ WGET  -q -O - --keep-session-cookies --save-cookies=$ COOKIETMP  --referer $ REFERER  $ LOGIN     grep -oP  'CSRFToken"\ value="\K[0-9a-z]+')
            if [[ -z $ csrftoken  ]]; then
                echo "CSRFToken is empty"
                exit 0
            fi
            sleep 1
            $ TIMEOUT  $ WGET  -q -O - --load-cookies=$ COOKIETMP  --post-data="login=true&connect=connect&CSRFToken=$ csrftoken " --referer $ REFERER  $ LOGIN  >/dev/null
        fi
        ;;
    *)
        # We are not interested in this
        :
        ;;
esac

2 November 2017

Antoine Beaupr : October 2017 report: LTS, feed2exec beta, pandoc filters, git mediawiki

Debian Long Term Support (LTS) This is my monthly Debian LTS report. This time I worked on the famous KRACK attack, git-annex, golang and the continuous stream of GraphicsMagick security issues.

WPA & KRACK update I spent most of my time this month on the Linux WPA code, to backport it to the old (~2012) wpa_supplicant release. I first published a patchset based on the patches shipped after the embargo for the oldstable/jessie release. After feedback from the list, I also built packages for i386 and ARM. I have also reviewed the WPA protocol to make sure I understood the implications of the changes required to backport the patches. For example, I removed the patches touching the WNM sleep mode code as that was introduced only in the 2.0 release. Chunks of code regarding state tracking were also not backported as they are part of the state tracking code introduced later, in 3ff3323. Finally, I still have concerns about the nonce setup in patch #5. In the last chunk, you'll notice peer->tk is reset, to_set to negotiate a new TK. The other approach I considered was to backport 1380fcbd9f ("TDLS: Do not modify RNonce for an TPK M1 frame with same INonce") but I figured I would play it safe and not introduce further variations. I should note that I share Matthew Green's observations regarding the opacity of the protocol. Normally, network protocols are freely available and security researchers like me can easily review them. In this case, I would have needed to read the opaque 802.11i-2004 pdf which is behind a TOS wall at the IEEE. I ended up reading up on the IEEE_802.11i-2004 Wikipedia article which gives a simpler view of the protocol. But it's a real problem to see such critical protocols developed behind closed doors like this. At Guido's suggestion, I sent the final patch upstream explaining the concerns I had with the patch. I have not, at the time of writing, received any response from upstream about this, unfortunately. I uploaded the fixed packages as DLA 1150-1 on October 31st.

Git-annex The next big chunk on my list was completing the work on git-annex (CVE-2017-12976) that I started in August. It turns out doing the backport was simpler than I expected, even with my rusty experience with Haskell. Type-checking really helps in doing the right thing, especially considering how Joey Hess implemented the fix: by introducing a new type. So I backported the patch from upstream and notified the security team that the jessie and stretch updates would be similarly easy. I shipped the backport to LTS as DLA-1144-1. I also shared the updated packages for jessie (which required a similar backport) and stretch (which didn't) and those Sebastien Delafond published those as DSA 4010-1.

Graphicsmagick Up next was yet another security vulnerability in the Graphicsmagick stack. This involved the usual deep dive into intricate and sometimes just unreasonable C code to try and fit a round tree in a square sinkhole. I'm always unsure about those patches, but the test suite passes, smoke tests show the vulnerability as fixed, and that's pretty much as good as it gets. The announcement (DLA 1154-1) turned out to be a little special because I had previously noticed that the penultimate announcement (DLA 1130-1) was never sent out. So I made a merged announcement to cover both instead of re-sending the original 3 weeks late, which may have been confusing for our users.

Triage & misc We always do a bit of triage even when not on frontdesk duty, so I: I also did smaller bits of work on: The latter reminded me of the concerns I have about the long-term maintainability of the golang ecosystem: because everything is statically linked, an update to a core library (say the SMTP library as in CVE-2017-15042, thankfully not affecting LTS) requires a full rebuild of all packages including the library in all distributions. So what would be a simple update in a shared library system could mean an explosion of work on statically linked infrastructures. This is a lot of work which can definitely be error-prone: as I've seen in other updates, some packages (for example the Ruby interpreter) just bit-rot on their own and eventually fail to build from source. We would also have to investigate all packages to see which one include the library, something which we are not well equipped for at this point. Wheezy was the first release shipping golang packages but at least it's shipping only one... Stretch has shipped with two golang versions (1.7 and 1.8) which will make maintenance ever harder in the long term.
We build our computers the way we build our cities--over time, without a plan, on top of ruins. - Ellen Ullman

Other free software work This month again, I was busy doing some serious yak shaving operations all over the internet, on top of publishing two of my largest LWN articles to date (2017-10-16-strategies-offline-pgp-key-storage and 2017-10-26-comparison-cryptographic-keycards).

feed2exec beta Since I announced this new project last month I have released it as a beta and it entered Debian. I have also wrote useful plugins like the wayback plugin that saves pages on the Wayback machine for eternal archival. The archive plugin can also similarly save pages to the local filesystem. I also added bash completion, expanded unit tests and documentation, fixed default file paths and a bunch of bugs, and refactored the code. Finally, I also started using two external Python libraries instead of rolling my own code: the pyxdg and requests-file libraries, the latter which I packaged in Debian (and fixed a bug in their test suite). The program is working pretty well for me. The only thing I feel is really missing now is a retry/fail mechanism. Right now, it's a little brittle: any network hiccup will yield an error email, which are readable to me but could be confusing to a new user. Strangely enough, I am particularly having trouble with (local!) DNS resolution that I need to look into, but that is probably unrelated with the software itself. Thankfully, the user can disable those with --loglevel=ERROR to silence WARNINGs. Furthermore, some plugins still have some rough edges. For example, The Transmission integration would probably work better as a distinct plugin instead of a simple exec call, because when it adds new torrents, the output is totally cryptic. That plugin could also leverage more feed parameters to save different files in different locations depending on the feed titles, something would be hard to do safely with the exec plugin now. I am keeping a steady flow of releases. I wish there was a way to see how effective I am at reaching out with this project, but unfortunately GitLab doesn't provide usage statistics... And I have received only a few comments on IRC about the project, so maybe I need to reach out more like it says in the fine manual. Always feels strange to have to promote your project like it's some new bubbly soap... Next steps for the project is a final review of the API and release production-ready 1.0.0. I am also thinking of making a small screencast to show the basic capabilities of the software, maybe with asciinema's upcoming audio support?

