Search Results: "cdr"

15 July 2022

Steve Kemp: So we come to Lisp

Recently I've been working with simple/trivial scripting languages, and I guess I finally reached a point where I thought "Lisp? Why not". One of the reasons for recent experimentation was thinking about the kind of minimalism that makes implementing a language less work - being able to actually use the language to write itself. FORTH is my recurring example, because implementing it mostly means writing a virtual machine which consists of memory ("cells") along with a pair of stacks, and some primitives for operating upon them. Once you have that groundwork in place you can layer the higher-level constructs (such as "for", "if", etc). Lisp allows a similar approach, albeit with slightly fewer low-level details required, and far less tortuous thinking. Lisp always feels higher-level to me anyway, given the explicit data-types ("list", "string", "number", etc). Here's something that works in my toy lisp:
;; Define a function,  fact , to calculate factorials (recursively).
(define fact (lambda (n)
  (if (<= n 1)
    1
      (* n (fact (- n 1))))))
;; Invoke the factorial function, using apply
(apply (list 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10)
  (lambda (x)
    (print "%s! => %s" x (fact x))))
The core language doesn't have helpful functions to filter lists, or build up lists by applying a specified function to each member of a list, but adding them is trivial using the standard car, cdr, and simple recursion. That means you end up writing lots of small functions like this:
(define zero? (lambda (n) (if (= n 0) #t #f)))
(define even? (lambda (n) (if (zero? (% n 2)) #t #f)))
(define odd?  (lambda (n) (! (even? n))))
(define sq    (lambda (x) (* x x)))
Once you have them you can use them in a way that feels simple and natural:
(print "Even numbers from 0-10: %s"
  (filter (nat 11) (lambda (x) (even? x))))
(print "Squared numbers from 0-10: %s"
  (map (nat 11) (lambda (x) (sq x))))
This all feels very sexy and simple, because the implementations of map, apply, filter are all written using the lisp - and they're easy to write. Lisp takes things further than some other "basic" languages because of the (infamous) support for Macros. But even without them writing new useful functions is pretty simple. Where things struggle? I guess I don't actually have a history of using lisp to actually solve problems - although it's great for configuring my editor.. Anyway I guess the journey continues. Having looked at the obvious "minimal core" languages I need to go further afield: I'll make an attempt to look at some of the esoteric programming languages, and see if any of those are fun to experiment with.

20 April 2022

Petter Reinholdtsen: geteltorito make CD firmware upgrades a breeze

Recently I wanted to upgrade the firmware of my thinkpad, and located the firmware download page from Lenovo (which annoyingly do not allow access via Tor, forcing me to hand them more personal information that I would like). The download from Lenovo is a bootable ISO image, which is a bit of a problem when all I got available is a USB memory stick. I tried booting the ISO as a USB stick, but this did not work. But genisoimage came to the rescue. The geteltorito program in the genisoimage binary package is able to convert the bootable ISO image to a bootable USB stick using a simple command line recipe, which I then can write to the most recently inserted USB stick:
geteltorito -o usbstick.img lenovo-firmware.iso
sudo dd bs=10M if=usbstick.img of=$(ls -tr /dev/sd? tail -1)
This USB stick booted the firmware upgrader just fine, and in a few minutes my machine had the latest and greatest BIOS firmware in place.

18 February 2021

Jonathan McDowell: Hacking and Bricking the EE Opsrey 2 Mini

I ve mentioned in the past my twisted EE network setup from when I moved in to my current house. The 4GEE WiFi Mini (also known as the EE Osprey 2 Mini or the EE40VB, and actually a rebadged Alcatel Y853VB) has been sitting unused since then, so I figured I d see about trying to get a shell on it. TL;DR: Of course it s running Linux, there s a couple of test points internally which bring out the serial console, but after finding those and logging in I discovered it s running ADB on port 5555 quite happily available without authentication both via wifi and the USB port. So if you have physical or local network access, instant root shell. Well done, folks. And then I bricked it before I could do anything more interesting. There s a lack of information about this device out there - most of the links I can find are around removing the SIM lock - so I thought I d document the pieces I found just in case anyone else is trying to figure it out. It s based around a Qualcomm MDM9607 SoC, paired with 64M RAM and 256M NAND flash. Wifi is via an RTL8192ES. Kernel is 3.18.20. Busybox is v1.23.1. It s running dnsmasq but I didn t grab the version. Of course there s no source or offer of source provided. Taking it apart is fairly easy. There s a single screw to remove, just beside the SIM slot. The coloured rim can then be carefully pried away from the back, revealing the battery. There are then 4 screws in the corners which need removed in order to be able to lift out the actual PCB and gain access to the serial console test points. EE40VB PCB serial console test points My mistake was going poking around trying to figure out where the updates are downloaded from - I know I m running a slightly older release than what s current, and the device can do an automatic download + update. Top tip; don t run Jrdrecovery. It ll error on finding /cache/update.zip and wipe the main partition anyway. That ll leave you in a boot loop where the device boots the recovery partition which tries to install /cache/update.zip which of course still doesn t exist. So. Where next? First, I need to get the device into a state where I can actually do something other than watch it boot into recovery, fail to flash and reboot. Best guess at present is to try and get it to enter the Qualcomm EDL (Emergency Download) mode. That might be possible with a custom USB cable that grounds D+ on boot. Alternatively I need to probe some of the other test points on the PCB and see if grounding any of those helps enter EDL mode. I then need a suitable firehose OEM-signed programmer image. And then I need to actually get hold of a proper EE40VB firmware image, either via one of the OTA update files or possibly via an Alcatel ADSU image (though no idea how to get hold of one, other than by posting to a random GSM device forum and hoping for the kindness of strangers). More updates if/when I make progress
Qualcomm bootloader log
Format: Log Type - Time(microsec) - Message - Optional Info
Log Type: B - Since Boot(Power On Reset),  D - Delta,  S - Statistic
S - QC_IMAGE_VERSION_STRING=BOOT.BF.3.1.2-00053
S - IMAGE_VARIANT_STRING=LAATANAZA
S - OEM_IMAGE_VERSION_STRING=linux3
S - Boot Config, 0x000002e1
B -    105194 - SBL1, Start
D -     61885 - QSEE Image Loaded, Delta - (451964 Bytes)
D -     30286 - RPM Image Loaded, Delta - (151152 Bytes)
B -    459330 - Roger:boot_jrd_oem_main
B -    461526 - Welcome to key_check_poweron!!!
B -    466436 - REG0x00, rc=47
B -    469120 - REG0x01, rc=1f
B -    472018 - REG0x02, rc=1c
B -    474885 - REG0x03, rc=47
B -    477782 - REG0x04, rc=b2
B -    480558 - REG0x05, rc=
B -    483272 - REG0x06, rc=9e
B -    486139 - REG0x07, rc=
B -    488854 - REG0x08, rc=a4
B -    491721 - REG0x09, rc=80
B -    494130 - bq24295_probe: vflt/vsys/vprechg=0mV/0mV/0mV, tprechg/tfastchg=0Min/0Min, [0C, 0C]
B -    511546 - come to calculate vol and temperature!!
B -    511637 - ##############battery_core_convert_vntc: NTC_voltage=1785690
B -    517280 - battery_core_convert_vntc: <-44C, 1785690uV>, present=0
B -    529358 - bq24295_set_current_limit: setting=0mA, mode=-1, input/fastchg/prechg/termchg=-1mA/0mA/0mA/0mA
B -    534360 - bq24295_set_charge_current, rc=0,reg_val=0,i=0
B -    539636 - bq24295_enable_charge: setting=0, chg_enable=-1, otg_enable=0
B -    546072 - bq24295_enable_charging: enable_charging=0
B -    552172 - bq24295_set_current_limit: setting=0mA, mode=-1, input/fastchg/prechg/termchg=-1mA/0mA/0mA/0mA
B -    561566 - bq24295_set_charge_current, rc=0,reg_val=0,i=0
B -    567056 - bq24295_enable_charge: setting=0, chg_enable=0, otg_enable=0
B -    579286 - come to calculate vol and temperature!!
B -    579378 - ##############battery_core_convert_vntc: NTC_voltage=1785777
B -    585539 - battery_core_convert_vntc: <-44C, 1785777uV>, present=0
B -    597617 - charge_main: battery is plugout!!
B -    597678 - Welcome to pca955x_probe!!!
B -    601063 - pca955x_probe: PCA955X probed successfully!
D -     27511 - APPSBL Image Loaded, Delta - (179348 Bytes)
B -    633271 - QSEE Execution, Start
D -       213 - QSEE Execution, Delta
B -    638944 - >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>Start writting JRD RECOVERY BOOT
B -    650107 - >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>Start writting  RECOVERY BOOT
B -    653218 - >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>read_buf[0] == 0
B -    659044 - SBL1, End
D -    556137 - SBL1, Delta
S - Throughput, 2000 KB/s  (782884 Bytes,  278155 us)
S - DDR Frequency, 240 MHz
littlekernel aboot log
Android Bootloader - UART_DM Initialized!!!
[0] welcome to lk
[0] SCM call: 0x2000601 failed with :fffffffc
[0] Failed to initialize SCM
[10] platform_init()
[10] target_init()
[10] smem ptable found: ver: 4 len: 17
[10] ERROR: No devinfo partition found
[10] Neither 'config' nor 'frp' partition found
[30] voltage of NTC  is 1789872!
[30] voltage of BAT  is 3179553!
[30] usb present is 1!
[30] Loading (boot) image (4171776): start
[530] Loading (boot) image (4171776): done
[540] DTB Total entry: 25, DTB version: 3
[540] Using DTB entry 0x00000129/00010000/0x00000008/0 for device 0x00000129/00010000/0x00010008/0
[560] JRD_CHG_OFF_FEATURE!
[560] come to jrd_target_pause_for_battery_charge!
[570] power_on_status.hard_reset = 0x0
[570] power_on_status.smpl = 0x0
[570] power_on_status.rtc = 0x0
[580] power_on_status.dc_chg = 0x0
[580] power_on_status.usb_chg = 0x0
[580] power_on_status.pon1 = 0x1
[590] power_on_status.cblpwr = 0x0
[590] power_on_status.kpdpwr = 0x0
[590] power_on_status.bugflag = 0x0
[590] cmdline: noinitrd  rw console=ttyHSL0,115200,n8 androidboot.hardware=qcom ehci-hcd.park=3 msm_rtb.filter=0x37 lpm_levels.sleep_disabled=1  earlycon=msm_hsl_uart,0x78b3000  androidboot.serialno=7e6ba58c androidboot.baseband=msm rootfstype=ubifs rootflags=b
[620] Updating device tree: start
[720] Updating device tree: done
[720] booting linux @ 0x80008000, ramdisk @ 0x80008000 (0), tags/device tree @ 0x81e00000
Linux kernel console boot log
[    0.000000] Booting Linux on physical CPU 0x0
[    0.000000] Linux version 3.18.20 (linux3@linux3) (gcc version 4.9.2 (GCC) ) #1 PREEMPT Thu Aug 10 11:57:07 CST 2017
[    0.000000] CPU: ARMv7 Processor [410fc075] revision 5 (ARMv7), cr=10c53c7d
[    0.000000] CPU: PIPT / VIPT nonaliasing data cache, VIPT aliasing instruction cache
[    0.000000] Machine model: Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. MDM 9607 MTP
[    0.000000] Early serial console at I/O port 0x0 (options '')
[    0.000000] bootconsole [uart0] enabled
[    0.000000] Reserved memory: reserved region for node 'modem_adsp_region@0': base 0x82a00000, size 56 MiB
[    0.000000] Reserved memory: reserved region for node 'external_image_region@0': base 0x87c00000, size 4 MiB
[    0.000000] Removed memory: created DMA memory pool at 0x82a00000, size 56 MiB
[    0.000000] Reserved memory: initialized node modem_adsp_region@0, compatible id removed-dma-pool
[    0.000000] Removed memory: created DMA memory pool at 0x87c00000, size 4 MiB
[    0.000000] Reserved memory: initialized node external_image_region@0, compatible id removed-dma-pool
[    0.000000] cma: Reserved 4 MiB at 0x87800000
[    0.000000] Memory policy: Data cache writeback
[    0.000000] CPU: All CPU(s) started in SVC mode.
[    0.000000] Built 1 zonelists in Zone order, mobility grouping on.  Total pages: 17152
[    0.000000] Kernel command line: noinitrd  rw console=ttyHSL0,115200,n8 androidboot.hardware=qcom ehci-hcd.park=3 msm_rtb.filter=0x37 lpm_levels.sleep_disabled=1  earlycon=msm_hsl_uart,0x78b3000  androidboot.serialno=7e6ba58c androidboot.baseband=msm rootfstype=ubifs rootflags=bulk_read root=ubi0:rootfs ubi.mtd=16
[    0.000000] PID hash table entries: 512 (order: -1, 2048 bytes)
[    0.000000] Dentry cache hash table entries: 16384 (order: 4, 65536 bytes)
[    0.000000] Inode-cache hash table entries: 8192 (order: 3, 32768 bytes)
[    0.000000] Memory: 54792K/69632K available (5830K kernel code, 399K rwdata, 2228K rodata, 276K init, 830K bss, 14840K reserved)
[    0.000000] Virtual kernel memory layout:
[    0.000000]     vector  : 0xffff0000 - 0xffff1000   (   4 kB)
[    0.000000]     fixmap  : 0xffc00000 - 0xfff00000   (3072 kB)
[    0.000000]     vmalloc : 0xc8800000 - 0xff000000   ( 872 MB)
[    0.000000]     lowmem  : 0xc0000000 - 0xc8000000   ( 128 MB)
[    0.000000]     modules : 0xbf000000 - 0xc0000000   (  16 MB)
[    0.000000]       .text : 0xc0008000 - 0xc07e6c38   (8060 kB)
[    0.000000]       .init : 0xc07e7000 - 0xc082c000   ( 276 kB)
[    0.000000]       .data : 0xc082c000 - 0xc088fdc0   ( 400 kB)
[    0.000000]        .bss : 0xc088fe84 - 0xc095f798   ( 831 kB)
[    0.000000] SLUB: HWalign=64, Order=0-3, MinObjects=0, CPUs=1, Nodes=1
[    0.000000] Preemptible hierarchical RCU implementation.
[    0.000000] NR_IRQS:16 nr_irqs:16 16
[    0.000000] GIC CPU mask not found - kernel will fail to boot.
[    0.000000] GIC CPU mask not found - kernel will fail to boot.
[    0.000000] mpm_init_irq_domain(): Cannot find irq controller for qcom,gpio-parent
[    0.000000] MPM 1 irq mapping errored -517
[    0.000000] Architected mmio timer(s) running at 19.20MHz (virt).
[    0.000011] sched_clock: 56 bits at 19MHz, resolution 52ns, wraps every 3579139424256ns
[    0.007975] Switching to timer-based delay loop, resolution 52ns
[    0.013969] Switched to clocksource arch_mem_counter
[    0.019687] Console: colour dummy device 80x30
[    0.023344] Calibrating delay loop (skipped), value calculated using timer frequency.. 38.40 BogoMIPS (lpj=192000)
[    0.033666] pid_max: default: 32768 minimum: 301
[    0.038411] Mount-cache hash table entries: 1024 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
[    0.044902] Mountpoint-cache hash table entries: 1024 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
[    0.052445] CPU: Testing write buffer coherency: ok
[    0.057057] Setting up static identity map for 0x8058aac8 - 0x8058ab20
[    0.064242]
[    0.064242] **********************************************************
[    0.071251] **   NOTICE NOTICE NOTICE NOTICE NOTICE NOTICE NOTICE   **
[    0.077817] **                                                      **
[    0.084302] ** trace_printk() being used. Allocating extra memory.  **
[    0.090781] **                                                      **
[    0.097320] ** This means that this is a DEBUG kernel and it is     **
[    0.103802] ** unsafe for produciton use.                           **
[    0.110339] **                                                      **
[    0.116850] ** If you see this message and you are not debugging    **
[    0.123333] ** the kernel, report this immediately to your vendor!  **
[    0.129870] **                                                      **
[    0.136380] **   NOTICE NOTICE NOTICE NOTICE NOTICE NOTICE NOTICE   **
[    0.142865] **********************************************************
[    0.150225] MSM Memory Dump base table set up
[    0.153739] MSM Memory Dump apps data table set up
[    0.168125] VFP support v0.3: implementor 41 architecture 2 part 30 variant 7 rev 5
[    0.176332] pinctrl core: initialized pinctrl subsystem
[    0.180930] regulator-dummy: no parameters
[    0.215338] NET: Registered protocol family 16
[    0.220475] DMA: preallocated 256 KiB pool for atomic coherent allocations
[    0.284034] cpuidle: using governor ladder
[    0.314026] cpuidle: using governor menu
[    0.344024] cpuidle: using governor qcom
[    0.355452] msm_watchdog b017000.qcom,wdt: wdog absent resource not present
[    0.361656] msm_watchdog b017000.qcom,wdt: MSM Watchdog Initialized
[    0.371373] irq: no irq domain found for /soc/pinctrl@1000000 !
[    0.381268] spmi_pmic_arb 200f000.qcom,spmi: PMIC Arb Version-2 0x20010000
[    0.389733] platform 4080000.qcom,mss: assigned reserved memory node modem_adsp_region@0
[    0.397409] mem_acc_corner: 0 <--> 0 mV
[    0.401937] hw-breakpoint: found 5 (+1 reserved) breakpoint and 4 watchpoint registers.
[    0.408966] hw-breakpoint: maximum watchpoint size is 8 bytes.
[    0.416287] __of_mpm_init(): MPM driver mapping exists
[    0.420940] msm_rpm_glink_dt_parse: qcom,rpm-glink compatible not matches
[    0.427235] msm_rpm_dev_probe: APSS-RPM communication over SMD
[    0.432977] smd_open() before smd_init()
[    0.437544] msm_mpm_dev_probe(): Cannot get clk resource for XO: -517
[    0.445730] smd_channel_probe_now: allocation table not initialized
[    0.453100] mdm9607_s1: 1050 <--> 1350 mV at 1225 mV normal idle
[    0.458566] spm_regulator_probe: name=mdm9607_s1, range=LV, voltage=1225000 uV, mode=AUTO, step rate=4800 uV/us
[    0.468817] cpr_efuse_init: apc_corner: efuse_addr = 0x000a4000 (len=0x1000)
[    0.475353] cpr_read_fuse_revision: apc_corner: fuse revision = 2
[    0.481345] cpr_parse_speed_bin_fuse: apc_corner: [row: 37]: 0x79e8bd327e6ba58c, speed_bits = 4
[    0.490124] cpr_pvs_init: apc_corner: pvs voltage: [1050000 1100000 1275000] uV
[    0.497342] cpr_pvs_init: apc_corner: ceiling voltage: [1050000 1225000 1350000] uV
[    0.504979] cpr_pvs_init: apc_corner: floor voltage: [1050000 1050000 1150000] uV
[    0.513125] i2c-msm-v2 78b8000.i2c: probing driver i2c-msm-v2
[    0.518335] i2c-msm-v2 78b8000.i2c: error on clk_get(core_clk):-517
[    0.524478] i2c-msm-v2 78b8000.i2c: error probe() failed with err:-517
[    0.531111] i2c-msm-v2 78b7000.i2c: probing driver i2c-msm-v2
[    0.536788] i2c-msm-v2 78b7000.i2c: error on clk_get(core_clk):-517
[    0.542886] i2c-msm-v2 78b7000.i2c: error probe() failed with err:-517
[    0.549618] i2c-msm-v2 78b9000.i2c: probing driver i2c-msm-v2
[    0.555202] i2c-msm-v2 78b9000.i2c: error on clk_get(core_clk):-517
[    0.561374] i2c-msm-v2 78b9000.i2c: error probe() failed with err:-517
[    0.570613] msm-thermal soc:qcom,msm-thermal: msm_thermal:Failed reading node=/soc/qcom,msm-thermal, key=qcom,core-limit-temp. err=-22. KTM continues
[    0.583049] msm-thermal soc:qcom,msm-thermal: probe_therm_reset:Failed reading node=/soc/qcom,msm-thermal, key=qcom,therm-reset-temp err=-22. KTM continues
[    0.596926] msm_thermal:msm_thermal_dev_probe Failed reading node=/soc/qcom,msm-thermal, key=qcom,online-hotplug-core. err:-517
[    0.609370] sps:sps is ready.
[    0.613137] msm_rpm_glink_dt_parse: qcom,rpm-glink compatible not matches
[    0.619020] msm_rpm_dev_probe: APSS-RPM communication over SMD
[    0.625773] mdm9607_s2: 750 <--> 1275 mV at 750 mV normal idle
[    0.631584] mdm9607_s3_level: 0 <--> 0 mV at 0 mV normal idle
[    0.637085] mdm9607_s3_level_ao: 0 <--> 0 mV at 0 mV normal idle
[    0.643092] mdm9607_s3_floor_level: 0 <--> 0 mV at 0 mV normal idle
[    0.649512] mdm9607_s3_level_so: 0 <--> 0 mV at 0 mV normal idle
[    0.655750] mdm9607_s4: 1800 <--> 1950 mV at 1800 mV normal idle
[    0.661791] mdm9607_l1: 1250 mV normal idle
[    0.666090] mdm9607_l2: 1800 mV normal idle
[    0.670276] mdm9607_l3: 1800 mV normal idle
[    0.674541] mdm9607_l4: 3075 mV normal idle
[    0.678743] mdm9607_l5: 1700 <--> 3050 mV at 1700 mV normal idle
[    0.684904] mdm9607_l6: 1700 <--> 3050 mV at 1700 mV normal idle
[    0.690892] mdm9607_l7: 1700 <--> 1900 mV at 1700 mV normal idle
[    0.697036] mdm9607_l8: 1800 mV normal idle
[    0.701238] mdm9607_l9: 1200 <--> 1250 mV at 1200 mV normal idle
[    0.707367] mdm9607_l10: 1050 mV normal idle
[    0.711662] mdm9607_l11: 1800 mV normal idle
[    0.716089] mdm9607_l12_level: 0 <--> 0 mV at 0 mV normal idle
[    0.721717] mdm9607_l12_level_ao: 0 <--> 0 mV at 0 mV normal idle
[    0.727946] mdm9607_l12_level_so: 0 <--> 0 mV at 0 mV normal idle
[    0.734099] mdm9607_l12_floor_lebel: 0 <--> 0 mV at 0 mV normal idle
[    0.740706] mdm9607_l13: 1800 <--> 2850 mV at 2850 mV normal idle
[    0.746883] mdm9607_l14: 2650 <--> 3000 mV at 2650 mV normal idle
[    0.752515] msm_mpm_dev_probe(): Cannot get clk resource for XO: -517
[    0.759036] cpr_efuse_init: apc_corner: efuse_addr = 0x000a4000 (len=0x1000)
[    0.765807] cpr_read_fuse_revision: apc_corner: fuse revision = 2
[    0.771809] cpr_parse_speed_bin_fuse: apc_corner: [row: 37]: 0x79e8bd327e6ba58c, speed_bits = 4
[    0.780586] cpr_pvs_init: apc_corner: pvs voltage: [1050000 1100000 1275000] uV
[    0.787808] cpr_pvs_init: apc_corner: ceiling voltage: [1050000 1225000 1350000] uV
[    0.795443] cpr_pvs_init: apc_corner: floor voltage: [1050000 1050000 1150000] uV
[    0.803094] cpr_init_cpr_parameters: apc_corner: up threshold = 2, down threshold = 3
[    0.810752] cpr_init_cpr_parameters: apc_corner: CPR is enabled by default.
[    0.817687] cpr_init_cpr_efuse: apc_corner: [row:65] = 0x15000277277383
[    0.824272] cpr_init_cpr_efuse: apc_corner: CPR disable fuse = 0
[    0.830225] cpr_init_cpr_efuse: apc_corner: Corner[1]: ro_sel = 0, target quot = 631
[    0.837976] cpr_init_cpr_efuse: apc_corner: Corner[2]: ro_sel = 0, target quot = 631
[    0.845703] cpr_init_cpr_efuse: apc_corner: Corner[3]: ro_sel = 0, target quot = 899
[    0.853592] cpr_config: apc_corner: Timer count: 0x17700 (for 5000 us)
[    0.860426] apc_corner: 0 <--> 0 mV
[    0.864044] i2c-msm-v2 78b8000.i2c: probing driver i2c-msm-v2
[    0.869261] i2c-msm-v2 78b8000.i2c: error on clk_get(core_clk):-517
[    0.875492] i2c-msm-v2 78b8000.i2c: error probe() failed with err:-517
[    0.882225] i2c-msm-v2 78b7000.i2c: probing driver i2c-msm-v2
[    0.887775] i2c-msm-v2 78b7000.i2c: error on clk_get(core_clk):-517
[    0.893941] i2c-msm-v2 78b7000.i2c: error probe() failed with err:-517
[    0.900719] i2c-msm-v2 78b9000.i2c: probing driver i2c-msm-v2
[    0.906256] i2c-msm-v2 78b9000.i2c: error on clk_get(core_clk):-517
[    0.912430] i2c-msm-v2 78b9000.i2c: error probe() failed with err:-517
[    0.919472] msm-thermal soc:qcom,msm-thermal: msm_thermal:Failed reading node=/soc/qcom,msm-thermal, key=qcom,core-limit-temp. err=-22. KTM continues
[    0.932372] msm-thermal soc:qcom,msm-thermal: probe_therm_reset:Failed reading node=/soc/qcom,msm-thermal,
key=qcom,therm-reset-temp err=-22. KTM continues
[    0.946361] msm_thermal:get_kernel_cluster_info CPU0 topology not initialized.
[    0.953824] cpu cpu0: dev_pm_opp_get_opp_count: device OPP not found (-19)
[    0.960300] msm_thermal:get_cpu_freq_plan_len Error reading CPU0 freq table len. error:-19
[    0.968533] msm_thermal:vdd_restriction_reg_init Defer vdd rstr freq init.
[    0.975846] cpu cpu0: dev_pm_opp_get_opp_count: device OPP not found (-19)
[    0.982219] msm_thermal:get_cpu_freq_plan_len Error reading CPU0 freq table len. error:-19
[    0.991378] cpu cpu0: dev_pm_opp_get_opp_count: device OPP not found (-19)
[    0.997544] msm_thermal:get_cpu_freq_plan_len Error reading CPU0 freq table len. error:-19
[    1.013642] qcom,gcc-mdm9607 1800000.qcom,gcc: Registered GCC clocks
[    1.019451] clock-a7 b010008.qcom,clock-a7: Speed bin: 4 PVS Version: 0
[    1.025693] a7ssmux: set OPP pair(400000000 Hz: 1 uV) on cpu0
[    1.031314] a7ssmux: set OPP pair(1305600000 Hz: 7 uV) on cpu0
[    1.038805] i2c-msm-v2 78b8000.i2c: probing driver i2c-msm-v2
[    1.043587] AXI: msm_bus_scale_register_client(): msm_bus_scale_register_client: Bus driver not ready.
[    1.052935] i2c-msm-v2 78b8000.i2c: msm_bus_scale_register_client(mstr-id:86):0 (not a problem)
[    1.062006] irq: no irq domain found for /soc/wcd9xxx-irq !
[    1.069884] i2c-msm-v2 78b7000.i2c: probing driver i2c-msm-v2
[    1.074814] AXI: msm_bus_scale_register_client(): msm_bus_scale_register_client: Bus driver not ready.
[    1.083716] i2c-msm-v2 78b7000.i2c: msm_bus_scale_register_client(mstr-id:86):0 (not a problem)
[    1.093850] i2c-msm-v2 78b9000.i2c: probing driver i2c-msm-v2
[    1.098889] AXI: msm_bus_scale_register_client(): msm_bus_scale_register_client: Bus driver not ready.
[    1.107779] i2c-msm-v2 78b9000.i2c: msm_bus_scale_register_client(mstr-id:86):0 (not a problem)
[    1.167871] KPI: Bootloader start count = 24097
[    1.171364] KPI: Bootloader end count = 48481
[    1.175855] KPI: Bootloader display count = 3884474147
[    1.180825] KPI: Bootloader load kernel count = 16420
[    1.185905] KPI: Kernel MPM timestamp = 105728
[    1.190286] KPI: Kernel MPM Clock frequency = 32768
[    1.195209] socinfo_print: v0.10, id=297, ver=1.0, raw_id=72, raw_ver=0, hw_plat=8, hw_plat_ver=65536
[    1.195209]  accessory_chip=0, hw_plat_subtype=0, pmic_model=65539, pmic_die_revision=131074 foundry_id=0 serial_number=2120983948
[    1.216731] sdcard_ext_vreg: no parameters
[    1.220555] rome_vreg: no parameters
[    1.224133] emac_lan_vreg: no parameters
[    1.228177] usbcore: registered new interface driver usbfs
[    1.233156] usbcore: registered new interface driver hub
[    1.238578] usbcore: registered new device driver usb
[    1.244507] cpufreq: driver msm up and running
[    1.248425] ION heap system created
[    1.251895] msm_bus_fabric_init_driver
[    1.262563] qcom,qpnp-power-on qpnp-power-on-c7303800: PMIC@SID0 Power-on reason: Triggered from PON1 (secondary PMIC) and 'cold' boot
[    1.273747] qcom,qpnp-power-on qpnp-power-on-c7303800: PMIC@SID0: Power-off reason: Triggered from UVLO (Under Voltage Lock Out)
[    1.285430] input: qpnp_pon as /devices/virtual/input/input0