Pandoc filters As I mentioned earlier, I dove again in Haskell programming when working on the git-annex security update. But I also have a small Haskell program of my own - a Pandoc filter that I use to convert the HTML articles I publish on LWN.net into a Ikiwiki-compatible markdown version. It turns out the script was still missing a bunch of stuff: image sizes, proper table formatting, etc. I also worked hard on automating more bits of the publishing workflow by extracting the time from the article which allowed me to simply extract the full article into an almost final copy just by specifying the article ID. The only thing left is to add tags, and the article is complete. In the process, I learned about new weird Haskell constructs. Take this code, for example:
-- remove needless blockquote wrapper around some tables
--
-- haskell newbie tips:
--
-- @ is the "at-pattern", allows us to define both a name for the
-- construct and inspect the contents as once
--
--   is the "empty record pattern": it basically means "match the
-- arguments but ignore the args"
cleanBlock (BlockQuote t@[Table  ]) = t
Here the idea is to remove <blockquote> elements needlessly wrapping a <table>. I can't specify the Table type on its own, because then I couldn't address the table as a whole, only its parts. I could reconstruct the whole table bits by bits, but it wasn't as clean. The other pattern was how to, at last, address multiple string elements, which was difficult because Pandoc treats spaces specially:
cleanBlock (Plain (Strong (Str "Notifications":Space:Str "for":Space:Str "all":Space:Str "responses":_):_)) = []
The last bit that drove me crazy was the date parsing:
-- the "GAByline" div has a date, use it to generate the ikiwiki dates
--
-- this is distinct from cleanBlock because we do not want to have to
-- deal with time there: it is only here we need it, and we need to
-- pass it in here because we do not want to mess with IO (time is I/O
-- in haskell) all across the function hierarchy
cleanDates :: ZonedTime -> Block -> [Block]
-- this mouthful is just the way the data comes in from
-- LWN/Pandoc. there could be a cleaner way to represent this,
-- possibly with a record, but this is complicated and obscure enough.
cleanDates time (Div (_, [cls], _)
                 [Para [Str month, Space, Str day, Space, Str year], Para _])
    cls == "GAByline" = ikiwikiRawInline (ikiwikiMetaField "date"
                                           (iso8601Format (parseTimeOrError True defaultTimeLocale "%Y-%B-%e,"
                                                           (year ++ "-" ++ month ++ "-" ++ day) :: ZonedTime)))
                        ++ ikiwikiRawInline (ikiwikiMetaField "updated"
                                             (iso8601Format time))
                        ++ [Para []]
-- other elements just pass through
cleanDates time x = [x]
Now that seems just dirty, but it was even worse before. One thing I find difficult in adapting to coding in Haskell is that you need to take the habit of writing smaller functions. The language is really not well adapted to long discourse: it's more about getting small things connected together. Other languages (e.g. Python) discourage this because there's some overhead in calling functions (10 nanoseconds in my tests, but still), whereas functions are a fundamental and important construction in Haskell that are much more heavily optimized. So I constantly need to remind myself to split things up early, otherwise I can't do anything in Haskell. Other languages are more lenient, which does mean my code can be more dirty, but I feel get things done faster then. The oddity of Haskell makes frustrating to work with. It's like doing construction work but you're not allowed to get the floor dirty. When I build stuff, I don't mind things being dirty: I can cleanup afterwards. This is especially critical when you don't actually know how to make things clean in the first place, as Haskell will simply not let you do that at all. And obviously, I fought with Monads, or, more specifically, "I/O" or IO in this case. Turns out that getting the current time is IO in Haskell: indeed, it's not a "pure" function that will always return the same thing. But this means that I would have had to change the signature of all the functions that touched time to include IO. I eventually moved the time initialization up into main so that I had only one IO function and moved that timestamp downwards as simple argument. That way I could keep the rest of the code clean, which seems to be an acceptable pattern. I would of course be happy to get feedback from my Haskell readers (if any) to see how to improve that code. I am always eager to learn.

Git remote MediaWiki Few people know that there is a MediaWiki remote for Git which allow you to mirror a MediaWiki site as a Git repository. As a disaster recovery mechanism, I have been keeping such a historical backup of the Amateur radio wiki for a while now. This originally started as a homegrown Python script to also convert the contents in Markdown. My theory then was to see if we could switch from Mediawiki to Ikiwiki, but it took so long to implement that I never completed the work. When someone had the weird idea of renaming a page to some impossible long name on the wiki, my script broke. I tried to look at fixing it and then remember I also had a mirror running using the Git remote. It turns out it also broke on the same issue and that got me looking in the remote again. I got lost in a zillion issues, including fixing that specific issue, but I especially looked at the possibility of fetching all namespaces because I realized that the remote fetches only a part of the wiki by default. And that drove me to submit namespace support as a patch to the git mailing list. Finally, the discussion came back to how to actually maintain that contrib: in git core or outside? Finally, it looks like I'll be doing some maintenance that project outside of git, as I was granted access to the GitHub organisation...

Galore Yak Shaving Then there's the usual hodgepodge of fixes and random things I did over the month.
There is no [web extension] only XUL! - Inside joke

1 October 2017

Thorsten Alteholz: My Debian Activities in September 2017

FTP assistant This month almost the same numbers as last month appeared in the statistics. I accepted 213 packages and rejected 15 uploads. The overall number of packages that got accepted this month was 425. Debian LTS This was my thirty-ninth month that I did some work for the Debian LTS initiative, started by Raphael Hertzog at Freexian. This month my all in all workload has been 15.75h. During that time I did LTS uploads of: I also took care of libstrusts1.2-java and marked all CVEs as not-affected and I marked all CVEs for jasper as no-dsa. I also started to work on sam2p. Just as I wanted to upload a new version of libofx, a new CVE was discovered that was not closed in time. I tried to find a patch on my own but had difficulties in reproducing this issue. Other stuff This month I made myself familiar with glewlwyd and according to upstream, the Debian packages work out-of-the box. However upstream does not stop working on that software, so I uploaded new versions of hoel, ulfius and glewlwyd. As libjwt needs libb64, which was orphanded, I used it as DOPOM and adopted it. Does anybody still know the Mayhem-bugs? I could close one by uploading an updated version of siggen. I also went through my packages and looked for patches that piled up in the BTS. As a result i uploaded updated versions of radlib, te923con, node-starttls, harminv and uucp. New upstream versions of openoverlayrouter and fasttree also made it into the archive. Last but not least I moved several packages to the debian-mobcom group.

24 July 2017

Joerg Jaspert: Automated wifi login, update

With recent changes the automated login script for WifiOnICE stopped working. Fortunately a fix is easy, it is enough to add a referrer header to the call and have de/ added to the url. Updated script:
#!/bin/bash
# (Some) docs at
# https://wiki.ubuntuusers.de/NetworkManager/Dispatcher/
IFACE=$ 1:-"none" 
ACTION=$ 2:-"up" 
case $ ACTION  in
    up)
        CONID=$ CONNECTION_ID:-$(iwgetid "$ IFACE " -r) 
        if [[ $ CONID  == WIFIonICE ]]; then
            /usr/bin/timeout -k 20 15 /usr/bin/wget -q -O - --referer http://www.wifionice.de/de/ http://www.wifionice.de/de/?login > /dev/null
        fi
        ;;
    *)
        # We are not interested in this
        :
        ;;
esac