[    1.291246] PMIC@SID0: PM8019 v2.2 options: 3, 2, 2, 2
[    1.296706] Advanced Linux Sound Architecture Driver Initialized.
[    1.302493] Add group failed
[    1.305291] cfg80211: Calling CRDA to update world regulatory domain
[    1.311216] cfg80211: World regulatory domain updated:
[    1.317109] Switched to clocksource arch_mem_counter
[    1.334091] cfg80211:  DFS Master region: unset
[    1.337418] cfg80211:   (start_freq - end_freq @ bandwidth), (max_antenna_gain, max_eirp), (dfs_cac_time)
[    1.354087] cfg80211:   (2402000 KHz - 2472000 KHz @ 40000 KHz), (N/A, 2000 mBm), (N/A)
[    1.361055] cfg80211:   (2457000 KHz - 2482000 KHz @ 40000 KHz), (N/A, 2000 mBm), (N/A)
[    1.370545] NET: Registered protocol family 2
[    1.374082] cfg80211:   (2474000 KHz - 2494000 KHz @ 20000 KHz), (N/A, 2000 mBm), (N/A)
[    1.381851] cfg80211:   (5170000 KHz - 5250000 KHz @ 80000 KHz), (N/A, 2000 mBm), (N/A)
[    1.389876] cfg80211:   (5250000 KHz - 5330000 KHz @ 80000 KHz), (N/A, 2000 mBm), (N/A)
[    1.397857] cfg80211:   (5490000 KHz - 5710000 KHz @ 80000 KHz), (N/A, 2000 mBm), (N/A)
[    1.405841] cfg80211:   (5735000 KHz - 5835000 KHz @ 80000 KHz), (N/A, 2000 mBm), (N/A)
[    1.413795] cfg80211:   (57240000 KHz - 63720000 KHz @ 2160000 KHz), (N/A, 0 mBm), (N/A)
[    1.422355] TCP established hash table entries: 1024 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
[    1.428921] TCP bind hash table entries: 1024 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
[    1.435192] TCP: Hash tables configured (established 1024 bind 1024)
[    1.441528] TCP: reno registered
[    1.444738] UDP hash table entries: 256 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
[    1.450521] UDP-Lite hash table entries: 256 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
[    1.456950] NET: Registered protocol family 1
[    1.462779] futex hash table entries: 256 (order: -1, 3072 bytes)
[    1.474555] msgmni has been set to 115
[    1.478551] Block layer SCSI generic (bsg) driver version 0.4 loaded (major 251)
[    1.485041] io scheduler noop registered
[    1.488818] io scheduler deadline registered
[    1.493200] io scheduler cfq registered (default)
[    1.502142] msm_rpm_log_probe: OK
[    1.506717] msm_serial_hs module loaded
[    1.509803] msm_serial_hsl_probe: detected port #0 (ttyHSL0)
[    1.515324] AXI: get_pdata(): Error: Client name not found
[    1.520626] AXI: msm_bus_cl_get_pdata(): client has to provide missing entry for successful registration
[    1.530171] msm_serial_hsl_probe: Bus scaling is disabled                      [    1.074814] AXI: msm_bus_scale_register_client(): msm_bus_scale_register_client: Bus driver not ready.
[    1.083716] i2c-msm-v2 78b7000.i2c: msm_bus_scale_register_client(mstr-id:86):0 (not a problem)
[    1.093850] i2c-msm-v2 78b9000.i2c: probing driver i2c-msm-v2
[    1.098889] AXI: msm_bus_scale_register_client(): msm_bus_scale_register_client: Bus driver not ready.
[    1.107779] i2c-msm-v2 78b9000.i2c: msm_bus_scale_register_client(mstr-id:86):0 (not a problem)
[    1.167871] KPI: Bootloader start count = 24097
[    1.171364] KPI: Bootloader end count = 48481
[    1.175855] KPI: Bootloader display count = 3884474147
[    1.180825] KPI: Bootloader load kernel count = 16420
[    1.185905] KPI: Kernel MPM timestamp = 105728
[    1.190286] KPI: Kernel MPM Clock frequency = 32768
[    1.195209] socinfo_print: v0.10, id=297, ver=1.0, raw_id=72, raw_ver=0, hw_plat=8, hw_plat_ver=65536
[    1.195209]  accessory_chip=0, hw_plat_subtype=0, pmic_model=65539, pmic_die_revision=131074 foundry_id=0 serial_number=2120983948
[    1.216731] sdcard_ext_vreg: no parameters
[    1.220555] rome_vreg: no parameters
[    1.224133] emac_lan_vreg: no parameters
[    1.228177] usbcore: registered new interface driver usbfs
[    1.233156] usbcore: registered new interface driver hub
[    1.238578] usbcore: registered new device driver usb
[    1.244507] cpufreq: driver msm up and running
[    1.248425] ION heap system created
[    1.251895] msm_bus_fabric_init_driver
[    1.262563] qcom,qpnp-power-on qpnp-power-on-c7303800: PMIC@SID0 Power-on reason: Triggered from PON1 (secondary PMIC) and 'cold' boot
[    1.273747] qcom,qpnp-power-on qpnp-power-on-c7303800: PMIC@SID0: Power-off reason: Triggered from UVLO (Under Voltage Lock Out)
[    1.285430] input: qpnp_pon as /devices/virtual/input/input0
[    1.291246] PMIC@SID0: PM8019 v2.2 options: 3, 2, 2, 2
[    1.296706] Advanced Linux Sound Architecture Driver Initialized.
[    1.302493] Add group failed
[    1.305291] cfg80211: Calling CRDA to update world regulatory domain
[    1.311216] cfg80211: World regulatory domain updated:
[    1.317109] Switched to clocksource arch_mem_counter
[    1.334091] cfg80211:  DFS Master region: unset
[    1.337418] cfg80211:   (start_freq - end_freq @ bandwidth), (max_antenna_gain, max_eirp), (dfs_cac_time)
[    1.354087] cfg80211:   (2402000 KHz - 2472000 KHz @ 40000 KHz), (N/A, 2000 mBm), (N/A)
[    1.361055] cfg80211:   (2457000 KHz - 2482000 KHz @ 40000 KHz), (N/A, 2000 mBm), (N/A)
[    1.370545] NET: Registered protocol family 2
[    1.374082] cfg80211:   (2474000 KHz - 2494000 KHz @ 20000 KHz), (N/A, 2000 mBm), (N/A)
[    1.381851] cfg80211:   (5170000 KHz - 5250000 KHz @ 80000 KHz), (N/A, 2000 mBm), (N/A)
[    1.389876] cfg80211:   (5250000 KHz - 5330000 KHz @ 80000 KHz), (N/A, 2000 mBm), (N/A)
[    1.397857] cfg80211:   (5490000 KHz - 5710000 KHz @ 80000 KHz), (N/A, 2000 mBm), (N/A)
[    1.405841] cfg80211:   (5735000 KHz - 5835000 KHz @ 80000 KHz), (N/A, 2000 mBm), (N/A)
[    1.413795] cfg80211:   (57240000 KHz - 63720000 KHz @ 2160000 KHz), (N/A, 0 mBm), (N/A)
[    1.422355] TCP established hash table entries: 1024 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
[    1.428921] TCP bind hash table entries: 1024 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
[    1.435192] TCP: Hash tables configured (established 1024 bind 1024)
[    1.441528] TCP: reno registered
[    1.444738] UDP hash table entries: 256 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
[    1.450521] UDP-Lite hash table entries: 256 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
[    1.456950] NET: Registered protocol family 1
[    1.462779] futex hash table entries: 256 (order: -1, 3072 bytes)
[    1.474555] msgmni has been set to 115
[    1.478551] Block layer SCSI generic (bsg) driver version 0.4 loaded (major 251)
[    1.485041] io scheduler noop registered
[    1.488818] io scheduler deadline registered
[    1.493200] io scheduler cfq registered (default)
[    1.502142] msm_rpm_log_probe: OK
[    1.506717] msm_serial_hs module loaded
[    1.509803] msm_serial_hsl_probe: detected port #0 (ttyHSL0)
[    1.515324] AXI: get_pdata(): Error: Client name not found
[    1.520626] AXI: msm_bus_cl_get_pdata(): client has to provide missing entry for successful registration
[    1.530171] msm_serial_hsl_probe: Bus scaling is disabled
[    1.535696] 78b3000.serial: ttyHSL0 at MMIO 0x78b3000 (irq = 153, base_baud = 460800 [    1.544155] msm_hsl_console_setup: console setup on port #0
[    1.548727] console [ttyHSL0] enabled
[    1.548727] console [ttyHSL0] enabled
[    1.556014] bootconsole [uart0] disabled
[    1.556014] bootconsole [uart0] disabled
[    1.564212] msm_serial_hsl_init: driver initialized
[    1.578450] brd: module loaded
[    1.582920] loop: module loaded
[    1.589183] sps: BAM device 0x07984000 is not registered yet.
[    1.594234] sps:BAM 0x07984000 is registered.
[    1.598072] msm_nand_bam_init: msm_nand_bam_init: BAM device registered: bam_handle 0xc69f6400
[    1.607103] sps:BAM 0x07984000 (va:0xc89a0000) enabled: ver:0x18, number of pipes:7
[    1.616588] msm_nand_parse_smem_ptable: Parsing partition table info from SMEM
[    1.622805] msm_nand_parse_smem_ptable: SMEM partition table found: ver: 4 len: 17
[    1.630391] msm_nand_version_check: nand_major:1, nand_minor:5, qpic_major:1, qpic_minor:5
[    1.638642] msm_nand_scan: NAND Id: 0x1590aa98 Buswidth: 8Bits Density: 256 MByte
[    1.646069] msm_nand_scan: pagesize: 2048 Erasesize: 131072 oobsize: 128 (in Bytes)
[    1.653676] msm_nand_scan: BCH ECC: 8 Bit
[    1.657710] msm_nand_scan: CFG0: 0x290408c0,           CFG1: 0x0804715c
[    1.657710]             RAWCFG0: 0x2b8400c0,        RAWCFG1: 0x0005055d
[    1.657710]           ECCBUFCFG: 0x00000203,      ECCBCHCFG: 0x42040d10
[    1.657710]           RAWECCCFG: 0x42000d11, BAD BLOCK BYTE: 0x000001c5
[    1.684101] Creating 17 MTD partitions on "7980000.nand":
[    1.689447] 0x000000000000-0x000000140000 : "sbl"
[    1.694867] 0x000000140000-0x000000280000 : "mibib"
[    1.699560] 0x000000280000-0x000000e80000 : "efs2"
[    1.704408] 0x000000e80000-0x000000f40000 : "tz"
[    1.708934] 0x000000f40000-0x000000fa0000 : "rpm"
[    1.713625] 0x000000fa0000-0x000001000000 : "aboot"
[    1.718582] 0x000001000000-0x0000017e0000 : "boot"
[    1.723281] 0x0000017e0000-0x000002820000 : "scrub"
[    1.728174] 0x000002820000-0x000005020000 : "modem"
[    1.732968] 0x000005020000-0x000005420000 : "rfbackup"
[    1.738156] 0x000005420000-0x000005820000 : "oem"
[    1.742770] 0x000005820000-0x000005f00000 : "recovery"
[    1.747972] 0x000005f00000-0x000009100000 : "cache"
[    1.752787] 0x000009100000-0x000009a40000 : "recoveryfs"
[    1.758389] 0x000009a40000-0x00000aa40000 : "cdrom"
[    1.762967] 0x00000aa40000-0x00000ba40000 : "jrdresource"
[    1.768407] 0x00000ba40000-0x000010000000 : "system"
[    1.773239] msm_nand_probe: NANDc phys addr 0x7980000, BAM phys addr 0x7984000, BAM IRQ 164
[    1.781074] msm_nand_probe: Allocated DMA buffer at virt_addr 0xc7840000, phys_addr 0x87840000
[    1.791872] PPP generic driver version 2.4.2
[    1.801126] cnss_sdio 87a00000.qcom,cnss-sdio: CNSS SDIO Driver registered
[    1.807554] msm_otg 78d9000.usb: msm_otg probe
[    1.813333] msm_otg 78d9000.usb: OTG regs = c88f8000
[    1.820702] gbridge_init: gbridge_init successs.
[    1.826344] msm_otg 78d9000.usb: phy_reset: success
[    1.830294] qcom,qpnp-rtc qpnp-rtc-c7307000: rtc core: registered qpnp_rtc as rtc0
[    1.838474] i2c /dev entries driver
[    1.842459] unable to find DT imem DLOAD mode node
[    1.846588] unable to find DT imem EDLOAD mode node
[    1.851332] unable to find DT imem dload-type node
[    1.856921] bq24295-charger 4-006b: bq24295 probe enter
[    1.861161] qcom,iterm-ma = 128
[    1.864476] bq24295_otg_vreg: no parameters
[    1.868502] charger_core_register: Charger Core Version 5.0.0(Built at 20151202-21:36)!
[    1.877007] i2c-msm-v2 78b8000.i2c: msm_bus_scale_register_client(mstr-id:86):0x3 (ok)
[    1.885559] bq24295-charger 4-006b: bq24295_set_bhot_mode 3
[    1.890150] bq24295-charger 4-006b: power_good is 1,vbus_stat is 2
[    1.896588] bq24295-charger 4-006b: bq24295_set_thermal_threshold 100
[    1.902952] bq24295-charger 4-006b: bq24295_set_sys_min 3700
[    1.908639] bq24295-charger 4-006b: bq24295_set_max_target_voltage 4150
[    1.915223] bq24295-charger 4-006b: bq24295_set_recharge_threshold 300
[    1.922119] bq24295-charger 4-006b: bq24295_set_terminal_current_limit iterm_disabled=0, iterm_ma=128
[    1.930917] bq24295-charger 4-006b: bq24295_set_precharge_current_limit bdi->prech_cur=128
[    1.940038] bq24295-charger 4-006b: bq24295_set_safty_timer 0
[    1.945088] bq24295-charger 4-006b: bq24295_set_input_voltage_limit 4520
[    1.972949] sdhci: Secure Digital Host Controller Interface driver
[    1.978151] sdhci: Copyright(c) Pierre Ossman
[    1.982441] sdhci-pltfm: SDHCI platform and OF driver helper
[    1.989092] sdhci_msm 7824900.sdhci: sdhci_msm_probe: ICE device is not enabled
[    1.995473] sdhci_msm 7824900.sdhci: No vreg data found for vdd
[    2.001530] sdhci_msm 7824900.sdhci: sdhci_msm_pm_qos_parse_irq: error -22 reading irq cpu
[    2.009809] sdhci_msm 7824900.sdhci: sdhci_msm_pm_qos_parse: PM QoS voting for IRQ will be disabled
[    2.018600] sdhci_msm 7824900.sdhci: sdhci_msm_pm_qos_parse: PM QoS voting for cpu group will be disabled
[    2.030541] sdhci_msm 7824900.sdhci: sdhci_msm_probe: sdiowakeup_irq = 353
[    2.036867] sdhci_msm 7824900.sdhci: No vmmc regulator found
[    2.042027] sdhci_msm 7824900.sdhci: No vqmmc regulator found
[    2.048266] mmc0: SDHCI controller on 7824900.sdhci [7824900.sdhci] using 32-bit ADMA in legacy mode
[    2.080401] Welcome to pca955x_probe!!
[    2.084362] leds-pca955x 3-0020: leds-pca955x: Using pca9555 16-bit LED driver at slave address 0x20
[    2.095400] sdhci_msm 7824900.sdhci: card claims to support voltages below defined range
[    2.103125] i2c-msm-v2 78b7000.i2c: msm_bus_scale_register_client(mstr-id:86):0x5 (ok)
[    2.114183] msm_otg 78d9000.usb: Avail curr from USB = 1500
[    2.120251] come to USB_SDP_CHARGER!
[    2.123215] Welcome to sn3199_probe!
[    2.126718] leds-sn3199 5-0064: leds-sn3199: Using sn3199 9-bit LED driver at slave address 0x64
[    2.136511] sn3199->led_en_gpio=21
[    2.139143] i2c-msm-v2 78b9000.i2c: msm_bus_scale_register_client(mstr-id:86):0x6 (ok)
[    2.150207] usbcore: registered new interface driver usbhid
[    2.154864] usbhid: USB HID core driver
[    2.159825] sps:BAM 0x078c4000 is registered.
[    2.163573] bimc-bwmon 408000.qcom,cpu-bwmon: BW HWmon governor registered.
[    2.171080] devfreq soc:qcom,cpubw: Couldn't update frequency transition information.
[    2.178513] coresight-fuse a601c.fuse: QPDI fuse not specified
[    2.184242] coresight-fuse a601c.fuse: Fuse initialized
[    2.192407] coresight-csr 6001000.csr: CSR initialized
[    2.197263] coresight-tmc 6026000.tmc: Byte Counter feature enabled
[    2.203204] sps:BAM 0x06084000 is registered.
[    2.207301] coresight-tmc 6026000.tmc: TMC initialized
[    2.212681] coresight-tmc 6025000.tmc: TMC initialized
[    2.220071] nidnt boot config: 0
[    2.224563] mmc0: new ultra high speed SDR50 SDIO card at address 0001
[    2.231120] coresight-tpiu 6020000.tpiu: NIDnT on SDCARD only mode
[    2.236440] coresight-tpiu 6020000.tpiu: TPIU initialized
[    2.242808] coresight-replicator 6024000.replicator: REPLICATOR initialized
[    2.249372] coresight-stm 6002000.stm: STM initialized
[    2.255034] coresight-hwevent 606c000.hwevent: Hardware Event driver initialized
[    2.262312] Netfilter messages via NETLINK v0.30.
[    2.266306] nf_conntrack version 0.5.0 (920 buckets, 3680 max)
[    2.272312] ctnetlink v0.93: registering with nfnetlink.
[    2.277565] ip_set: protocol 6
[    2.280568] ip_tables: (C) 2000-2006 Netfilter Core Team
[    2.285723] arp_tables: (C) 2002 David S. Miller
[    2.290146] TCP: cubic registered
[    2.293915] NET: Registered protocol family 10
[    2.298740] ip6_tables: (C) 2000-2006 Netfilter Core Team
[    2.303407] sit: IPv6 over IPv4 tunneling driver
[    2.308481] NET: Registered protocol family 17
[    2.312340] bridge: automatic filtering via arp/ip/ip6tables has been deprecated. Update your scripts to load br_netfilter if you need this.
[    2.325094] Bridge firewalling registered
[    2.328930] Ebtables v2.0 registered
[    2.333260] NET: Registered protocol family 27
[    2.341362] battery_core_register: Battery Core Version 5.0.0(Built at 20151202-21:36)!
[    2.348466] pmu_battery_probe: vbat_channel=21, tbat_channel=17
[    2.420236] ubi0: attaching mtd16
[    2.723941] ubi0: scanning is finished
[    2.732997] ubi0: attached mtd16 (name "system", size 69 MiB)
[    2.737783] ubi0: PEB size: 131072 bytes (128 KiB), LEB size: 126976 bytes
[    2.744601] ubi0: min./max. I/O unit sizes: 2048/2048, sub-page size 2048
[    2.751333] ubi0: VID header offset: 2048 (aligned 2048), data offset: 4096
[    2.758540] ubi0: good PEBs: 556, bad PEBs: 2, corrupted PEBs: 0
[    2.764305] ubi0: user volume: 3, internal volumes: 1, max. volumes count: 128
[    2.771476] ubi0: max/mean erase counter: 192/64, WL threshold: 4096, image sequence number: 35657280
[    2.780708] ubi0: available PEBs: 0, total reserved PEBs: 556, PEBs reserved for bad PEB handling: 38
[    2.789921] ubi0: background thread "ubi_bgt0d" started, PID 96
[    2.796395] android_bind cdev: 0xC6583E80, name: ci13xxx_msm
[    2.801508] file system registered
[    2.804974] mbim_init: initialize 1 instances
[    2.809228] mbim_init: Initialized 1 ports
[    2.815074] rndis_qc_init: initialize rndis QC instance
[    2.819713] jrd device_desc.bcdDevice: [0x0242]
[    2.823779] android_bind scheduled usb start work: name: ci13xxx_msm
[    2.830230] android_usb gadget: android_usb ready
[    2.834845] msm_hsusb msm_hsusb: [ci13xxx_start] hw_ep_max = 32
[    2.840741] msm_hsusb msm_hsusb: CI13XXX_CONTROLLER_RESET_EVENT received
[    2.847433] msm_hsusb msm_hsusb: CI13XXX_CONTROLLER_UDC_STARTED_EVENT received
[    2.855851] input: gpio-keys as /devices/soc:gpio_keys/input/input1
[    2.861452] qcom,qpnp-rtc qpnp-rtc-c7307000: setting system clock to 1970-01-01 06:36:41 UTC (23801)
[    2.870315] open file error /usb_conf/usb_config.ini
[    2.876412] jrd_usb_start_work open file erro /usb_conf/usb_config.ini, retry_count:0
[    2.884324] parse_legacy_cluster_params(): Ignoring cluster params
[    2.889468] ------------[ cut here ]------------
[    2.894186] WARNING: CPU: 0 PID: 1 at /home/linux3/jrd/yanping.an/ee40/0810/MDM9607.LE.1.0-00130/apps_proc/oe-core/build/tmp-glibc/work-shared/mdm9607/kernel-source/drivers/cpuidle/lpm-levels-of.c:739 parse_cluster+0xb50/0xcb4()
[    2.914366] Modules linked in:
[    2.917339] CPU: 0 PID: 1 Comm: swapper Not tainted 3.18.20 #1
[    2.923171] [<c00132ac>] (unwind_backtrace) from [<c0011460>] (show_stack+0x10/0x14)
[    2.931092] [<c0011460>] (show_stack) from [<c001c6ac>] (warn_slowpath_common+0x68/0x88)
[    2.939175] [<c001c6ac>] (warn_slowpath_common) from [<c001c75c>] (warn_slowpath_null+0x18/0x20)
[    2.947895] [<c001c75c>] (warn_slowpath_null) from [<c034e180>] (parse_cluster+0xb50/0xcb4)
[    2.956189] [<c034e180>] (parse_cluster) from [<c034b6b4>] (lpm_probe+0xc/0x1d4)
[    2.963527] [<c034b6b4>] (lpm_probe) from [<c024857c>] (platform_drv_probe+0x30/0x7c)
[    2.971380] [<c024857c>] (platform_drv_probe) from [<c0246d54>] (driver_probe_device+0xb8/0x1e8)
[    2.980118] [<c0246d54>] (driver_probe_device) from [<c0246f30>] (__driver_attach+0x68/0x8c)
[    2.988467] [<c0246f30>] (__driver_attach) from [<c02455d0>] (bus_for_each_dev+0x6c/0x90)
[    2.996626] [<c02455d0>] (bus_for_each_dev) from [<c02465a4>] (bus_add_driver+0xe0/0x1c8)
[    3.004786] [<c02465a4>] (bus_add_driver) from [<c02477bc>] (driver_register+0x9c/0xe0)
[    3.012739] [<c02477bc>] (driver_register) from [<c080c3d8>] (lpm_levels_module_init+0x14/0x38)
[    3.021459] [<c080c3d8>] (lpm_levels_module_init) from [<c0008980>] (do_one_initcall+0xf8/0x1a0)
[    3.030217] [<c0008980>] (do_one_initcall) from [<c07e7d4c>] (kernel_init_freeable+0xf0/0x1b0)
[    3.038818] [<c07e7d4c>] (kernel_init_freeable) from [<c0582d48>] (kernel_init+0x8/0xe4)
[    3.046888] [<c0582d48>] (kernel_init) from [<c000dda0>] (ret_from_fork+0x14/0x34)
[    3.054432] ---[ end trace e9ec50b1ec4c8f73 ]---
[    3.059012] ------------[ cut here ]------------
[    3.063604] WARNING: CPU: 0 PID: 1 at /home/linux3/jrd/yanping.an/ee40/0810/MDM9607.LE.1.0-00130/apps_proc/oe-core/build/tmp-glibc/work-shared/mdm9607/kernel-source/drivers/cpuidle/lpm-levels-of.c:739 parse_cluster+0xb50/0xcb4()
[    3.083858] Modules linked in:
[    3.086870] CPU: 0 PID: 1 Comm: swapper Tainted: G        W      3.18.20 #1
[    3.093814] [<c00132ac>] (unwind_backtrace) from [<c0011460>] (show_stack+0x10/0x14)
[    3.101575] [<c0011460>] (show_stack) from [<c001c6ac>] (warn_slowpath_common+0x68/0x88)
[    3.109641] [<c001c6ac>] (warn_slowpath_common) from [<c001c75c>] (warn_slowpath_null+0x18/0x20)
[    3.118412] [<c001c75c>] (warn_slowpath_null) from [<c034e180>] (parse_cluster+0xb50/0xcb4)
[    3.126745] [<c034e180>] (parse_cluster) from [<c034b6b4>] (lpm_probe+0xc/0x1d4)
[    3.134126] [<c034b6b4>] (lpm_probe) from [<c024857c>] (platform_drv_probe+0x30/0x7c)
[    3.141906] [<c024857c>] (platform_drv_probe) from [<c0246d54>] (driver_probe_device+0xb8/0x1e8)
[    3.150702] [<c0246d54>] (driver_probe_device) from [<c0246f30>] (__driver_attach+0x68/0x8c)
[    3.159120] [<c0246f30>] (__driver_attach) from [<c02455d0>] (bus_for_each_dev+0x6c/0x90)
[    3.167285] [<c02455d0>] (bus_for_each_dev) from [<c02465a4>] (bus_add_driver+0xe0/0x1c8)
[    3.175444] [<c02465a4>] (bus_add_driver) from [<c02477bc>] (driver_register+0x9c/0xe0)
[    3.183398] [<c02477bc>] (driver_register) from [<c080c3d8>] (lpm_levels_module_init+0x14/0x38)
[    3.192107] [<c080c3d8>] (lpm_levels_module_init) from [<c0008980>] (do_one_initcall+0xf8/0x1a0)
[    3.200877] [<c0008980>] (do_one_initcall) from [<c07e7d4c>] (kernel_init_freeable+0xf0/0x1b0)
[    3.209475] [<c07e7d4c>] (kernel_init_freeable) from [<c0582d48>] (kernel_init+0x8/0xe4)
[    3.217542] [<c0582d48>] (kernel_init) from [<c000dda0>] (ret_from_fork+0x14/0x34)
[    3.225090] ---[ end trace e9ec50b1ec4c8f74 ]---
[    3.229667] /soc/qcom,lpm-levels/qcom,pm-cluster@0: No CPU phandle, assuming single cluster
[    3.239954] qcom,cc-debug-mdm9607 1800000.qcom,debug: Registered Debug Mux successfully
[    3.247619] emac_lan_vreg: disabling
[    3.250507] mem_acc_corner: disabling
[    3.254196] clock_late_init: Removing enables held for handed-off clocks
[    3.262690] ALSA device list:
[    3.264732]   No soundcard [    3.274083] UBIFS (ubi0:0): background thread "ubifs_bgt0_0" started, PID 102
[    3.305224] UBIFS (ubi0:0): recovery needed
[    3.466156] UBIFS (ubi0:0): recovery completed
[    3.469627] UBIFS (ubi0:0): UBIFS: mounted UBI device 0, volume 0, name "rootfs"
[    3.476987] UBIFS (ubi0:0): LEB size: 126976 bytes (124 KiB), min./max. I/O unit sizes: 2048 bytes/2048 bytes
[    3.486876] UBIFS (ubi0:0): FS size: 45838336 bytes (43 MiB, 361 LEBs), journal size 9023488 bytes (8 MiB, 72 LEBs)
[    3.497417] UBIFS (ubi0:0): reserved for root: 0 bytes (0 KiB)
[    3.503078] UBIFS (ubi0:0): media format: w4/r0 (latest is w4/r0), UUID 4DBB2F12-34EB-43B6-839B-3BA930765BAE, small LPT model
[    3.515582] VFS: Mounted root (ubifs filesystem) on device 0:12.
[    3.520940] Freeing unused kernel memory: 276K (c07e7000 - c082c000)
INIT: version 2.88 booting

14 February 2021

Fran ois Marier: Creating a Kodi media PC using a Raspberry Pi 4

Here's how I set up a media PC using Kodi (formerly XMBC) and a Raspberry Pi 4.

Hardware The hardware is fairly straightforward, but here's what I ended up getting: You'll probably want to add a remote control to that setup. I used an old Streamzap I had lying around.

Installing the OS on the SD-card Plug the SD card into a computer using a USB adapter. Download the imager and use it to install Raspbian on the SDcard. Then you can simply plug the SD card into the Pi and boot.

System configuration Using sudo raspi-config, I changed the following:
  • Set hostname (System Options)
  • Wait for network at boot (System Options): needed for NFS
  • Disable screen blanking (Display Options)
  • Enable ssh (Interface Options)
  • Configure locale, timezone and keyboard (Localisation Options)
  • Set WiFi country (Localisation Options)
Then I enabled automatic updates:
apt install unattended-upgrades anacron
echo 'Unattended-Upgrade::Origins-Pattern  
        "origin=Debian,codename=$ distro_codename ,label=Debian";
        "origin=Debian,codename=$ distro_codename ,label=Debian-Security";
        "origin=Raspbian,codename=$ distro_codename ,label=Raspbian";
        "origin=Raspberry Pi Foundation,codename=$ distro_codename ,label=Raspberry Pi Foundation";
 ;'   sudo tee /etc/apt/apt.conf.d/51unattended-upgrades-raspbian

Headless setup Should you need to do the setup without a monitor, you can enable ssh by inserting the SD card into a computer and then creating an empty file called ssh in the boot partition. Plug it into your router and boot it up. Check the IP that it received by looking at the active DHCP leases in your router's admin panel. Then login:
ssh -o PreferredAuthentications=password -o PubkeyAuthentication=no pi@192.168.1.xxx
using the default password of raspberry.