18 June 2017

Simon Josefsson: OpenPGP smartcard under GNOME on Debian 9.0 Stretch

I installed Debian 9.0 Stretch on my Lenovo X201 laptop today. Installation went smooth, as usual. GnuPG/SSH with an OpenPGP smartcard I use a YubiKey NEO does not work out of the box with GNOME though. I wrote about how to fix OpenPGP smartcards under GNOME with Debian 8.0 Jessie earlier, and I thought I d do a similar blog post for Debian 9.0 Stretch . The situation is slightly different than before (e.g., GnuPG works better but SSH doesn t) so there is some progress. May I hope that Debian 10.0 Buster gets this right? Pointers to which package in Debian should have a bug report tracking this issue is welcome (or a pointer to an existing bug report). After first login, I attempt to use gpg --card-status to check if GnuPG can talk to the smartcard.
jas@latte:~$ gpg --card-status
gpg: error getting version from 'scdaemon': No SmartCard daemon
gpg: OpenPGP card not available: No SmartCard daemon
jas@latte:~$ 
This fails because scdaemon is not installed. Isn t a smartcard common enough so that this should be installed by default on a GNOME Desktop Debian installation? Anyway, install it as follows.
root@latte:~# apt-get install scdaemon
Then try again.
jas@latte:~$ gpg --card-status
gpg: selecting openpgp failed: No such device
gpg: OpenPGP card not available: No such device
jas@latte:~$ 
I believe scdaemon here attempts to use its internal CCID implementation, and I do not know why it does not work. At this point I often recall that want pcscd installed since I work with smartcards in general.
root@latte:~# apt-get install pcscd
Now gpg --card-status works!
jas@latte:~$ gpg --card-status
Reader ...........: Yubico Yubikey NEO CCID 00 00
Application ID ...: D2760001240102000006017403230000
Version ..........: 2.0
Manufacturer .....: Yubico
Serial number ....: 01740323
Name of cardholder: Simon Josefsson
Language prefs ...: sv
Sex ..............: male
URL of public key : https://josefsson.org/54265e8c.txt
Login data .......: jas
Signature PIN ....: not forced
Key attributes ...: rsa2048 rsa2048 rsa2048
Max. PIN lengths .: 127 127 127
PIN retry counter : 3 3 3
Signature counter : 8358
Signature key ....: 9941 5CE1 905D 0E55 A9F8  8026 860B 7FBB 32F8 119D
      created ....: 2014-06-22 19:19:04
Encryption key....: DC9F 9B7D 8831 692A A852  D95B 9535 162A 78EC D86B
      created ....: 2014-06-22 19:19:20
Authentication key: 2E08 856F 4B22 2148 A40A  3E45 AF66 08D7 36BA 8F9B
      created ....: 2014-06-22 19:19:41
General key info..: sub  rsa2048/860B7FBB32F8119D 2014-06-22 Simon Josefsson 
sec#  rsa3744/0664A76954265E8C  created: 2014-06-22  expires: 2017-09-04
ssb>  rsa2048/860B7FBB32F8119D  created: 2014-06-22  expires: 2017-09-04
                                card-no: 0006 01740323
ssb>  rsa2048/9535162A78ECD86B  created: 2014-06-22  expires: 2017-09-04
                                card-no: 0006 01740323
ssb>  rsa2048/AF6608D736BA8F9B  created: 2014-06-22  expires: 2017-09-04
                                card-no: 0006 01740323
jas@latte:~$ 
Using the key will not work though.
jas@latte:~$ echo foo gpg -a --sign
gpg: no default secret key: No secret key
gpg: signing failed: No secret key
jas@latte:~$ 
This is because the public key and the secret key stub are not available.
jas@latte:~$ gpg --list-keys
jas@latte:~$ gpg --list-secret-keys
jas@latte:~$ 
You need to import the key for this to work. I have some vague memory that gpg --card-status was supposed to do this, but I may be wrong.
jas@latte:~$ gpg --recv-keys 9AA9BDB11BB1B99A21285A330664A76954265E8C
gpg: failed to start the dirmngr '/usr/bin/dirmngr': No such file or directory
gpg: connecting dirmngr at '/run/user/1000/gnupg/S.dirmngr' failed: No such file or directory
gpg: keyserver receive failed: No dirmngr
jas@latte:~$ 
Surprisingly, dirmngr is also not shipped by default so it has to be installed manually.
root@latte:~# apt-get install dirmngr
Below I proceed to trust the clouds to find my key.
jas@latte:~$ gpg --recv-keys 9AA9BDB11BB1B99A21285A330664A76954265E8C
gpg: key 0664A76954265E8C: public key "Simon Josefsson " imported
gpg: no ultimately trusted keys found
gpg: Total number processed: 1
gpg:               imported: 1
jas@latte:~$ 
Now the public key and the secret key stub are available locally.
jas@latte:~$ gpg --list-keys
/home/jas/.gnupg/pubring.kbx
----------------------------
pub   rsa3744 2014-06-22 [SC] [expires: 2017-09-04]
      9AA9BDB11BB1B99A21285A330664A76954265E8C
uid           [ unknown] Simon Josefsson 
uid           [ unknown] Simon Josefsson 
sub   rsa2048 2014-06-22 [S] [expires: 2017-09-04]
sub   rsa2048 2014-06-22 [E] [expires: 2017-09-04]
sub   rsa2048 2014-06-22 [A] [expires: 2017-09-04]
jas@latte:~$ gpg --list-secret-keys
/home/jas/.gnupg/pubring.kbx
----------------------------
sec#  rsa3744 2014-06-22 [SC] [expires: 2017-09-04]
      9AA9BDB11BB1B99A21285A330664A76954265E8C
uid           [ unknown] Simon Josefsson 
uid           [ unknown] Simon Josefsson 
ssb>  rsa2048 2014-06-22 [S] [expires: 2017-09-04]
ssb>  rsa2048 2014-06-22 [E] [expires: 2017-09-04]
ssb>  rsa2048 2014-06-22 [A] [expires: 2017-09-04]
jas@latte:~$ 
I am now able to sign data with the smartcard, yay!
jas@latte:~$ echo foo gpg -a --sign
-----BEGIN PGP MESSAGE-----
owGbwMvMwMHYxl2/2+iH4FzG01xJDJFu3+XT8vO5OhmNWRgYORhkxRRZZjrGPJwQ
yxe68keDGkwxKxNIJQMXpwBMRJGd/a98NMPJQt6jaoyO9yUVlmS7s7qm+Kjwr53G
uq9wQ+z+/kOdk9w4Q39+SMvc+mEV72kuH9WaW9bVqj80jN77hUbfTn5mffu2/aVL
h/IneTfaOQaukHij/P8A0//Phg/maWbONUjjySrl+a3tP8ll6/oeCd8g/aeTlH79
i0naanjW4bjv9wnvGuN+LPHLmhUc2zvZdyK3xttN/roHvsdX3f53yTAxeInvXZmd
x7W0/hVPX33Y4nT877T/ak4L057IBSavaPVcf4yhglVI8XuGgaTP666Wuslbliy4
5W5eLasbd33Xd/W0hTINznuz0kJ4r1bLHZW9fvjLduMPq5rS2co9tvW8nX9rhZ/D
zycu/QA=
=I8rt
-----END PGP MESSAGE-----
jas@latte:~$ 
Encrypting to myself will not work smoothly though.
jas@latte:~$ echo foo gpg -a --encrypt -r simon@josefsson.org
gpg: 9535162A78ECD86B: There is no assurance this key belongs to the named user
sub  rsa2048/9535162A78ECD86B 2014-06-22 Simon Josefsson 
 Primary key fingerprint: 9AA9 BDB1 1BB1 B99A 2128  5A33 0664 A769 5426 5E8C
      Subkey fingerprint: DC9F 9B7D 8831 692A A852  D95B 9535 162A 78EC D86B
It is NOT certain that the key belongs to the person named
in the user ID.  If you *really* know what you are doing,
you may answer the next question with yes.
Use this key anyway? (y/N) 
gpg: signal Interrupt caught ... exiting
jas@latte:~$ 
The reason is that the newly imported key has unknown trust settings. I update the trust settings on my key to fix this, and encrypting now works without a prompt.
jas@latte:~$ gpg --edit-key 9AA9BDB11BB1B99A21285A330664A76954265E8C
gpg (GnuPG) 2.1.18; Copyright (C) 2017 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.
There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.
Secret key is available.
pub  rsa3744/0664A76954265E8C
     created: 2014-06-22  expires: 2017-09-04  usage: SC  
     trust: unknown       validity: unknown
ssb  rsa2048/860B7FBB32F8119D
     created: 2014-06-22  expires: 2017-09-04  usage: S   
     card-no: 0006 01740323
ssb  rsa2048/9535162A78ECD86B
     created: 2014-06-22  expires: 2017-09-04  usage: E   
     card-no: 0006 01740323
ssb  rsa2048/AF6608D736BA8F9B
     created: 2014-06-22  expires: 2017-09-04  usage: A   
     card-no: 0006 01740323
[ unknown] (1). Simon Josefsson 
[ unknown] (2)  Simon Josefsson 
gpg> trust
pub  rsa3744/0664A76954265E8C
     created: 2014-06-22  expires: 2017-09-04  usage: SC  
     trust: unknown       validity: unknown
ssb  rsa2048/860B7FBB32F8119D
     created: 2014-06-22  expires: 2017-09-04  usage: S   
     card-no: 0006 01740323
ssb  rsa2048/9535162A78ECD86B
     created: 2014-06-22  expires: 2017-09-04  usage: E   
     card-no: 0006 01740323
ssb  rsa2048/AF6608D736BA8F9B
     created: 2014-06-22  expires: 2017-09-04  usage: A   
     card-no: 0006 01740323
[ unknown] (1). Simon Josefsson 
[ unknown] (2)  Simon Josefsson 
Please decide how far you trust this user to correctly verify other users' keys
(by looking at passports, checking fingerprints from different sources, etc.)
  1 = I don't know or won't say
  2 = I do NOT trust
  3 = I trust marginally
  4 = I trust fully
  5 = I trust ultimately
  m = back to the main menu
Your decision? 5
Do you really want to set this key to ultimate trust? (y/N) y
pub  rsa3744/0664A76954265E8C
     created: 2014-06-22  expires: 2017-09-04  usage: SC  
     trust: ultimate      validity: unknown
ssb  rsa2048/860B7FBB32F8119D
     created: 2014-06-22  expires: 2017-09-04  usage: S   
     card-no: 0006 01740323
ssb  rsa2048/9535162A78ECD86B
     created: 2014-06-22  expires: 2017-09-04  usage: E   
     card-no: 0006 01740323
ssb  rsa2048/AF6608D736BA8F9B
     created: 2014-06-22  expires: 2017-09-04  usage: A   
     card-no: 0006 01740323
[ unknown] (1). Simon Josefsson 
[ unknown] (2)  Simon Josefsson 
Please note that the shown key validity is not necessarily correct
unless you restart the program.
gpg> quit
jas@latte:~$ echo foo gpg -a --encrypt -r simon@josefsson.org
-----BEGIN PGP MESSAGE-----
hQEMA5U1Fip47NhrAQgArTvAykj/YRhWVuXb6nzeEigtlvKFSmGHmbNkJgF5+r1/
/hWENR72wsb1L0ROaLIjM3iIwNmyBURMiG+xV8ZE03VNbJdORW+S0fO6Ck4FaIj8
iL2/CXyp1obq1xCeYjdPf2nrz/P2Evu69s1K2/0i9y2KOK+0+u9fEGdAge8Gup6y
PWFDFkNj2YiVa383BqJ+kV51tfquw+T4y5MfVWBoHlhm46GgwjIxXiI+uBa655IM
EgwrONcZTbAWSV4/ShhR9ug9AzGIJgpu9x8k2i+yKcBsgAh/+d8v7joUaPRZlGIr
kim217hpA3/VLIFxTTkkm/BO1KWBlblxvVaL3RZDDNI5AVp0SASswqBqT3W5ew+K
nKdQ6UTMhEFe8xddsLjkI9+AzHfiuDCDxnxNgI1haI6obp9eeouGXUKG
=s6kt
-----END PGP MESSAGE-----
jas@latte:~$ 
So everything is fine, isn t it? Alas, not quite.
jas@latte:~$ ssh-add -L
The agent has no identities.
jas@latte:~$ 
Tracking this down, I now realize that GNOME s keyring is used for SSH but GnuPG s gpg-agent is used for GnuPG. GnuPG uses the environment variable GPG_AGENT_INFO to connect to an agent, and SSH uses the SSH_AUTH_SOCK environment variable to find its agent. The filenames used below leak the knowledge that gpg-agent is used for GnuPG but GNOME keyring is used for SSH.
jas@latte:~$ echo $GPG_AGENT_INFO 
/run/user/1000/gnupg/S.gpg-agent:0:1
jas@latte:~$ echo $SSH_AUTH_SOCK 
/run/user/1000/keyring/ssh
jas@latte:~$ 
Here the same recipe as in my previous blog post works. This time GNOME keyring only has to be disabled for SSH. Disabling GNOME keyring is not sufficient, you also need gpg-agent to start with enable-ssh-support. The simplest way to achieve that is to add a line in ~/.gnupg/gpg-agent.conf as follows. When you login, the script /etc/X11/Xsession.d/90gpg-agent will set the environment variables GPG_AGENT_INFO and SSH_AUTH_SOCK. The latter variable is only set if enable-ssh-support is mentioned in the gpg-agent configuration.
jas@latte:~$ mkdir ~/.config/autostart
jas@latte:~$ cp /etc/xdg/autostart/gnome-keyring-ssh.desktop ~/.config/autostart/
jas@latte:~$ echo 'Hidden=true' >> ~/.config/autostart/gnome-keyring-ssh.desktop 
jas@latte:~$ echo enable-ssh-support >> ~/.gnupg/gpg-agent.conf 
jas@latte:~$ 
Log out from GNOME and log in again. Now you should see ssh-add -L working.
jas@latte:~$ ssh-add -L
ssh-rsa AAAAB3NzaC1yc2EAAAADAQABAAABAQDFP+UOTZJ+OXydpmbKmdGOVoJJz8se7lMs139T+TNLryk3EEWF+GqbB4VgzxzrGjwAMSjeQkAMb7Sbn+VpbJf1JDPFBHoYJQmg6CX4kFRaGZT6DHbYjgia59WkdkEYTtB7KPkbFWleo/RZT2u3f8eTedrP7dhSX0azN0lDuu/wBrwedzSV+AiPr10rQaCTp1V8sKbhz5ryOXHQW0Gcps6JraRzMW+ooKFX3lPq0pZa7qL9F6sE4sDFvtOdbRJoZS1b88aZrENGx8KSrcMzARq9UBn1plsEG4/3BRv/BgHHaF+d97by52R0VVyIXpLlkdp1Uk4D9cQptgaH4UAyI1vr cardno:000601740323
jas@latte:~$ 
Topics for further discussion or research include 1) whether scdaemon, dirmngr and/or pcscd should be pre-installed on Debian desktop systems; 2) whether gpg --card-status should attempt to import the public key and secret key stub automatically; 3) why GNOME keyring is used by default for SSH rather than gpg-agent; 4) whether GNOME keyring should support smartcards, or if it is better to always use gpg-agent for GnuPG/SSH, 5) if something could/should be done to automatically infer the trust setting for a secret key. Enjoy!