Hardening In order to secure the Pi, I followed most of the steps I usually take when setting up a new Linux server. I created a new user account for admin and ssh access:
adduser francois
addgroup sshuser
adduser francois sshuser
adduser francois sudo
and changed the pi user password to a random one:
pwgen -sy 32
sudo passwd pi
before removing its admin permissions:
deluser pi adm
deluser pi sudo
deluser pi dialout
deluser pi cdrom
deluser pi lpadmin
Finally, I enabled the Uncomplicated Firewall by installing its package:
apt install ufw
and only allowing ssh connections. After starting ufw using systemctl start ufw.service, you can check that it's configured as expected using ufw status. It should display the following:
Status: active
To                         Action      From
--                         ------      ----
22/tcp                     ALLOW       Anywhere
22/tcp (v6)                ALLOW       Anywhere (v6)

Installing Kodi Kodi is very straightforward to install since it's now part of the Raspbian repositories:
apt install kodi
To make it start at boot/login, while still being able to exit and use other apps if needed:
cp /etc/xdg/lxsession/LXDE-pi/autostart ~/.config/lxsession/LXDE-pi/
echo "@kodi" >> ~/.config/lxsession/LXDE-pi/autostart

Network File System In order to avoid having to have all media storage connected directly to the Pi via USB, I setup an NFS share over my local network. First, give static IP allocations to the server and the Pi in your DHCP server, then add it to the /etc/hosts file on your NFS server:
192.168.1.3    pi
Install the NFS server package:
apt instal nfs-kernel-server
Setup the directories to share in /etc/exports:
/pub/movies    pi(ro,insecure,all_squash,subtree_check)
/pub/tv_shows  pi(ro,insecure,all_squash,subtree_check)
Open the right ports on your firewall by putting this in /etc/network/iptables.up.rules:
-A INPUT -s 192.168.1.3 -p udp -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -s 192.168.1.0/24 -p tcp --dport 111 -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -s 192.168.1.0/24 -p udp --dport 111 -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -s 192.168.1.0/24 -p udp --dport 123 -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -s 192.168.1.0/24 -p tcp --dport 600:1124 -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -s 192.168.1.0/24 -p udp --dport 600:1124 -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -s 192.168.1.0/24 -p tcp --dport 2049 -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -s 192.168.1.0/24 -p udp --dport 2049 -j ACCEPT
Finally, apply all of these changes:
iptables-apply
systemctl restart nfs-kernel-server.service
On the Pi, put the server's static IP in /etc/hosts:
192.168.1.2    fileserver
and this in /etc/fstab:
fileserver:/data/movies  /kodi/movies  nfs  ro,bg,hard,noatime,async,nolock  0  0
fileserver:/data/tv      /kodi/tv      nfs  ro,bg,hard,noatime,async,nolock  0  0
Then create the mount points and mount everything:
mkdir -p /kodi/movies
mkdir /kodi/tv
mount /kodi/movies
mount /kodi/tv

28 December 2020

Emmanuel Kasper: Quick NetBSD serial console install on libvirt

I wanted to set up a small VM with NetBSD to test a couple of virt-install option. It turns out it you can get to the installer prompt quite fast. get the NetBSD installer for serial console:
wget https://cdn.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-9.1/i386/installation/cdrom/boot-com.iso 
start the install
$ virt-install \
--connect qemu:///session \
--name netbsd \
--ram 64 \
--vcpus 2 \
--disk path=$HOME/netbsd.qcow2,size=4,bus=scsi,format=qcow2 \
--controller type=scsi,model=virtio-scsi \
--cdrom=boot-com.iso \
--virt-type kvm \
--os-variant netbsd8.0 \
--graphics none \
--arch i686 \
--console pty,target_type=serial
 
This will start a VM in usermode networking, so no need to be root, but the VM won t be reachable from the outside world, except if you add qemu usermode port forwarding.

8 November 2020

Sean Whitton: Combining repeat and repeat-complex-command

In Emacs, you can use C-x z to repeat the last command you input, and subsequently you can keep tapping the z key to execute that command again and again. If the command took minibuffer input, however, you ll be asked for that input again. For example, suppose you type M-z : to delete through the next colon character. If you want to keep going and delete through the next few colons, you would need to use C-x z : z : z : etc. which is pretty inconvenient. So there s also C-x ESC ESC RET or C-x M-: RET, which will repeat the last command which took minibuffer input, as if you d given it the same minibuffer input. So you could use M-z : C-x M-: RET C-x M-: RET etc., but then you might as well just keep typing M-z : over and over. It s also quite inconvenient to have to remember whether you need to use C-x z or C-x M-: RET. I wanted to come up with a single command which would choose the correct repetition method. It turns out it s a bit involved, but here s what I came up with. You can use this under the GPL-3 or any later version published by the FSF. Assumes lexical binding is turned on for the file you have this in.
;; Adapted from  repeat-complex-command&apos as of November 2020
(autoload &aposrepeat-message "repeat")
(defun spw/repeat-complex-command-immediately (arg)
  "Like  repeat-complex-command&apos followed immediately by RET."
  (interactive "p")
  (if-let ((newcmd (nth (1- arg) command-history)))
      (progn
        (add-to-history &aposcommand-history newcmd)
        (repeat-message "Repeating %S" newcmd)
        (apply #&aposfuncall-interactively
               (car newcmd)
               (mapcar (lambda (e) (eval e t)) (cdr newcmd))))
    (if command-history
        (error "Argument %d is beyond length of command history" arg)
      (error "There are no previous complex commands to repeat"))))
(let (real-last-repeatable-command)
  (defun spw/repeat-or-repeat-complex-command-immediately ()
    "Call  repeat&apos or  spw/repeat-complex-command-immediately&apos as appropriate.

Note that no prefix argument is accepted because this has
different meanings for  repeat&apos and for
 spw/repeat-complex-command-immediately&apos, so that might cause surprises."
    (interactive)
    (if (eq last-repeatable-command this-command)
        (setq last-repeatable-command real-last-repeatable-command)
      (setq real-last-repeatable-command last-repeatable-command))
    (if (eq last-repeatable-command (caar command-history))
        (spw/repeat-complex-command-immediately 1)
      (repeat nil))))
;;  suspend-frame&apos is bound to both C-x C-z and C-z
(global-set-key "\C-z" #&aposspw/repeat-or-repeat-complex-command-immediately)

23 March 2020

Dima Kogan: org-babel for documentation

So I just gave a talk at SCaLE 18x about numpysane and gnuplotlib, two libraries I wrote to make using numpy bearable. With these two, it's actually quite nice! Prior to the talk I overhauled the documentation for both these projects. The gnuplotlib docs now have a tutorial/gallery page, which is interesting-enough to write about. Check it out! Mostly it is a sequence of Clearly you want the plots in the documentation to correspond to the code, so you want something to actually run each code snippet to produce each plot. Automatically. I don't want to maintain these manually, and periodically discover that the code doesn't make the plot I claim it does or worse: that the code barfs. This is vaguely what Jupyter notebooks do, but they're ridiculous, so I'm doing something better: That's it. The git repo is hosted by github, which has a rudimentary renderer for .org documents. I'm committing the .svg files, so that's enough to get rendered documentation that looks nice. Note that the usual workflow is to use org to export to html, but here I'm outsourcing that job to github; I just make the .svg files, and that's enough. Look at the link again: gnuplotlib tutorial/gallery. This is just a .org file committed to the git repo. github is doing its normal org->html thing to display this file. This has drawbacks too: github is ignoring the :noexport: tag on the init section at the end of the file, so it's actually showing all the emacs lisp goop that makes this work (described below!). It's at the end, so I guess this is good-enough. Those of us that use org-mode would be completely unsurprised to hear that the talk is also written as .org document. And the slides that show gnuplotlib plots use the same org-babel system to render the plots. It's all oh-so-nice. As with anything as flexible as org-babel, it's easy to get into a situation where you're bending it to serve a not-quite-intended purpose. But since this all lives in emacs, you can make it do whatever you want with a bit of emacs lisp. I ended up advising a few things (mailing list post here). And I stumbled on an (arguable) bug in emacs that needed working around (mailing list post here). I'll summarize both here.

Handling large Local Variables blocks
The advises I ended up with ended up longer than emacs expected, which made emacs not evaluate them when loading the buffer. As I discovered (see the mailing list post) the loading code looks for the string Local Variables in the last 3000 bytes of the buffer only, and I exceeded that. Stefan Monnier suggested a workaround in this post. Instead of the normal Local Variables block at the end:
Local Variables:
eval: (progn ... ...
             ... ...
             LONG chunk of emacs-lisp
      )
End:
I do this:
(progn ;;local-config
   lisp lisp lisp
   as long as I want
)
Local Variables:
eval: (progn (re-search-backward "^(progn ;;local-config") (eval (read (current-buffer))))
End:
So emacs sees a small chunk of code that searches backwards through the buffer (as far back as needed) for the real lisp to evaluate. As an aside, this blog is also an .org document, and the lisp snippets above are org-babel blocks that I'm not evaluating. The exporter knows to respect the emacs-lisp syntax highlighting, however.

Advises
OK, so what was all the stuff I needed to tell org-babel to do specially here? First off, org needed to be able to communicate to the Python session the name of the file to write the plot to. I do this by making the whole plist for this org-babel snippet available to python:
;; THIS advice makes all the org-babel parameters available to python in the
;; _org_babel_params dict. I care about _org_babel_params['_file'] specifically,
;; but everything is available
(defun dima-org-babel-python-var-to-python (var)
  "Convert an elisp value to a python variable.
  Like the original, but supports (a . b) cells and symbols
"
  (if (listp var)
      (if (listp (cdr var))
          (concat "[" (mapconcat #'org-babel-python-var-to-python var ", ") "]")
        (format "\"\"\"%s\"\"\"" var))
    (if (symbolp var)
        (format "\"\"\"%s\"\"\"" var)
      (if (eq var 'hline)
          org-babel-python-hline-to
        (format
         (if (and (stringp var) (string-match "[\n\r]" var)) "\"\"%S\"\"" "%S")
         (if (stringp var) (substring-no-properties var) var))))))
(defun dima-alist-to-python-dict (alist)
  "Generates a string defining a python dict from the given alist"
  (let ((keyvalue-list
         (mapcar (lambda (x)
                   (format "%s = %s, "
                           (replace-regexp-in-string
                            "[^a-zA-Z0-9_]" "_"
                            (symbol-name (car x)))
                           (dima-org-babel-python-var-to-python (cdr x))))
                 alist)))
    (concat
     "dict( "
     (apply 'concat keyvalue-list)
     ")")))
(defun dima-org-babel-python-pass-all-params (f params)
  (cons
   (concat
    "_org_babel_params = "
    (dima-alist-to-python-dict params))
   (funcall f params)))
(unless
    (advice-member-p
     #'dima-org-babel-python-pass-all-params
     #'org-babel-variable-assignments:python)
  (advice-add
   #'org-babel-variable-assignments:python
   :around #'dima-org-babel-python-pass-all-params))
So if there's a :file plist key, the python code can grab that, and write the plot to that filename. But I don't really want to specify an output file for every single org-babel snippet. All I really care about is that each plot gets a unique filename. So I omit the :file key entirely, and use this advice to generate one for me:
;; This sets a default :file tag, set to a unique filename. I want each demo to
;; produce an image, but I don't care what it is called. I omit the :file tag
;; completely, and this advice takes care of it
(defun dima-org-babel-python-unique-plot-filename
    (f &optional arg info params)
  (funcall f arg info
           (cons (cons ':file
                       (format "guide-%d.svg"
                               (condition-case nil
                                   (setq dima-unique-plot-number (1+ dima-unique-plot-number))
                                 (error (setq dima-unique-plot-number 0)))))
                 params)))
(unless
    (advice-member-p
     #'dima-org-babel-python-unique-plot-filename
     #'org-babel-execute-src-block)
  (advice-add
   #'org-babel-execute-src-block
   :around #'dima-org-babel-python-unique-plot-filename))
This uses the dima-unique-plot-number integer to keep track of each plot. I increment this with each plot. Getting closer. It isn't strictly required, but it'd be nice if each plot had the same output filename each time I generated it. So I want to reset the plot number to 0 each time:
;; If I'm regenerating ALL the plots, I start counting the plots from 0
(defun dima-reset-unique-plot-number
    (&rest args)
    (setq dima-unique-plot-number 0))
(unless
    (advice-member-p
     #'dima-reset-unique-plot-number
     #'org-babel-execute-buffer)
  (advice-add
   #'org-babel-execute-buffer
   :after #'dima-reset-unique-plot-number))
Finally, I want to lie to the user a little bit. The code I'm actually executing writes each plot to an .svg. But the code I'd like the user to see should use the default output: an interactive, graphical window. I do that by tweaking the python session to tell the gnuplotlib object to write to .svg files from org by default, instead of using the graphical terminal:
;; I'm using github to display guide.org, so I'm not using the "normal" org
;; exporter. I want the demo text to not contain the hardcopy= tags, but clearly
;; I need the hardcopy tag when generating the plots. I add some python to
;; override gnuplotlib.plot() to add the hardcopy tag somewhere where the reader
;; won't see it. But where to put this python override code? If I put it into an
;; org-babel block, it will be rendered, and the :export tags will be ignored,
;; since github doesn't respect those (probably). So I put the extra stuff into
;; an advice. Whew.
(defun dima-org-babel-python-set-demo-output (f body params)
  (with-temp-buffer
    (insert body)
    (beginning-of-buffer)
    (when (search-forward "import gnuplotlib as gp" nil t)
      (end-of-line)
      (insert
       "\n"
       "if not hasattr(gp.gnuplotlib, 'orig_init'):\n"
       "    gp.gnuplotlib.orig_init = gp.gnuplotlib.__init__\n"
       "gp.gnuplotlib.__init__ = lambda self, *args, **kwargs: gp.gnuplotlib.orig_init(self, *args, hardcopy=_org_babel_params['_file'] if 'file' in _org_babel_params['_result_params'] else None, **kwargs)\n"))
    (setq body (buffer-substring-no-properties (point-min) (point-max))))
  (funcall f body params))
(unless
    (advice-member-p
     #'dima-org-babel-python-set-demo-output
     #'org-babel-execute:python)
  (advice-add
   #'org-babel-execute:python
   :around #'dima-org-babel-python-set-demo-output))
)
And that's it. The advises in the talk are slightly different, in uninteresting ways. Some of this should be upstreamed to org-babel somehow. Now entirely clear which part, but I'll cross that bridge when I get to it.

3 November 2017

Rog rio Brito: Comparison of JDK installation of various Linux distributions

Today I spent some time in the morning seeing how one would install the JDK on Linux distributions. This is to create a little comparative tutorial to teach introductory Java. Installing the JDK is, thanks to the OpenJDK developers in Debian and Ubuntu (Matthias Klose and helpers), a very easy task. You simply type something like:
apt-get install openjdk-8-jdk
Since for a student it is better to have everything for experiments, I install the full version, not only the -headless version. Given my familiarity with Debian/Ubuntu, I didn't have to think about the way of installing it, of course. But as this is a tutorial meant to be as general as I can, I tried also to include instructions on how to install Java on other distributions. The first two that came to my mind were openSUSE and Fedora. Both use the RPM package format for their "native" packages (in the same sense that Debian uses DEB packages for "native" packages). But they use different higher-level tools to install such packages: Fedora uses a tool called dnf, while openSUSE uses zypper. To try these distributions, I got their netinstall ISOs and used qemu/kvm to install on a virtual machine. I used the following to install/run the virtual machines (the example below, is, of course, for openSUSE):
qemu-system-x86_64 -enable-kvm -m 4096 -smp 2 -net nic,model=e1000 -net user -drive index=0,media=disk,cache=unsafe,file=suse.qcow2 -cdrom openSUSE-Leap-42.3-NET-x86_64.iso
The names of the packages also change from one distribution to another. On Fedora, I had to use:
dnf install java-1.8.0-openjdk-devel
On openSUSE, I had to use:
zypper install java-1_8_0-openjdk-devel
Note that one distribution uses dots in the names of the packages while the other uses underscores. One interesting thing that I noticed with dnf was that, when I used it, it automatically refreshed the package lists from the network, something which I forgot, and it was a pleasant surprise. I don't know about zypper, but I guess that it probably had fresh indices when the installation finished. Both installations were effortless after I knew the names of the packages to install. Oh, BTW, in my 5 minute exploration with these distributions, I noticed that if you don't want the JDK, but only the JRE, then you omit the -devel suffix. It makes sense when you think about it, for consistency with other packages, but Debian's conventions also make sense (JRE with -jre suffix, JDK with -jdk suffix). I failed miserably to use Fedora's prebaked, vanilla cloud image, as I couldn't login on this image and I decided to just install the whole OS on a fresh virtual machine. I don't have instructions on how to install on Gentoo nor on Arch, though. I now see how hard it is to cover instructions/provide software for as many distributions as you wish, given the multitude of package managers, conventions etc.

24 September 2017

Julian Andres Klode: APT 1.5 is out

APT 1.5 is out, after almost 3 months the release of 1.5 alpha 1, and almost six months since the release of 1.4 on April 1st. This release cycle was unusually short, as 1.4 was the stretch release series and the zesty release series, and we waited for the latter of these releases before we started 1.5. In related news, 1.4.8 hit stretch-proposed-updates today, and is waiting in the unapproved queue for zesty. This release series moves https support from apt-transport-https into apt proper, bringing with it support for https:// proxies, and support for autodetectproxy scripts that return http, https, and socks5h proxies for both http and https. Unattended updates and upgrades now work better: The dependency on network-online was removed and we introduced a meta wait-online helper with support for NetworkManager, systemd-networkd, and connman that allows us to wait for network even if we want to run updates directly after a resume (which might or might not have worked before, depending on whether update ran before or after network was back up again). This also improves a boot performance regression for systems with rc.local files: The rc.local.service unit specified After=network-online.target, and login stuff was After=rc.local.service, and apt-daily.timer was Wants=network-online.target, causing network-online.target to be pulled into the boot and the rc.local.service ordering dependency to take effect, significantly slowing down the boot. An earlier less intrusive variant of that fix is in 1.4.8: It just moves the network-online.target Want/After from apt-daily.timer to apt-daily.service so most boots are uncoupled now. I hope we get the full solution into stretch in a later point release, but we should gather some experience first before discussing this with the release time. Balint Reczey also provided a patch to increase the time out before killing the daily upgrade service to 15 minutes, to actually give unattended-upgrades some time to finish an in-progress update. Honestly, I d have though the machine hung up and force rebooted it after 5 seconds already. (this patch is also in 1.4.8) We also made sure that unreadable config files no longer cause an error, but only a warning, as that was sort of a regression from previous releases; and we added documentation for /etc/apt/auth.conf, so people actually know the preferred way to place sensitive data like passwords (and can make their sources.list files world-readable again). We also fixed apt-cdrom to support discs without MD5 hashes for Sources (the Files field), and re-enabled support for udev-based detection of cdrom devices which was accidentally broken for 4 years, as it was trying to load libudev.so.0 at runtime, but that library had an SONAME change to libudev.so.1 we now link against it normally. Furthermore, if certain information in Release files change, like the codename, apt will now request confirmation from the user, avoiding a scenario where a user has stable in their sources.list and accidentally upgrades to the next release when it becomes stable. Paul Wise contributed patches to allow configuring the apt-daily intervals more easily apt-daily is invoked twice a day by systemd but has more fine-grained internal timestamp files. You can now specify the intervals in seconds, minutes, hours, and day units, or specify always to always run (that is, up to twice a day on systemd, once per day on non-systemd platforms). Development for the 1.6 series has started, and I intent to upload a first alpha to unstable in about a week, removing the apt-transport-https package and enabling compressed index files by default (save space, a lot of space, at not much performance cost thanks to lz4). There will also be some small clean ups in there, but I don t expect any life-changing changes for now. I think our new approach of uploading development releases directly to unstable instead of parking them in experimental is working out well. Some people are confused why alpha releases appear in unstable, but let me just say one thing: These labels basically just indicate feature-completeness, and not stability. An alpha is just very likely to get a lot more features, a beta is less likely (all the big stuff is in), and the release candidates just fix bugs. Also, we now have 3 active stable series: The 1.2 LTS series, 1.4 medium LTS, and 1.5. 1.2 receives updates as part of Ubuntu 16.04 (xenial), 1.4 as part of Debian 9.0 (stretch) and Ubuntu 17.04 (zesty); whereas 1.5 will only be supported for 9 months (as part of Ubuntu 17.10). I think the stable release series are working well, although 1.4 is a bit tricky being shared by stretch and zesty right now (but zesty is history soon, so ).
Filed under: Debian, Ubuntu

7 September 2017

Reproducible builds folks: Reproducible Builds: Weekly report #123

Here's what happened in the Reproducible Builds effort between Sunday August 27 and Saturday September 2 2017: Talks and presentations Holger Levsen talked about our progress and our still-far goals at BornHack 2017 (Video). Toolchain development and fixes The Debian FTP archive will now reject changelogs where different entries have the same timestamps. UDD now uses reproducible-tracker.json (~25MB) which ignores our tests for Debian unstable, instead of our full set of results in reproducible.json. Our tests for Debian unstable uses a stricter definition of "reproducible" than what was recently added to Debian policy, and these stricter tests are currently more unreliable. Packages reviewed and fixed, and bugs filed Patches sent upstream: Debian bugs filed: Debian packages NMU-uploaded: Reviews of unreproducible packages 25 package reviews have been added, 50 have been updated and 86 have been removed in this week, adding to our knowledge about identified issues. Weekly QA work During our reproducibility testing, FTBFS bugs have been detected and reported by: diffoscope development Version 86 was uploaded to unstable by Mattia Rizzolo. It included previous weeks' contributions from: reprotest development Development continued in git with contributions from: Misc. This week's edition was written by Ximin Luo, Chris Lamb, Bernhard M. Wiedemann and Holger Levsen & reviewed by a bunch of Reproducible Builds folks on IRC & the mailing lists.

14 August 2017

Reproducible builds folks: Reproducible Builds: Weekly report #119

Here's what happened in the Reproducible Builds effort between Sunday July 30 and Saturday August 5 2017: Media coverage We were mentioned on Late Night Linux Episode 17, around 29:30. Packages reviewed and fixed, and bugs filed Upstream packages: Debian packages: Reviews of unreproducible packages 29 package reviews have been added, 72 have been updated and 151 have been removed in this week, adding to our knowledge about identified issues. 4 issue types have been updated: Weekly QA work During our reproducibility testing, FTBFS bugs have been detected and reported by: diffoscope development Version 85 was uploaded to unstable by Mattia Rizzolo. It included contributions from: as well as previous weeks' contributions, summarised in the changelog. There were also further commits in git, which will be released in a later version: Misc. This week's edition was written by Ximin Luo, Bernhard M. Wiedemann and Chris Lamb & reviewed by a bunch of Reproducible Builds folks on IRC & the mailing lists.

31 May 2017

Enrico Zini: Debian Jessie Live on UEFI part 2

A refinement on my previous attempt. This is how to configure a Jessie live-build environment to boot on UEFI systems, and get a USB key image that works:
# Build a FAT image instead of an ISO image...
lb config -b hdd
# ...and work around #773833
echo "/usr/lib/syslinux/mbr/*.bin /usr/lib/syslinux/" > hooks/9000-fix-773833.chroot
# Get EFI Shell from https://svn.code.sf.net/p/edk2/code/trunk/edk2/ShellBinPkg/UefiShell/X64/
curl -o binary/efi/boot/Bootx64.efi https://svn.code.sf.net/p/edk2/code/trunk/edk2/ShellBinPkg/UefiShell/X64/Shell.efi
# Configure the EFI shell to boot the live setup
echo 'live\vmlinuz initrd=live\initrd.img append boot=live components' > binary/startup.nsh
Rationale: UEFI understants FAT filesystems, and would run EFI binaries placed under efi/boot. For a hard drive, it only considers a FAT filesystem on a GPT partition marked with a special UUID, so that it doesn't get confused with other FAT filesystems that are on disk. For a USB key, it seems that most hardware will happily look for efi/boot even if the partition table is the old MBR kind. live-build can build a FAT image for USB keys, losing the ability to boot on CDROMs and DVDs. Since I don't need that ability, I can use -b hdd to get the live system packaged inside a container that UEFI hardware can understand (FAT). At that point, enabling UEFI boot on a Live Debian Jessie is just a matter of adding an efi/boot/Bootx64.efi binary that is able to load the kernel and initrd in memory, and blow life into them.

19 May 2017

Clint Adams: Help the Aged

I keep meeting girls from Walnut Creek who don t know about the CDROM.
Posted on 2017-05-19
Tags: ranticore

17 April 2017

Russell Coker: More KVM Modules Configuration

Last year I blogged about blacklisting a video driver so that KVM virtual machines didn t go into graphics mode [1]. Now I ve been working on some other things to make virtual machines run better. I use the same initramfs for the physical hardware as for the virtual machines. So I need to remove modules that are needed for booting the physical hardware from the VMs as well as other modules that get dragged in by systemd and other things. One significant saving from this is that I use BTRFS for the physical machine and the BTRFS driver takes 1M of RAM! The first thing I did to reduce the number of modules was to edit /etc/initramfs-tools/initramfs.conf and change MODULES=most to MODULES=dep . This significantly reduced the number of modules loaded and also stopped the initramfs from probing for a non-existant floppy drive which added about 20 seconds to the boot. Note that this will result in your initramfs not supporting different hardware. So if you plan to take a hard drive out of your desktop PC and install it in another PC this could be bad for you, but for servers it s OK as that sort of upgrade is uncommon for servers and only done with some planning (such as creating an initramfs just for the migration). I put the following rmmod commands in /etc/rc.local to remove modules that are automatically loaded:
rmmod btrfs
rmmod evdev
rmmod lrw
rmmod glue_helper
rmmod ablk_helper
rmmod aes_x86_64
rmmod ecb
rmmod xor
rmmod raid6_pq
rmmod cryptd
rmmod gf128mul
rmmod ata_generic
rmmod ata_piix
rmmod i2c_piix4
rmmod libata
rmmod scsi_mod In /etc/modprobe.d/blacklist.conf I have the following lines to stop drivers being loaded. The first line is to stop the video mode being set and the rest are just to save space. One thing that inspired me to do this is that the parallel port driver gave a kernel error when it loaded and tried to access non-existant hardware.
blacklist bochs_drm
blacklist joydev
blacklist ppdev
blacklist sg
blacklist psmouse
blacklist pcspkr
blacklist sr_mod
blacklist acpi_cpufreq
blacklist cdrom
blacklist tpm
blacklist tpm_tis
blacklist floppy
blacklist parport_pc
blacklist serio_raw
blacklist button On the physical machine I have the following in /etc/modprobe.d/blacklist.conf. Most of this is to prevent loading of filesystem drivers when making an initramfs. I do this because I know there s never going to be any need for CDs, parallel devices, graphics, or strange block devices in a server room. I wouldn t do any of this for a desktop workstation or laptop.
blacklist ppdev
blacklist parport_pc
blacklist cdrom
blacklist sr_mod
blacklist nouveau blacklist ufs
blacklist qnx4
blacklist hfsplus
blacklist hfs
blacklist minix
blacklist ntfs
blacklist jfs
blacklist xfs

31 March 2017

Enrico Zini: Raspberry Pi as a Hi-Fi component

I have a 25 years old Technics hifi system that still works fine, and I gave it a new life by replacing the CD player and cassette player modules with a Raspberry Pi. Technics hifi with a Raspberry Pi attached Connection Each component of the hifi has a mains input and a mains plug that is used to power the next component. The element where the main power lead goes in is the radio component, which has a remote control receiver, a watch and a timer, and will power on the rest of the system when turned on by its power button, the remote control, or the alarm function. I disconnected the cassette and cd player modules, and plugged the Raspberry Pi phone charger/power supply in the free plug behind the amplifier module, at the end of the (now very short) power lead chain. I also connected the audio output of the Raspberry Pi to the CD input of my stereo. The advantage of CD over AUX is that the remote control buttons for switching audio sources don't cover the AUX inputs. With alsamixer I adjusted the output volume to match that of the radio component, so that I can switch between the two without surprising jumps in volume. I used alsactl store to save the mixer levels. Now when I turn the hifi on I also turn the Raspberry Pi on, and when I turn the hifi off, I also cut power from the Raspberry Pi. Operating system Operating system install instructions:
  1. I downloaded a Raspbian Jessie Lite image
  2. I put it on an SD card
  3. I created an empty ssh file on the boot partition
  4. I put the SD card on the Raspberry Pi and turned on the stereo.
  5. ssh pi@raspberrypi password raspberry
  6. sudo raspi-config to change the hostname, the password, and to enlarge the root partition to include all the rest of the space available in the SD card.
Music Player Daemon This is the set up of the music player part, with mpd.
apt install mpd
The configuration file is /etc/mpd.conf. The changes I made are: Make mpd accessible from my local network:
bind_to_address         "any"
Make mpd discoverable:
zeroconf_enabled                "yes"
zeroconf_name                   "stereo"
Allow anyone who visits me to control the playlist, and only me to run admin functions:
password                        "SECRET@read,add,control,admin"
default_permissions             "read,add,control"
At my first try, mpd hung when changing songs. I had to disable dmix by uncommenting the device option in the audio_output configuration. use_mmap is cargo-culted from the archlinux wiki.
audio_output  
        type            "alsa"
        name            "My ALSA Device"
        device          "hw:0,0"        # optional
        use_mmap        "yes"
 
If at some point I'll decide to use other audio software on the system, I'll probably want to play via pulseaudio. Sending music to the stereo I made a little script to sync the music directory on my laptop with /var/lib/mpd/music:
#!/bin/sh
rsync -avz --filter=". sync-stereo.filter" --copy-links --prune-empty-dirs --delete ./ pi@stereo:/var/lib/mpd/music
ssh pi@stereo "chmod u=rwX,go=rX -R /var/lib/mpd/music"
It uses this sync-stereo.filter rules file for rsync:
hide /_archive
include */
include **.mp3
hide *
mpd clients mpc
$ mpc -h stereo status
UltraCat - Unexpected Little Happenings
[playing] #15/22   0:03/4:06 (1%)
volume: 80%   repeat: off   random: on    single: off   consume: off
M.A.L.P. On my phone I installed M.A.L.P. and now I have a remote control for mpd. In its settings, I made a profile for home where I just had to set the hostname for the stereo and the admin password. Cantata On my laptop I installed cantata, set the hostname and password in the preferences, and had the client ready. Profit! Now I can take the remote control of my hi-fi, turn it on, and after a while mpd will resume playing the song that was playing when I last shut it down. I also have realtime player status on my phone and on my laptop, and can control music from either at any time. Friends who visit me can do that as well. Everything was rather straightforward, well documented and easy to replicate. The hardware is cheap and very easy to come by.