1 June 2017

Thorsten Alteholz: My Debian Activities in May 2017

FTP assistant This month I only marked 39 packages for accept and rejected 5 packages. Debian LTS This was my thirty-fifth month that I did some work for the Debian LTS initiative, started by Raphael Hertzog at Freexian. This month my all in all workload has been 27.25h. During that time I did LTS uploads or prepared one for Jessie/Sid: For [DLA 948-1] dropbear and [DLA 958-1] libonig I only did the LTS bookkeeping and sent the DLA. The icu upload would not have been possible without the help of Roberto. I also tried to work on jasper, libxml2, libytnef and swftools but unfortunately all upstreams did not finish their respective patches this month, so maybe there will be an upload in June. Other stuff Again this has been a busy LTS month, so I only uploaded a new version of smstools, which closed most of its bugs and adopted adopted ptpd as DOPOM. As a prerequisite of wview I uploaded radlib. Unfortunately I could not do anything for wview, so work on this has to be postponed. Another new package is te923con, which I hope is able to read data from my weather station. Last but no least I fixed an RC bug in alljoyn-services-1504.

1 May 2017

Thorsten Alteholz: My Debian Activities in April 2017

FTP assistant This month I marked 72 packages for accept and sent one email to a maintainer asking questions. The number of rejections went down to 15. I would name that a good level again. Debian LTS This was my thirty-fourth month that I did some work for the Debian LTS initiative, started by Raphael Hertzog at Freexian. As others reduced their workload for this month, my all in all workload has been 23.75h. During that time I did uploads of In addition I had one week of frontdesk duties. I also started to work on icu and bind9. The patches for icu applied fine but the corresponding test did not work but stopped somewhere in the middle!? I am open for any suggestions why this could happen. Other stuff This has been a busy LTS month, so I only created node-tunein and adopted smstools as DOPOM.

30 April 2017

Chris Lamb: Free software activities in April 2017

Here is my monthly update covering what I have been doing in the free software world (previous month):
Reproducible builds

Whilst anyone can inspect the source code of free software for malicious flaws, most software is distributed pre-compiled to end users. The motivation behind the Reproducible Builds effort is to permit verification that no flaws have been introduced either maliciously or accidentally during this compilation process by promising identical results are always generated from a given source, thus allowing multiple third-parties to come to a consensus on whether a build was compromised. I have generously been awarded a grant from the Core Infrastructure Initiative to fund my work in this area. This month I:
I also made the following changes to diffoscope, our recursive and content-aware diff utility used to locate and diagnose reproducibility issues:
  • New features:
    • Add support for comparing Ogg Vorbis files. (0436f9b)
  • Bug fixes:
    • Prevent a traceback when using --new-file with containers. (#861286)
    • Don't crash on invalid archives; print a useful error instead. (#833697).
    • Don't print error output from bzip2 call. (21180c4)
  • Cleanups:
    • Prevent abstraction-level violations by defining visual diff support on Presenter classes. (7b68309)
    • Show Debian packages installed in test output. (c86a9e1)


Debian
Debian LTS

This month I have been paid to work 18 hours on Debian Long Term Support (LTS). In that time I did the following:
  • "Frontdesk" duties, triaging CVEs, etc.
  • Issued DLA 882-1 for the tryton-server general application platform to fix a path suffix injection attack.
  • Issued DLA 883-1 for curl preventing a buffer read overrun vulnerability.
  • Issued DLA 884-1 for collectd (a statistics collection daemon) to close a potential infinite loop vulnerability.
  • Issued DLA 885-1 for the python-django web development framework patching two open redirect & XSS attack issues.
  • Issued DLA 890-1 for ming, a library to create Flash files, closing multiple heap-based buffer overflows.
  • Issued DLA 892-1 and DLA 891-1 for the libnl3/libnl Netlink protocol libraries, fixing integer overflow issues which could have allowed arbitrary code execution.