11 February 2017

Reproducible builds folks: Reproducible Builds: week 93 in Stretch cycle

Here's what happened in the Reproducible Builds effort between Sunday January 29 and Saturday February 4 2017: Media coverage Dennis Gilmore and Holger Levsen presented "Reproducible Builds and Fedora" (Video, Slides) at Devconf.cz on February 27th 2017. On February 1st, stretch/armhf reached 90% reproducible packages in our test framework, so that now all four tested architectures are 90% reproducible in stretch. Yay! For armhf this means 22472 reproducible source packages (in main); for amd64, arm64 and i386 these figures are 23363, 23062 and 22607 respectively. Chris Lamb appeared on the Changelog podcast to talk about reproducible builds: Holger Levsen pitched Reproducible Builds and our need for a logo in the "Open Source Design" room at FOSDEM 2017 (Video, 09:36 - 12:00). Upcoming Events Reproducible work in other projects We learned that the "slightly more secure" Heads firmware (a Coreboot payload) is now reproducibly built regardless of host system or build directory. A picture says more than a thousand words: reproducible heads build on two machines Docker started preliminary work on making image builds reproducible. Toolchain development and fixes Ximin Luo continued to write code and test cases for the BUILD_PATH_PREFIX_MAP environment variable. He also did extensive research on cross-platform and cross-language issues with enviroment variables, filesystem paths, and character encodings, and started preparing a draft specification document to describe all of this. Chris Lamb asked CPython to implement an environment variable PYTHONREVERSEDICTKEYORDER to add an an option to reverse iteration order of items in a dict. However this was rejected because they are planning to formally fix this order in the next language version. Bernhard Wiedemann and Florian Festi added support for our SOURCE_DATE_EPOCH environment variable, to the RPM Package Manager. James McCoy uploaded devscripts 2.17.1 with a change from Guillem Jover for dscverify(1), adding support for .buildinfo files. (Closes: #852801) Piotr O arowski uploaded dh-python 2.20170125 with a change from Chris Lamb for a patch to fix #835805. Chris Lamb added documentation to diffoscope, strip-nondeterminism, disorderfs, reprotest and trydiffoscope about uploading signed tarballs when releasing. He also added a link to these on our website's tools page. Packages reviewed and bugs filed Bugs filed: Reviews of unreproducible packages 83 package reviews have been added, 86 have been updated and 276 have been removed in this week, adding to our knowledge about identified issues. 2 issue types have been updated: Weekly QA work During our reproducibility testing, the following FTBFS bugs have been detected and reported by: diffoscope development Work on the next version (71) continued in git this week: reproducible-website development Daniel Shahaf added more notes on our "How to chair a meeting" document. tests.reproducible-builds.org Holger unblacklisted pspp and tiledarray. If you think further packages should also be unblacklisted (possibly only on some architectures), please tell us. Misc. This week's edition was written by Ximin Luo, Holger Levsen and Chris Lamb & reviewed by a bunch of Reproducible Builds folks on IRC & the mailing lists.

22 December 2016

Shirish Agarwal: My letter to Government of Maharashtra on Real Estate Rules and Regulation Draft rules

While I try to minimize Politics and Economics as much as I can on this blog, it sometimes surfaces. It is possible that some people may benefit or at least be aware. A bit of background is necessary before I jump into the intricacies of the Maharashtra Real Estate Rules and Regulation Draft Rules 2016 (RERA) . Since ever, but more prominently since 2007/8 potential homeowners from across the country have been suffering at the hands of the builder/promoter for number of years. While it would be wrong to paint all the Real Estate Developers and Builders as cheats (we as in all tenants and homeowners hope there are good ones out there) many Real Estate Builders and promoters have cheated homeowners of their hard-earned money. This has also lessened the secondary (resale) market and tenants like me have to fight over morsels as supply is tight. There were two broad ways in which the cheating is/was done a. Take deposits and run away i.e. fly by night operators Here the only option for a homeowner is to file an FIR (First Information Report) and hope the culprits are caught. 99% of the time the builder/promoter goes somewhere abroad and the potential home buyers/home-owners are left holding the can. This is usually done by small real estate promoters and builders. b. The big boys would take all or most money of the project, may register or not register the flat in your name, either build a quarter or half-finished building and then make excuses. There are some who do not even build. The money given is used by the builder/developer either for his own needs or using that money in some high-profile project which is expensive and may have huge returns. They know that home-owners can t do anything, at the most go to the court which will take more than a decade or two during which time the developer would have interest-free income and do whatever he wants to do. One of the bigger stories which came up this year was when the Indian Cricket Captain, M.S. Dhoni (cricket is a religion in India, and the cricketers gods for millions of Indians) had to end his brand engagement and ambassadorship from Amrapali Housing Group. Apparently, his wife Sakshi was on the Board of directors at Amrapali Housing and had to resign The Government knew of such issues and had been working since last few years. Under the present Government, a Model Agreement and a Model Real Estate Rules and Regulation Bill was passed on 31st March and came into force on 1st May 2016. India, similar to the U.S. and U.K. follows a federal structure. While I have shared this before, most of the laws in India fall in either of three lists, Central List, Concurrent Lists and State Lists. Housing for instance, is a state subject so any laws concerning housing has to be made by the state legislature. Having a statutory requirement to put the bill in 6 months from 1st of May, the Government of Maharashtra chose to put the draft rules in public domain on 12th December 2016, about 10 days ago and there were efforts to let it remain low-key so people do not object as we are still in the throes of demonetisation. By law they should have given 30 days for people to raise objections and give suggestions. The State Government too could have easily asked an extension and as both the State and the Centre are of the same Political Party they would have easily got it. With that, below is the e-mail I sent to suggesstionsonrera@maharashtra.gov.in Sub Some suggestions for RERA biggest suggestion, need to give more time study the implications for house-owners. Respected Sir/Madame, I will be publishing the below mail as a public letter on my blog as well. I am writing as a citizen, a voter, a potential home owner, currently a tenant . If houses supply is not in time, it is us, the tenants who have the most to lose as we have to fight over whatever is in the market. I do also hope to be a home buyer at some point in time so these rules would affect me also somewhere in the hazy future. I came to know through the media that Maharashtra Govt. recently introduced draft rules for RERA Real Estate (Regulation and Development) Act, 2016 . I hope to impress upon you that these proposed Rules and Regulations need to be thoroughly revised and new draft rules shared with the public at large with proper announcement in all newspapers and proper time ( more than a month ) to study and give replies on the said matter. My suggestions and complaints are as under a. The first complaint and suggestion is that the date between the draft regulations and suggestions being invited by members of public is and was too little 12 December 2016 23 December 2016 (only 11 days) for almost 90 pages of Government rules and regulations which needs multiple rounds of re-reading to understand the implications of the draft rules . Add to that unlike the Central Building Legislation, Model Agreement which was prepared by Centre and also given wide publicity, the Maharashtra Govt. didn t do any such publicity to bring it to the
notice of the people. b. I ask where was the hurry to publish these draft rules now when everybody is suffering through the result of cash-crunch on top of other things. If the said draft rules were put up in January 2017, I am sure more people would have responded to the draft rules. Ir raises suspicion in the mind of everybody the timing of sharing the draft rules and the limited time given to people to respond. E.g. When TRAI (Telephone Regulatory Authority of India) asked for suggestion it gives more than a month, and something like housing which is an existential question for everybody, i.e. the poor, the middle and the rich, you have given pretty less time. While I could change my telephone service providers at a moment s notice without huge loss, the same cannot be said either for a house owner (in case of builder) or a tenant as well. This is just not done. c. The documents are at https://housing.maharashtra.gov.in/sitemap/housing/Rera_rules.htm under different sub-headings while the correct structure of the documents can be found at nared s site
http://naredco.in/notifications.asp . At the very least, the documents should have been in proper order. Coming to some of the salient points raised both in the media and elsewhere 1. On page 6 of Part IV-A Ext1.pdf you have written Explanation.-The registration of a real estate project shall not be required,- (i) for the purpose of any renovations or repair or redevelopment which does not involve marketing, advertisement, selling or new allotment of any apartment , plot or building as the case may be under
the real estate project; RERA draft rules What it means is that the house owner and by the same stroke the tenant would have absolutely no voice to oppose any changes made to the structure at any point of time after the building is built. This means the builder is free to build 12-14-16 even 20 stories building when the original plans were for 6-8-10. This rule gives the builder to do free for all till the building doesn t get converted into a society, a process which does and can take years to happen. 2. A builder has to take innumerable permissions from different authorities at each and every stage till possession of a said property isn t handed over to a home buyer and by its extension to the tenant. Now any one of these authorities could sit on the papers and there is no accountability of by when papers would be passed under a competent authority s desk. There was a wide belief that there would be some
rules and regulations framed in this regard but the draft rules are silent on the subject matter. 3. In Draft rule 5. page 8 of Part IV-A Ext1.pdf you write Withdrawal of amounts deposited in separate account.-(1) With regard to the withdrawal of amounts deposited under sub-clause (D) of clause (l) of sub-section (2) of section 4, the following provisions shall apply:- (i) For new projects which will be registered after commencement. Deposit in the escrow account is from now onwards. So what happens to the projects which are ongoing at the moment, either at the registration stage or at building stage, thousands of potential house owners would be left to fend for themselves. There needs to be some recourse for them as well. 3b. Another suggestion is that the house-owners are duly informed when promoters/builders are taking money from the bank and should have the authority to see that proper documents and procedure was followed. It is possible that unscrupulous elements may either bypass it or give some different documents which are not in knowledge of the house-owner, thus defeating the purpose of the escrow account itself. 4. On page 44 of Pt.IV-A Ext.161 in the Model Agreement to be entered
between the Promoter and the Alottee you have mentioned (i)The Allottee hereby agrees to purchase from the Promoter and the Promoter hereby agrees to sell to the Allottee one Apartment No. .. of the type .. of carpet area admeasuring .. sq. metres on floor in the building __________along with (hereinafter referred to as the Apartment ) as shown in the Floor plan thereof hereto annexed and marked Annexures C
for the consideration of Rs. . including Rs. . being the proportionate price of the common areas and facilities appurtenant to the premises, the nature, extent and description of the common/limited common areas and facilities which are more particularly described in the Second Schedule annexed herewith. (the price of the Apartment including the proportionate price of the limited common areas and facilities and parking spaces should be shown separately). (ii) The Allottee hereby agrees to purchase from the Promoter and the Promoter hereby agrees to sell to the Allottee garage bearing Nos ____ situated at _______ Basement and/or stilt and /or ____podium being
constructed in the layout for the consideration of Rs. ____________/- (iii) The Allottee hereby agrees to purchase from the Promoter and the Promoter hereby agrees to sell to the Allottee Car parking spaces bearing Nos ____ situated at _______ Basement and/or stilt and /or ____podium and/or open parking space, being constructed in the layout for the
consideration of Rs. ____________/-. The total aggregate consideration amount for the apartment including garages/car parking spaces is
thus Rs.______/- Draft rules. What has been done here is the parking space has been divorced from sale of the flat . It is against natural justice, logic, common sense as well-known precedents in jurisprudence (i.e. law) In September 2010, the bench of Justices R M Lodha and A K Patnaik had ruled in a judgement stating developers cannot sell parking spaces as independent real-estate units. The court ruled that parking areas are common areas and facilities . This was on behalf of a precedent in Mumbai High Court as well. http://www.reinventingparking.org/2010/09/important-parking-ruling-by-indias.html This has been reiterated again and again in courts as well as consumer
forums http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/mumbai/Cant-charge-flat-buyer-extra-for-parking-slot/articleshow/22475233.cms and has been the norm in several Apartment Acts over multiple states http://apartmentadda.com/blog/2015/02/19/rules-pertaining-to-parking-spaces-in-apartment-complexes/ 5. In case of dispute, the case will high court which is inundated by huge number of pending cases. As recently as August 2016 there was a news item in Indian Express which talks about the spike in pending cases. Putting a case in the high court will weigh heavily on the homeowner, financially and
mentally http://indianexpress.com/article/cities/mumbai/more-cases-and-increased-staff-strength-putting-pressure-on-bombay-high-court-building-2964796/ It may be better to use the services of National Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission'(NCDRC) where there is possibility of quicker justice and quick resolution. There is possibility of group actions taking place which will reduce duplicity of work on behalf of the petitioners. 6. There is neither any clarity, incentive or punitive action against the promoter/builder if s/he delay conveyance to the society in order to get any future developmental and FSI rights. To delay handing over conveyance, the builders delay completion of the last building in a said project. there should be both a compensatory and punitive actions taken against the builder if he is unable to prove any genuine cause for the same. 7. There needs to be the provision with regard to need for developers to make public disclosures pertaining to building approvals. This while I had shared above needs to be explicitly mentioned so house-owners know the promoter/builder are on the right path. 8. There needs to be a provision that prohibits refusal to sell property to any person on the basis of his/her religion, marital status or dietary preferences. 9. There is lot of ambiguity if criminal proceedings can be initiated against a promoter/developer if s/he fails to deliver the flat on time. The developer should be criminally liable if he doesn t give the flat with all the amenities, fixtures and anything which was on agreement signed by both parties and for which the payment has been given in
full at time of possession of a flat. 10. Penalties for the promoter/builder is capped at 10% in case of any wrong-doing. Apart from proving the charge, the onus of which would lie on the house-owner, capping it at 10% is similar to A teacher telling a naughty student, do whatever you want to do, I am only going to hit you 5 times. Such a drafting encourages the Promoter/builder to play mischief. The builder knows his exposure is pretty limited. Liability is limited so he will try to get with whatever he can. Having a high penalty clause will deter him. 11. There was talk and shown in the Center s model agreement the precedent of providing names, addresses and contact details of other allot-tees or home-owners of a building that would have multiple dwelling units . This is nowhere either in the agreement or mentioned anywhere else in the four documents. 12. An addition to the above would be that the details provided should be correct and updated as per the records maintained by the Promoter/builder. 13. Today, there is no way for a potential house-owner to know if the builder had broken any norms or has any cases in court pending against him. There should be a way for the potential house-owner to find out. 14. A builder can terminate a flat purchase agreement by giving just a week s notice on email to the buyer who defaults on an instalment. But the developer can refund the money without interest to the
purchaser at leisure, within six months.Under MOFA (the earlier rules), the developer could cancel the agreement after giving a 15 days notice, and the builder could resell the flat only after refunding money to the original buyer. Under the new draft rules, a builder can immediately sell the flat after terminating the agreement. 15. The new draft rules say a buyer must pay 30% of the total cost while signing the agreement and 45% when the plinth of the building is constructed. The earlier state law stipulated 20% payment when the
agreement is signed with the developer. 16. The Central model agreement and rules proposed a fee of INR Rs 1,000 for filing complaints before housing authority; the state draft has proposed to hike this fee to Rs INR Rs. 10,000/- 17. Reading the Central Model Agreement, key disclosures under Section 4 (2)and Rule 3 (2) of the Central Model Rules have been excluded to be put up on the website of the Authority. These included carpet area of flat, encumbrance certificate (this would have disclosed encumbrances in respect of the land where the real estate project is proposed to be undertaken), copy of the legal title report and sanctioned plan of the building. Due to this house-owner would always be in dark and assume that everything is alright. There have been multiple instances of this over years Some examples http://www.deccanchronicle.com/140920/nation-current-affairs/article/builder-encroaches-%E2%80%98raja-kaluve%E2%80%99 http://indianexpress.com/article/cities/ahmedabad/surat-builder-grabs-tribal-land-using-fake-documents/ http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/bangalore/bmtf-books-exmayor-wife-for-grabbing-ca-site/article7397062.ece http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/thane/24-acre-ambernath-plot-usurped-with-fake-docus/articleshow/55654139.cms 18. The Central rule requires a builder to submit an annual report including profit and loss account, balance sheet, cash flow statement, directors report and auditors report for the preceding three financial years, among other things. However, the Maharashtra draft rules are silent on such a requirement. While the above is what I could perceive in the limited amount I came to know. This should be enough to convince that more needs to be done from the house-owner s side. Update Just saw Quint s Op-Ed goes in more detail.
Filed under: Miscellenous Tagged: #Draft Rules for Real Estate Rules and Regulation (2016), #hurry, #Name, #Response, Amrapali Group, Contact details of other hom-owners in a scheme., M.S. Dhoni

15 November 2016

Keith Packard: AltOS-Lisp

A Tiny Lisp for AltOS I took a bit of a diversion over the last week or so when I wondered how small a lisp interpreter I could write, and whether I could fit that into one of the processors that AltOS runs on. It turns out, you can write a tiny lisp interpreter that fits in about 25kB of ram with a 3kB heap for dynamic data. I decided to target our ChaosKey boards; they're tiny, and I've got a lot of them. That processor offers 28kB of usable flash space (after the 4kB boot loader) and 6kB of ram with the processor running at a steaming 48MHz. I'm not at all sure this is useful, but I always enjoy doing language implementations, and this one presented some 'interesting' challenges: Iterative Compacting Allocator I'm betting someone has built one of these before, but I couldn't find one, so I wrote my own. The basic strategy is to walk the heap to find a subset of the active objects which are allocated sequentially in memory with only unused storage between them. These objects are then compacted in-place, and then the heap is walked again to update all references to the moved objects. Then, the process is restarted to find another subset and move them. By looking for these subsets starting at the bottom of the heap, and working upwards towards the top, the whole heap can be compacted into a contiguous chunk at the bottom of memory. Allocation involves moving a pointer along at the top of active memory; when it gets to the top of the heap, collect and see if there's space now. As always, the hardest part was to make sure all active memory was tied down. The second hardest part was to make sure that all active pointers were updated after any allocation, in case a collect moved the underlying object. That was just bookkeeping, but did consume much of the development time. One additional trick was to terminate the recursion during heap walking by flagging active cons cell locations in a global bitmap and then walking that separately, iterating until that bitmap is empty. Nested lambdas form another recursion which should probably get the same approach, but I haven't done that yet. An unexpected "benefit" of the tiny heap is that the collector gets called a lot, so any referencing bugs will have a good chance of being uncovered in even a short program execution. ROM-able Lisp Instead of implementing all of the language in C, I wanted to be able to implement various pieces in Lisp itself. Because of the complex nature of the evaluation process, adding things like 'let' or even 'defun' turn out to be dramatically simpler in Lisp. However, I didn't want to consume bunches of precious RAM to hold these basic functions. What I did was to create two heaps, one in ROM and the other in RAM. References are be tagged as to which heap they're in. 16-bit Values Lisp programs use a pile of references. Using a full 32 bits for each one would mean having a lot less effective storage. So, instead, I use an offset from the base of the heap. The top bit of the offset is used to distinguish between the ROM heap and the RAM heap. I needed a place to store type information, so I settled on using the bottom two bits of the references. This allows for four direct type values. One of these values is used to indicate an indirect type, where the type is stored in the first byte of the object. The direct types are:
ValueType
0Cons cell
114-bit int
2String
3Other
With 2 tag bits, the allocator needs to work in 32-bit units as the references couldn't point to individual bytes. Finally, I wanted 0 to be nil, so I add four to the offsets within the heaps. The result is that the ROM and RAM heaps can each cover up to 32k - 4 bytes. Note that ints are not stored in the heap; instead they are immediate values stored in 14 bits, providing a range of -8192 to 8191. One can imagine wanting more range in ints at some point. Heap-based Evaluator A simple lisp implementation uses the fact that eval is re-entrant and do the operation on the C stack:
val eval(val exprs)  
    val vals;
    while (exprs)  
        vals = append(vals, eval(car(exprs)));
        exprs = exprs->cdr;
     
    return execute (car(vals), cdr(vals));
 
This makes things really simple and provides for a clean framework for implementing various bits of lisp, including control flow and macros. However, it rapidly consumes all of the available memory for a stack, while also requiring separate bookkeeping for the in-use memory in each frame. I replaced this design with one which keeps the lisp stack on the heap, and then performs eval with a state machine with all state stored in global variables so that the memory manager can reference them directly. Each eval operation is performed in a separate 'stack' context, which holds the entire eval state except for the current value, which lives in a separate global variable and is used to pass values out of one stack frame and into another. When the last stack context is finished, the evaluation terminates and the value is returned to the caller. There are nine states in the state machine, each of which is implemented in a separate function, making the state machine a simple matter of pulling the current state from the top of the stack and invoking the associated function:
while (ao_lisp_stack)  
    if (!(*evals[ao_lisp_stack->state])()   ao_lisp_exception)  
        ao_lisp_stack_clear();
        return AO_LISP_NIL;
     
 
return ao_lisp_v;
Because there's no C recursion involved, catching exceptions is a simple matter of one test at this level. Primitives like progn, while, cond and eval all take special magic in the state machine to handle; getting all of that working took several attempts before I found the simple loop shown above. Lexical Scoping The last time I did a lisp interpreter, I implemented dynamic scoping. Atoms were all global and had values associated directly with them. Evaluating a lambda started by saving all of the existing global values for the parameter atoms and then binding the new values. When finished, the previous values would be restored. This is almost correct, but provides surprising results for things like:
> (setq baz 1)
> (def foo (lambda (bar) (+ baz bar)))
> (def bletch (lambda (baz) (foo baz)))
> (bletch 2)
4
The value that foo gets for 'baz' is 2 instead of 1 under dynamic scoping, which most people find surprising. This time, I was determined to use lexical scoping, and it turned out to be surprisingly easy. The first trick was to separate the atoms from their 'value'; each atom can have a different value in different lexical scopes. So, each lexical scope gets a 'frame' object, those contain the value for each atom defined in that scope. There's a global scope which holds all of the globally defined values (like baz, foo and bletch above). Each frame points to its enclosing scope, so you can search upwards to find the right value. The second trick was to realize that the lexical scope of a lambda is the scope in which the lambda itself is evaluated, and that the evaluation of a lambda expression results in a 'function' object, which contains the lambda and its enclosing scope:
> (def foo (lambda (bar bletch)
       ((lambda (baz)
          (+ baz bar))
        bletch)))
> (foo 2 3)
5
In this case, the inner lambda in foo can 'see' the value of bar from the enclosing lambda. More subtly, even if the inner lambda were executed multiple times, it would see the same baz, and could even change it. This can be used to implement all kinds of craziness, including generators:
> (defun make-inc (add)
  ((lambda (base)
     (lambda ()
       (progn
     (setq base (+ base add))
     base)))
   0)
  )
> (setq plus2 (make-inc 2))
> (plus2)
2
> (plus2)
4
The current implementation of each frame is a simple array of atom/value pairs, with a reference to the parent frame to form the full scope. There are dramatically faster implementations of this same concept, but the goal here was small and simple. A Tiny Allocator Optimization With eval consuming heap space for stacks, frames and argument lists, the interpreter was spending a lot of time in the collector. As a simple optimization, I added some free lists for stack frames and cons cells. Stack frames are never referenced when they're finished, so they can always go on the free list. Cons cells used to construct argument lists for functions are usually free. Builtin functions have a bit which indicates whether they might hold on to a reference to the argument list. Interpreted lambdas can't get the list while nlambdas, lexprs and macros do. Each lambda execution creates a new frame, and while it would be possible to discover if that frame 'escapes' the lambda, I decided to not attempt to cache free ones yet. Save and Restore To make the lisp interpreter more useful in tiny computers, I added the ability to save and restore the entire heap to flash. This requires leaving enough space in the flash to preserve the heap, further constraining the amount of flash available for the application. Code All of this code is in the 'lisp' branch of my AltOS repository: AltOS The lisp interpreter is independent from the rest of AltOS and could be re-purposed for another embedded operating system. It runs fine on ChaosKey hardware, and also on the STM32F042 Nucleo-32 board There's also a test framework which runs on Linux, and is how I developed almost all of the code. That's in the src/test directory in the above repository, and is called 'ao_lisp_test'. Towers of Hanoi Here's an implementation of the classic recursive Towers of Hanoi game; it shows most of the current features of the language.
;
; Towers of Hanoi
;
; Copyright   2016 Keith Packard <keithp@keithp.com>
;
; This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
; it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
; the Free Software Foundation, either version 2 of the License, or
; (at your option) any later version.
;
; This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
; WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
; MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU
; General Public License for more details.
;
; ANSI control sequences
(defun move-to (col row)
  (patom "\033[" row ";" col "H" nil)
  )
(defun clear ()
  (patom "\033[2J" nil)
  )
(defun display-string (x y str)
  (move-to x y)
  (patom str)
  )
; Here's the pieces to display
(setq stack '("*" "**" "***" "****" "*****" "******" "*******"))
(setq top (+ (length stack) 3))
;
; Here's all of the stacks of pieces
; This is generated when the program is run
;
(setq stacks nil)
; Display one stack, clearing any
; space above it
(defun display-stack (x y clear stack)
  (cond ((= 0 clear)
     (cond (stack (progn
            (display-string x y (car stack))
            (display-stack x (1+ y) 0 (cdr stack))
            )
              )
           )
     )
    (t (progn
         (display-string x y "          ")
         (display-stack x (1+ y) (1- clear) stack)
         )
       )
    )
  )
; This should probably be included in the rom image...
(defun length (list)
  (cond (list (1+ (length (cdr list))))
    (0)
    )
  )
; Position of the top of the stack on the screen
; Shorter stacks start further down the screen
(defun stack-pos (y stack)
  (- y (length stack))
  )
; Display all of the stacks, spaced 20 columns apart
(defun display-stacks (x y stacks)
  (cond (stacks (progn
          (display-stack x 0 (stack-pos y (car stacks)) (car stacks))
          (display-stacks (+ x 20) y (cdr stacks)))
        )
    )
  )
; Display all of the stacks, then move the cursor
; out of the way and flush the output
(defun display ()
  (display-stacks 0 top stacks)
  (move-to 1 21)
  (flush)
  )
; Reset stacks to the starting state, with
; all of the pieces in the first stack and the
; other two empty
(defun reset-stacks ()
  (setq stacks (list stack nil nil))
  (length stack)
  )
; more functions which could usefully
; be in the rom image
(defun min (a b)
  (cond ((< a b) a)
    (b)
    )
  )
(defun nth (list n)
  (cond ((= n 0) (car list))
    ((nth (cdr list) (1- n)))
    )
  )
; Replace a stack in the list of stacks
; with a new value
(defun replace (list pos member)
  (cond ((= pos 0) (cons member (cdr list)))
    ((cons (car list) (replace (cdr list) (1- pos) member)))
    )
  )
; Move a piece from the top of one stack
; to the top of another
(defun move-piece (from to)
  (let ((from-stack (nth stacks from))
    (to-stack (nth stacks to))
    (piece (car from-stack)))
    (setq from-stack (cdr from-stack))
    (setq to-stack (cons piece to-stack))
    (setq stacks (replace stacks from from-stack))
    (setq stacks (replace stacks to to-stack))
    (display)
    (delay 100)
    )
  )
; The implementation of the game
(defun _hanoi (n from to use)
  (cond ((= 1 n)
     (progn
      (move-piece from to)
      nil)
     )
    (t
     (progn
      (_hanoi (1- n) from use to)
      (_hanoi 1 from to use)
      (_hanoi (1- n) use to from)
      )
     )
    )
  )
; A pretty interface which
; resets the state of the game,
; clears the screen and runs
; the program
(defun hanoi ()
  (setq len (reset-stacks))
  (clear)
  (_hanoi len 0 1 2)
  )

29 October 2016

Iain R. Learmonth: live-wrapper 0.4 released!

Last week saw the quiet upload of live-wrapper 0.4 to unstable. I would have blogged at the time, but there is another announcement coming later in this blog post that I wanted to make at the same time. live-wrapper is a wrapper around vmdebootstrap for producing bootable live images using Debian GNU/Linux. Accompanied by the live-tasks package in Debian, this provides the toolchain and configuration necessary for building live images using Cinnamon, GNOME, KDE, LXDE, MATE and XFCE. There is also work ongoing to add a GNUstep image to this. Building a live image with live-wrapper is easy:
sudo apt install live-wrapper
sudo lwr
This will build you a file named output.iso in the current directory containing a minimal live-image. You can the test this in QEMU:
qemu-system-x86_64 -m 2G -cdrom live.iso
You can find the latest documentation for live-wrapper here and any feedback you have is appreciated. So far it looks that booting from CD and USB with both ISOLINUX (BIOS) and GRUB (EFI) are all working as expected on real hardware. The second announcement that I wanted to accompany this announcement is that we will be running a vmdebootstrap sprint where we will be working on live-wrapper at the MiniDebConf in Cambridge. I will be working on installer integration while Ana Custura will be investigating bootloaders and their customisation. I d like to thank the Debian Project and those who have given donations to it for supporting our travel and accomodation costs for this sprint.

Iain R. Learmonth: live-wrapper 0.4 released!

Last week saw the quiet upload of live-wrapper 0.4 to unstable. I would have blogged at the time, but there is another announcement coming later in this blog post that I wanted to make at the same time. live-wrapper is a wrapper around vmdebootstrap for producing bootable live images using Debian GNU/Linux. Accompanied by the live-tasks package in Debian, this provides the toolchain and configuration necessary for building live images using Cinnamon, GNOME, KDE, LXDE, MATE and XFCE. There is also work ongoing to add a GNUstep image to this. Building a live image with live-wrapper is easy:
sudo apt install live-wrapper
sudo lwr
This will build you a file named output.iso in the current directory containing a minimal live-image. You can the test this in QEMU:
qemu-system-x86_64 -m 2G -cdrom live.iso
You can find the latest documentation for live-wrapper here and any feedback you have is appreciated. So far it looks that booting from CD and USB with both ISOLINUX (BIOS) and GRUB (EFI) are all working as expected on real hardware. The second announcement that I wanted to accompany this announcement is that we will be running a vmdebootstrap sprint where we will be working on live-wrapper at the MiniDebConf in Cambridge. I will be working on installer integration while Ana Custura will be investigating bootloaders and their customisation. I d like to thank the Debian Project and those who have given donations to it for supporting our travel and accomodation costs for this sprint.

Next.