Uploads
  • redis (4:4.0-rc3-1) New upstream RC release.
  • adminer:
    • 4.3.0-2 Fix debian/watch file.
    • 4.3.1-1 New upstream release.
  • bfs:
    • 1.0-1 Initial release.
    • 1.0-2 Drop fstype tests as they rely on /etc/mtab being available. (#861471)
  • python-django:
    • 1:1.10.7-1 New upstream security release.
    • 1:1.11-1 New upstream stable release to experimental.

I sponsored the following uploads: I also performed the following QA uploads:
  • gtkglext (1.2.0-7) Correct installation location of gdkglext-config.h after "Multi-Archification" in 1.2.0-5. (#860007)
Finally, I made the following non-maintainer uploads (NMUs):
  • python-formencode (1.3.0-2) Don't ship files in /usr/lib/python 2.7,3 /dist-packages/docs. (#860146)
  • django-assets (0.12-2) Patch pytest plugin to check whether we are running in a Django context, otherwise we can break unrelated testsuites. (#859916)


FTP Team

As a Debian FTP assistant I ACCEPTed 155 packages: aiohttp-cors, bear, colorize, erlang-p1-xmpp, fenrir, firejail, fizmo-console, flask-ldapconn, flask-socketio, fontmanager.app, fonts-blankenburg, fortune-zh, fw4spl, fzy, gajim-antispam, gdal, getdns, gfal2, gmime, golang-github-go-macaron-captcha, golang-github-go-macaron-i18n, golang-github-gogits-chardet, golang-github-gopherjs-gopherjs, golang-github-jroimartin-gocui, golang-github-lunny-nodb, golang-github-markbates-goth, golang-github-neowaylabs-wabbit, golang-github-pkg-xattr, golang-github-siddontang-goredis, golang-github-unknwon-cae, golang-github-unknwon-i18n, golang-github-unknwon-paginater, grpc, grr-client-templates, gst-omx, hddemux, highwayhash, icedove, indexed-gzip, jawn, khal, kytos-utils, libbloom, libdrilbo, libhtml-gumbo-perl, libmonospaceif, libpsortb, libundead, llvm-toolchain-4.0, minetest-mod-homedecor, mini-buildd, mrboom, mumps, nnn, node-anymatch, node-asn1.js, node-assert-plus, node-binary-extensions, node-bn.js, node-boom, node-brfs, node-browser-resolve, node-browserify-des, node-browserify-zlib, node-cipher-base, node-console-browserify, node-constants-browserify, node-delegates, node-diffie-hellman, node-errno, node-falafel, node-hash-base, node-hash-test-vectors, node-hash.js, node-hmac-drbg, node-https-browserify, node-jsbn, node-json-loader, node-json-schema, node-loader-runner, node-miller-rabin, node-minimalistic-crypto-utils, node-p-limit, node-prr, node-sha.js, node-sntp, node-static-module, node-tapable, node-tough-cookie, node-tunein, node-umd, open-infrastructure-storage-tools, opensvc, openvas, pgaudit, php-cassandra, protracker, pygame, pypng, python-ase, python-bip32utils, python-ltfatpy, python-pyqrcode, python-rpaths, python-statistics, python-xarray, qtcharts-opensource-src, r-cran-cellranger, r-cran-lexrankr, r-cran-pwt9, r-cran-rematch, r-cran-shinyjs, r-cran-snowballc, ruby-ddplugin, ruby-google-protobuf, ruby-rack-proxy, ruby-rails-assets-underscore, rustc, sbt, sbt-launcher-interface, sbt-serialization, sbt-template-resolver, scopt, seqsero, shim-signed, sniproxy, sortedcollections, starjava-array, starjava-connect, starjava-datanode, starjava-fits, starjava-registry, starjava-table, starjava-task, starjava-topcat, starjava-ttools, starjava-util, starjava-vo, starjava-votable, switcheroo-control, systemd, tilix, tslib, tt-rss-notifier-chrome, u-boot, unittest++, vc, vim-ledger, vis, wesnoth-1.13, wolfssl, wuzz, xandikos, xtensor-python & xwallpaper. I additionally filed 14 RC bugs against packages that had incomplete debian/copyright files against getdns, gfal2, grpc, mrboom, mumps, opensvc, python-ase, sniproxy, starjava-topcat, starjava-ttools, unittest++, wolfssl, xandikos & xtensor-python.

23 February 2017

Joerg Jaspert: Automated wifi login

If you have the fortune to need to follow some silly Login button for some wifi, regularly, the following little script may help you avoid this idiotic (and useless) task. This example uses the WIFIonICE, the free wifi on german ICE trains, simply as I have it twice a day, and got annoyed by the pointless Login button. A friend pointed me at just wget-ting the login page, so I made Network-Manager do this for me. Should work for anything similar that doesn t need some elaborate webform filled out.
#!/bin/bash
# (Some) docs at
# https://wiki.ubuntuusers.de/NetworkManager/Dispatcher/
IFACE=$ 1:-"none" 
ACTION=$ 2:-"up" 
case $ ACTION  in
    up)
        CONID=$ CONNECTION_ID:-$(iwconfig $IFACE   grep ESSID   cut -d":" -f2   sed 's/^[^"]*"\ "[^"]*$//g') 
        if [[ $ CONID  == WIFIonICE ]]; then
            /usr/bin/timeout -k 20 15 /usr/bin/wget -q -O - http://www.wifionice.de/?login > /dev/null
        fi
        ;;
    *)
        # We are not interested in this
        :
        ;;
esac
This script needs to be put into /etc/NetworkManager/dispatcher.d and made executable, owned by the root user. It will run on every connection change, thats why the ACTION is checked. The case may be a bit much here, but it could be easily extended to do a lot more. Yay, no more silly Open this webpage and press login crap.

21 February 2017

Shirish Agarwal: The Indian elections hungama

a person showing s(he) showing s(he) Before I start, I would like to point out #855549 . This is a normal/wishlist bug I have filed against apt, the command-line package manager. I sincerely believe having a history command to know what packages were installed, which were upgraded, which were purged should be easily accessible, easily understood and if the output looks pretty, so much the better. Of particular interest to me is having a list of new packages I have installed in last couple of years after jessie became the stable release. It probably would make for some interesting reading. I dunno how much efforts would be to code something like that, but if it works, it would be the greatest. Apt would have finally arrived. Not that it s a bad tool, it s just that it would then make for a heck of a useful tool. Coming back to the topic on hand, Now for the last couple of weeks we don t have water or rather pressure of water. Water crisis has been hitting Pune every year since 2014 with no end in sight. This has been reported in newspapers addendum but it seems it has been felling on deaf ears. The end result of it is that I have to bring buckets of water from around 50 odd metres. It s not a big thing, it s not like some women in some villages in Rajasthan who have to walk in between 200 metres to 5 odd kilometres to get potable water or Darfur, Western Sudan where women are often kidnapped and sold as sexual slaves when they get to fetch water. The situation in Darfur has been shown quite vividly in Darfur is Dying . It is possible that I may have mentioned about Darfur before. While unfortunately the game is in flash as a web resource, the most disturbing part is that the game is extremely depressing, there is a no-win scenario. So knowing and seeing both those scenarios, I can t complain about 50 metres. BUT .but when you extrapolate the same data over some more or less 3.3-3.4 million citizens, 3.1 million during 2011 census with a conservative 2.3-2.4 percent population growth rate according to scroll.in. Fortunately or unfortunately, Pune Municipal Corporation elections were held today. Fortunately or unfortunately, this time all the political parties bought majorly unknown faces in these elections. For e.g. I belong to ward 14 which is spread over quite a bit of area and has around 10k of registered voters. Now the unfortunate part of having new faces in elections, you don t know anything about them. Apart from the affidavits filed, the only thing I come to know is whether there are criminal cases filed against them and what they have shown as their wealth. While I am and should be thankful to ADR which actually is the force behind having the collated data made public. There is a lot of untold story about political push-back by all the major national and regional political parties even when this bit of news were to be made public. It took major part of a decade for such information to come into public domain. But for my purpose of getting clean air and water supply 24 7 to each household seems a very distant dream. I tried to connect with the corporators about a week before the contest and almost all of the lower party functionaries hid behind their political parties manifestos stating they would do the best without any viable plan. For those not knowing, India has been blessed with 6 odd national parties and about 36 odd regional parties and every election some 20-25 new parties try their luck every time. The problem is we, the public, don t trust them or their manifestos. First of all the political parties themselves engage in mud-slinging as to who s copying whom with the manifesto.Even if a political party wins the elections, there is no *real* pressure for them to follow their own manifesto. This has been going for many a year. OF course, we the citizens are to also blame as most citizens for one reason or other chose to remain aloof of the process. I scanned/leafed through all the manifestos and all of them have the vague-wording we will make Pune tanker-free without any implementation details. While I was unable to meet the soon-to-be-Corporators, I did manage to meet a few of the assistants but all the meetings were entirely fruitless. Diagram of Rain Water Harvesting I asked why can t the city follow the Chennai model. Chennai, not so long ago was at the same place where Pune is, especially in relation to water. What happened next, in 2001 has been beautifully chronicled in Hindustan Times . What has not been shared in that story is that the idea was actually fielded by one of Chennai Mayor s assistants, an IAS Officer, I have forgotten her name, Thankfully, her advise/idea was taken to heart by the political establishment and they drove RWH. Saying why we can t do something similar in Pune, I heard all kinds of excuses. The worst and most used being Marathas can never unite which I think is pure bullshit. For people unfamiliar to the term, Marathas was a warrior clan in Shivaji s army. Shivaji, the king of Marathas were/are an expert tactician and master of guerilla warfare. It is due to the valor of Marathas, that we still have the Maratha Light Infantry a proud member of the Indian army. Why I said bullshit was the composition of people living in Maharashtra has changed over the decades. While at one time both the Brahmins and the Marathas had considerable political and population numbers, that has changed drastically. Maharashtra and more pointedly, Mumbai, Pune and Nagpur have become immigrant centres. Why just a decade back, Shiv Sena, an ultra right-wing political party used to play the Maratha card at each and every election and heckle people coming from Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, this has been documented as the 2008 immigrants attacks and 9 years later we see Shiv Sena trying to field its candidates in Uttar Pradesh. So, obviously they cannot use the same tactics which they could at one point of time. One more reason I call it bullshit, is it s a very lame excuse. When the Prime Minister of the country calls for demonetization which affects 1.25 billion people, people die, people stand in queues and is largely peaceful, I do not see people resisting if they bring a good scheme. I almost forgot, as an added sweetener, the Chennai municipality said that if you do RWH and show photos and certificates of the job, you won t have to pay as much property tax as otherwise you would, that also boosted people s participation. And that is not the only solution, one more solution has been outlined in Aaj Bhi Khade hain talaab written by just-deceased Gandhian environmental activist Anupam Mishra. His Book can be downloaded for free at India Water Portal . Unfortunately, the said book doesn t have a good English translation till date. Interestingly, all of his content is licensed under public domain (CC-0) so people can continue to enjoy and learn from his life-work. Another lesson or understanding could be taken from Israel, the father of the modern micro-drip irrigation for crops. One of the things on my bucket lists is to visit Israel and if possible learn how they went from a water-deficient country to a water-surplus one. India labor Which brings me to my second conundrum, most of the people believe that it s the Government s job to provide jobs to its people. India has been experiencing jobless growth for around a decade now, since the 2008 meltdown. While India was lucky to escape that, most of its trading partners weren t hence it slowed down International trade which slowed down creation of new enterprises etc. Laws such as the Bankruptcy law and the upcoming Goods and Services Tax . As everybody else, am a bit excited and a bit apprehensive about how the actual implementation will take place. null Even International businesses has been found wanting. The latest example has been Uber and Ola. There have been protests against the two cab/taxi aggregators operating in India. For the millions of jobless students coming out of schools and Universities, there aren t simply enough jobs for them, nor are most (okay 50%) of them qualified for the jobs, these 50 percent are also untrainable, so what to do ? In reality, this is what keeps me awake at night. India is sitting on this ticking bomb-shell. It is really, a miracle that the youths have not rebelled yet. While all the conditions, proposals and counter-proposals have been shared before, I wanted/needed to highlight it. While the issue seems to be local, I would assert that they are all glocal in nature. The questions we are facing, I m sure both developing and to some extent even developed countries have probably been affected by it. I look forward to know what I can learn from them. Update 23/02/17 I had wanted to share about Debian s Voting system a bit, but that got derailed. Hence in order not to do, I ll just point towards 2015 platforms where 3 people vied for DPL post. I *think* I shared about DPL voting process earlier but if not, would do in detail in some future blog post.
Filed under: Miscellenous Tagged: #Anupam Mishra, #Bankruptcy law, #Chennai model, #clean air, #clean water, #elections, #GST, #immigrant, #immigrants, #Maratha, #Maratha Light Infantry, #migration, #national parties, #Political party manifesto, #regional parties, #ride-sharing, #water availability, Rain Water Harvesting

8 February 2017

Antoine Beaupr : Reliably generating good passwords

Passwords are used everywhere in our modern life. Between your email account and your bank card, a lot of critical security infrastructure relies on "something you know", a password. Yet there is little standard documentation on how to generate good passwords. There are some interesting possibilities for doing so; this article will look at what makes a good password and some tools that can be used to generate them. There is growing concern that our dependence on passwords poses a fundamental security flaw. For example, passwords rely on humans, who can be coerced to reveal secret information. Furthermore, passwords are "replayable": if your password is revealed or stolen, anyone can impersonate you to get access to your most critical assets. Therefore, major organizations are trying to move away from single password authentication. Google, for example, is enforcing two factor authentication for its employees and is considering abandoning passwords on phones as well, although we have yet to see that controversial change implemented. Yet passwords are still here and are likely to stick around for a long time until we figure out a better alternative. Note that in this article I use the word "password" instead of "PIN" or "passphrase", which all roughly mean the same thing: a small piece of text that users provide to prove their identity.

What makes a good password? A "good password" may mean different things to different people. I will assert that a good password has the following properties:
  • high entropy: hard to guess for machines
  • transferable: easy to communicate for humans or transfer across various protocols for computers
  • memorable: easy to remember for humans
High entropy means that the password should be unpredictable to an attacker, for all practical purposes. It is tempting (and not uncommon) to choose a password based on something else that you know, but unfortunately those choices are likely to be guessable, no matter how "secret" you believe it is. Yes, with enough effort, an attacker can figure out your birthday, the name of your first lover, your mother's maiden name, where you were last summer, or other secrets people think they have. The only solution here is to use a password randomly generated with enough randomness or "entropy" that brute-forcing the password will be practically infeasible. Considering that a modern off-the-shelf graphics card can guess millions of passwords per second using freely available software like hashcat, the typical requirement of "8 characters" is not considered enough anymore. With proper hardware, a powerful rig can crack such passwords offline within about a day. Even though a recent US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) draft still recommends a minimum of eight characters, we now more often hear recommendations of twelve characters or fourteen characters. A password should also be easily "transferable". Some characters, like & or !, have special meaning on the web or the shell and can wreak havoc when transferred. Certain software also has policies of refusing (or requiring!) some special characters exactly for that reason. Weird characters also make it harder for humans to communicate passwords across voice channels or different cultural backgrounds. In a more extreme example, the popular Signal software even resorted to using only digits to transfer key fingerprints. They outlined that numbers are "easy to localize" (as opposed to words, which are language-specific) and "visually distinct". But the critical piece is the "memorable" part: it is trivial to generate a random string of characters, but those passwords are hard for humans to remember. As xkcd noted, "through 20 years of effort, we've successfully trained everyone to use passwords that are hard for human to remember but easy for computers to guess". It explains how a series of words is a better password than a single word with some characters replaced. Obviously, you should not need to remember all passwords. Indeed, you may store some in password managers (which we'll look at in another article) or write them down in your wallet. In those cases, what you need is not a password, but something I would rather call a "token", or, as Debian Developer Daniel Kahn Gillmor (dkg) said in a private email, a "high entropy, compact, and transferable string". Certain APIs are specifically crafted to use tokens. OAuth, for example, generates "access tokens" that are random strings that give access to services. But in our discussion, we'll use the term "token" in a broader sense. Notice how we removed the "memorable" property and added the "compact" one: we want to efficiently convert the most entropy into the shortest password possible, to work around possibly limiting password policies. For example, some bank cards only allow 5-digit security PINs and most web sites have an upper limit in the password length. The "compact" property applies less to "passwords" than tokens, because I assume that you will only use a password in select places: your password manager, SSH and OpenPGP keys, your computer login, and encryption keys. Everything else should be in a password manager. Those tools are generally under your control and should allow large enough passwords that the compact property is not particularly important.

Generating secure passwords We'll look now at how to generate a strong, transferable, and memorable password. These are most likely the passwords you will deal with most of the time, as security tokens used in other settings should actually never show up on screen: they should be copy-pasted or automatically typed in forms. The password generators described here are all operated from the command line. Password managers often have embedded password generators, but usually don't provide an easy way to generate a password for the vault itself. The previously mentioned xkcd cartoon is probably a common cultural reference in the security crowd and I often use it to explain how to choose a good passphrase. It turns out that someone actually implemented xkcd author Randall Munroe's suggestion into a program called xkcdpass:
    $ xkcdpass
    estop mixing edelweiss conduct rejoin flexitime
In verbose mode, it will show the actual entropy of the generated passphrase:
    $ xkcdpass -V
    The supplied word list is located at /usr/lib/python3/dist-packages/xkcdpass/static/default.txt.
    Your word list contains 38271 words, or 2^15.22 words.
    A 6 word password from this list will have roughly 91 (15.22 * 6) bits of entropy,
    assuming truly random word selection.
    estop mixing edelweiss conduct rejoin flexitime
Note that the above password has 91 bits of entropy, which is about what a fifteen-character password would have, if chosen at random from uppercase, lowercase, digits, and ten symbols:
    log2((26 + 26 + 10 + 10)^15) = approx. 92.548875
It's also interesting to note that this is closer to the entropy of a fifteen-letter base64 encoded password: since each character is six bits, you end up with 90 bits of entropy. xkcdpass is scriptable and easy to use. You can also customize the word list, separators, and so on with different command-line options. By default, xkcdpass uses the 2 of 12 word list from 12 dicts, which is not specifically geared toward password generation but has been curated for "common words" and words of different sizes. Another option is the diceware system. Diceware works by having a word list in which you look up words based on dice rolls. For example, rolling the five dice "1 4 2 1 4" would give the word "bilge". By rolling those dice five times, you generate a five word password that is both memorable and random. Since paper and dice do not seem to be popular anymore, someone wrote that as an actual program, aptly called diceware. It works in a similar fashion, except that passwords are not space separated by default:
    $ diceware
    AbateStripDummy16thThanBrock
Diceware can obviously change the output to look similar to xkcdpass, but can also accept actual dice rolls for those who do not trust their computer's entropy source:
    $ diceware -d ' ' -r realdice -w en_orig
    Please roll 5 dice (or a single dice 5 times).
    What number shows dice number 1? 4
    What number shows dice number 2? 2
    What number shows dice number 3? 6
    [...]
    Aspire O's Ester Court Born Pk
The diceware software ships with a few word lists, and the default list has been deliberately created for generating passwords. It is derived from the standard diceware list with additions from the SecureDrop project. Diceware ships with the EFF word list that has words chosen for better recognition, but it is not enabled by default, even though diceware recommends using it when generating passwords with dice. That is because the EFF list was added later on. The project is currently considering making the EFF list be the default. One disadvantage of diceware is that it doesn't actually show how much entropy the generated password has those interested need to compute it for themselves. The actual number depends on the word list: the default word list has 13 bits of entropy per word (since it is exactly 8192 words long), which means the default 6 word passwords have 78 bits of entropy:
    log2(8192) * 6 = 78
Both of these programs are rather new, having, for example, entered Debian only after the last stable release, so they may not be directly available for your distribution. The manual diceware method, of course, only needs a set of dice and a word list, so that is much more portable, and both the diceware and xkcdpass programs can be installed through pip. However, if this is all too complicated, you can take a look at Openwall's passwdqc, which is older and more widely available. It generates more memorable passphrases while at the same time allowing for better control over the level of entropy:
    $ pwqgen
    vest5Lyric8wake
    $ pwqgen random=78
    Theme9accord=milan8ninety9few
For some reason, passwdqc restricts the entropy of passwords between the bounds of 24 and 85 bits. That tool is also much less customizable than the other two: what you see here is pretty much what you get. The 4096-word list is also hardcoded in the C source code; it comes from a Usenet sci.crypt posting from 1997. A key feature of xkcdpass and diceware is that you can craft your own word list, which can make dictionary-based attacks harder. Indeed, with such word-based password generators, the only viable way to crack those passwords is to use dictionary attacks, because the password is so long that character-based exhaustive searches are not workable, since they would take centuries to complete. Changing from the default dictionary therefore brings some advantage against attackers. This may be yet another "security through obscurity" procedure, however: a naive approach may be to use a dictionary localized to your native language (for example, in my case, French), but that would deter only an attacker that doesn't do basic research about you, so that advantage is quickly lost to determined attackers. One should also note that the entropy of the password doesn't depend on which word list is chosen, only its length. Furthermore, a larger dictionary only expands the search space logarithmically; in other words, doubling the word-list length only adds a single bit of entropy. It is actually much better to add a word to your password than words to the word list that generates it.

Generating security tokens As mentioned before, most password managers feature a way to generate strong security tokens, with different policies (symbols or not, length, etc). In general, you should use your password manager's password-generation functionality to generate tokens for sites you visit. But how are those functionalities implemented and what can you do if your password manager (for example, Firefox's master password feature) does not actually generate passwords for you? pass, the standard UNIX password manager, delegates this task to the widely known pwgen program. It turns out that pwgen has a pretty bad track record for security issues, especially in the default "phoneme" mode, which generates non-uniformly distributed passwords. While pass uses the more "secure" -s mode, I figured it was worth removing that option to discourage the use of pwgen in the default mode. I made a trivial patch to pass so that it generates passwords correctly on its own. The gory details are in this email. It turns out that there are lots of ways to skin this particular cat. I was suggesting the following pipeline to generate the password:
    head -c $entropy /dev/random   base64   tr -d '\n='
The above command reads a certain number of bytes from the kernel (head -c $entropy /dev/random) encodes that using the base64 algorithm and strips out the trailing equal sign and newlines (for large passwords). This is what Gillmor described as a "high-entropy compact printable/transferable string". The priority, in this case, is to have a token that is as compact as possible with the given entropy, while at the same time using a character set that should cause as little trouble as possible on sites that restrict the characters you can use. Gillmor is a co-maintainer of the Assword password manager, which chose base64 because it is widely available and understood and only takes up 33% more space than the original 8-bit binary encoding. After a lengthy discussion, the pass maintainer, Jason A. Donenfeld, chose the following pipeline:
    read -r -n $length pass < <(LC_ALL=C tr -dc "$characters" < /dev/urandom)
The above is similar, except it uses tr to directly to read characters from the kernel, and selects a certain set of characters ($characters) that is defined earlier as consisting of [:alnum:] for letters and digits and [:graph:] for symbols, depending on the user's configuration. Then the read command extracts the chosen number of characters from the output and stores the result in the pass variable. A participant on the mailing list, Brian Candler, has argued that this wastes entropy as the use of tr discards bits from /dev/urandom with little gain in entropy when compared to base64. But in the end, the maintainer argued that reading "reading from /dev/urandom has no [effect] on /proc/sys/kernel/random/entropy_avail on Linux" and dismissed the objection. Another password manager, KeePass uses its own routines to generate tokens, but the procedure is the same: read from the kernel's entropy source (and user-generated sources in case of KeePass) and transform that data into a transferable string.

Conclusion While there are many aspects to password management, we have focused on different techniques for users and developers to generate secure but also usable passwords. Generating a strong yet memorable password is not a trivial problem as the security vulnerabilities of the pwgen software showed. Furthermore, left to their own devices, users will generate passwords that can be easily guessed by a skilled attacker, especially if they can profile the user. It is therefore essential we provide easy tools for users to generate strong passwords and encourage them to store secure tokens in password managers.
Note: this article first appeared in the Linux Weekly News.

4 February 2017

Thorsten Alteholz: My Debian Activities in January 2017

FTP assistant This month I only marked 146 packages for accept and rejected 25 packages. I only sent 3 emails to maintainers asking questions. Nevertheless I could pass a big mark. All in all I accepted more than 10000 packages now! Debian LTS This was my thirty-first month that I did some work for the Debian LTS initiative, started by Raphael Hertzog at Freexian. This month my all in all workload has been 12.75h. During that time I did uploads of Unfortunately the upload of jasper had to be postponed, as there is no upstream fix for most of the open CVEs yet.
I also suggested to mark th slum-llnl CVE as , as the patch would be too invasive. Further I did another week of frontdesk work. Last but not least I took care of about 140 items of the TODO list[1]. Ok, it was not that much work, but the enormous number is impressing :-). I also had a look at [2] and filed bugs against two packages. Within hours the maintainers responded to that bugs, clarified everything to mark the CVEs as not-affected and nobody has to care about them anymore. This is a good example of how the knowledge of the maintainer can help the security teams! So, if you have some time left, have a look at [3] and take care of something. [1] https://security-tracker.debian.org/tracker/status/todo
[2] https://security-tracker.debian.org/tracker/status/unreported
[3] https://security-tracker.debian.org/tracker Other stuff This month I sponsored a new round of sidedoor and printrun. After advocating Dara Adib to become Debian Maintainer, I hope my activities as sponsor can be reduced again :-). Further I uploaded another version of setserial, but as you can see in #850762 it does not seem to satisfy everybody. I also uploaded new upstream versions of duktape and pipexec. As I didn t do any DOPOM in December I adopted two packages in January: pescetti and salliere. I dedicate those uploads to my aunt Birgit, who was a passionate bridge player. You will never be forgotten.

7 January 2017

Thorsten Alteholz: My Debian Activities in December 2016

FTP assistant This month I marked 367 packages for accept and rejected 45 packages. This time I only sent 10 emails to maintainers asking questions. Debian LTS This was my thirtieth month that I did some work for the Debian LTS initiative, started by Raphael Hertzog at Freexian. This month my all in all workload has been 13.50h. During that time I did uploads of Other stuff The Debian Med Advent Calendar was really successful this year. As announced in [1] this year the second highest number of bugs has been closed during tht bug squashing:
year number of bugs closed
2011 63
2012 28
2013 73
2014 5
2015 150
2016 95
Well done everybody who participated! In December I also uploaded new upstream versions of duktape, fixed bugs in openzwave, did a binary upload for mpb on mipsel, sponsored openzwave-controlpanel, sidedoor and printrun.
Thanks to lamby that openzwave-controlpanel and sidedoor even made it into Stretch. Last but not least I want to wish everybody a Happy New Year. [1] https://lists.debian.org/debian-med/2016/12/msg00180.html

2 January 2017

Markus Koschany: My Free Software Activities in December 2016

Welcome to gambaru.de. Here is my monthly report that covers what I have been doing for Debian. If you re interested in Android, Java, Games and LTS topics, this might be interesting for you. Debian Android Debian Games Debian Java Debian LTS This was my tenth month as a paid contributor and I have been paid to work 13,5 hours on Debian LTS, a project started by Rapha l Hertzog. In that time I did the following: Non-maintainer uploads

20 December 2016

Reproducible builds folks: Reproducible Builds: week 86 in Stretch cycle

What happened in the Reproducible Builds effort between Sunday December 11 and Saturday December 17 2016: Reproducible builds world summit The 2nd Reproducible Builds World Summit was held in Berlin, Germany on December 13th-15th. The event was a great success with enthusiastic participation from an extremely diverse number of projects. Many thanks to our sponsors for making this event possible! Reproducible Summit 2 in Berlin 2016 Whilst there is an in-depth report forthcoming, the Guix project have already released their own report. Media coverage Reproducible work in other projects Documentation update A large number of revisions were made to the website during the summit, including re-structuring existing content and creating a concrete plan to move the wiki content to the website: Elsewhere in Debian Packages reviewed and fixed, and bugs filed Chris Lamb: Daniel Shahaf: Reiner Herrmann: Reviews of unreproducible packages 9 package reviews have been added, 19 have been updated and 17 have been removed in this week, adding to our knowledge about identified issues. 3 issue types have been added: One issue type was updated: Weekly QA work During our reproducibility testing, some FTBFS bugs have been detected and reported by: diffoscope development reprotest development trydiffoscope development Misc. This week's edition was written by Chris Lamb and reviewed by a bunch of Reproducible Builds folks on IRC and via email.

12 December 2016

Kees Cook: security things in Linux v4.9

Previously: v4.8. Here are a bunch of security things I m excited about in the newly released Linux v4.9: Latent Entropy GCC plugin Building on her earlier work to bring GCC plugin support to the Linux kernel, Emese Revfy ported PaX s Latent Entropy GCC plugin to upstream. This plugin is significantly more complex than the others that have already been ported, and performs extensive instrumentation of functions marked with __latent_entropy. These functions have their branches and loops adjusted to mix random values (selected at build time) into a global entropy gathering variable. Since the branch and loop ordering is very specific to boot conditions, CPU quirks, memory layout, etc, this provides some additional uncertainty to the kernel s entropy pool. Since the entropy actually gathered is hard to measure, no entropy is credited , but rather used to mix the existing pool further. Probably the best place to enable this plugin is on small devices without other strong sources of entropy. vmapped kernel stack and thread_info relocation on x86 Normally, kernel stacks are mapped together in memory. This meant that attackers could use forms of stack exhaustion (or stack buffer overflows) to reach past the end of a stack and start writing over another process s stack. This is bad, and one way to stop it is to provide guard pages between stacks, which is provided by vmalloced memory. Andy Lutomirski did a bunch of work to move to vmapped kernel stack via CONFIG_VMAP_STACK on x86_64. Now when writing past the end of the stack, the kernel will immediately fault instead of just continuing to blindly write. Related to this, the kernel was storing thread_info (which contained sensitive values like addr_limit) at the bottom of the kernel stack, which was an easy target for attackers to hit. Between a combination of explicitly moving targets out of thread_info, removing needless fields, and entirely moving thread_info off the stack, Andy Lutomirski and Linus Torvalds created CONFIG_THREAD_INFO_IN_TASK for x86. CONFIG_DEBUG_RODATA mandatory on arm64 As recently done for x86, Mark Rutland made CONFIG_DEBUG_RODATA mandatory on arm64. This feature controls whether the kernel enforces proper memory protections on its own memory regions (code memory is executable and read-only, read-only data is actually read-only and non-executable, and writable data is non-executable). This protection is a fundamental security primitive for kernel self-protection, so there s no reason to make the protection optional. random_page() cleanup Cleaning up the code around the userspace ASLR implementations makes them easier to reason about. This has been happening for things like the recent consolidation on arch_mmap_rnd() for ET_DYN and during the addition of the entropy sysctl. Both uncovered some awkward uses of get_random_int() (or similar) in and around arch_mmap_rnd() (which is used for mmap (and therefore shared library) and PIE ASLR), as well as in randomize_stack_top() (which is used for stack ASLR). Jason Cooper cleaned things up further by doing away with randomize_range() entirely and replacing it with the saner random_page(), making the per-architecture arch_randomize_brk() (responsible for brk ASLR) much easier to understand. That s it for now! Let me know if there are other fun things to call attention to in v4.9.

2016, Kees Cook. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License.
Creative Commons License

5 December 2016

Reproducible builds folks: Reproducible Builds: week 84 in Stretch cycle

What happened in the Reproducible Builds effort between Sunday November 27 and Saturday December 3 2016: Reproducible work in other projects Media coverage, etc. Bugs filed Chris Lamb: Clint Adams: Dafydd Harries: Daniel Shahaf: Reiner Herrmann: Valerie R Young: Reviews of unreproducible packages 15 package reviews have been added, 4 have been updated and 26 have been removed in this week, adding to our knowledge about identified issues. 2 issue types have been added: Weekly QA work During our reproducibility testing, some FTBFS bugs have been detected and reported by: diffoscope development Is is available now in Debian, Archlinux and on PyPI. strip-nondeterminism development reprotest development tests.reproducible-builds.org Misc. This week's edition was written by Chris Lamb, Valerie Young, Vagrant Cascadian, Holger Levsen and reviewed by a bunch of Reproducible Builds folks on IRC.

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