Search Results: "ardo"

24 November 2021

Dirk Eddelbuettel: nanotime 0.3.4 on CRAN: Maintenance Update

Another (minor) nanotime release, now at version 0.3.4, arrived at CRAN overnight. It exports some nanoperiod functionality via a C++ header, and Leonardo and I will use this in an upcoming package that we hope to talk about a little more in a few days. It also adds a few as.character.*() methods that had not been included before. nanotime relies on the RcppCCTZ package for (efficient) high(er) resolution time parsing and formatting up to nanosecond resolution, and the bit64 package for the actual integer64 arithmetic. Initially implemented using the S3 system, it has benefitted greatly from a rigorous refactoring by Leonardo who not only rejigged nanotime internals in S4 but also added new S4 types for periods, intervals and durations. The NEWS snippet adds more details.

Changes in version 0.3.4 (2021-11-24)
  • Added a few more as.character conversion function (Dirk)
  • Expose nanoperiod functionality via header file for use by other packages (Leonardo in #95 fixing #94).

Thanks to CRANberries there is also a diff to the previous version. More details and examples are at the nanotime page; code, issue tickets etc at the GitHub repository. If you like this or other open-source work I do, you can now sponsor me at GitHub.

This post by Dirk Eddelbuettel originated on his Thinking inside the box blog. Please report excessive re-aggregation in third-party for-profit settings.

22 November 2021

Ricardo Mones: Claws Mail 4 in experimental

A full month has passed since Claws Mail 4.0.0 was uploaded to Debian experimental, and, somewhat surprisingly, I've received no bug report about it. This of course can be either because nobody has been brave enough to install it or because well, it works really nice. For those who don't know what I'm talking about, just note that this version is the first Debian upload for the GTK+3 version of Claws Mail. There was an initial upstream release, namely 3.99, but it was less polished and also I was very busy, so I decided not to upload it. Since then I've been using git's 'gtk3' branch daily without problems, so, for me, it's as stable as its GTK+2 counterpart. There's still some rough edges, of course. Note also that, if everything goes well, Claws Mail 4.x will be the version to be shipped with Debian 12 (bookworm).

15 November 2021

Vincent Bernat: Git as a source of truth for network automation

The first step when automating a network is to build the source of truth. A source of truth is a repository of data that provides the intended state: the list of devices, the IP addresses, the network protocols settings, the time servers, etc. A popular choice is NetBox. Its documentation highlights its usage as a source of truth:
NetBox intends to represent the desired state of a network versus its operational state. As such, automated import of live network state is strongly discouraged. All data created in NetBox should first be vetted by a human to ensure its integrity. NetBox can then be used to populate monitoring and provisioning systems with a high degree of confidence.
When introducing Jerikan, a common feedback we got was: you should use NetBox for this. Indeed, Jerikan s source of truth is a bunch of YAML files versioned with Git.

Why Git? If we look at how things are done with servers and services, in a datacenter or in the cloud, we are likely to find users of Terraform, a tool turning declarative configuration files into infrastructure. Declarative configuration management tools like Salt, Puppet,1 or Ansible take care of server configuration. NixOS is an alternative: it combines package management and configuration management with a functional language to build virtual machines and containers. When using a Kubernetes cluster, people use Kustomize or Helm, two other declarative configuration management tools. Tapped together, these tools implement the infrastructure as code paradigm.
Infrastructure as code is an approach to infrastructure automation based on practices from software development. It emphasizes consistent, repeatable routines for provisioning and changing systems and their configuration. You make changes to code, then use automation to test and apply those changes to your systems. Kief Morris, Infrastructure as Code, O Reilly.
A version control system is a central tool for infrastructure as code. The usual candidate is Git with a source code management system like GitLab or GitHub. You get:
Traceability and visibility
Git keeps a log of all changes: what, who, why, and when. With a bit of discipline, each change is explained and self-contained. It becomes part of the infrastructure documentation. When the support team complains about a degraded experience for some customers over the last two months or so, you quickly discover this may be related to a change to an incoming policy in New York.
Rolling back
If a change is defective, it can be reverted quickly, safely, and without much effort, even if other changes happened in the meantime. The policy change at the origin of the problem spanned over three routers. Reverting this specific change and deploying the configuration let you solve the situation until you find a better fix.
Branching, reviewing, merging
When working on a new feature or refactoring some part of the infrastructure, a team member creates a branch and works on their change without interfering with the work of other members. Once the branch is ready, a pull request is created and the change is ready to be reviewed by the other team members before merging. You discover the issue was related to diverting traffic through an IX where one ISP was connected without enough capacity. You propose and discuss a fix that includes a change of the schema and the templates used to declare policies to be able to handle this case.
Continuous integration
For each change, automated tests are triggered. They can detect problems and give more details on the effect of a change. Branches can be deployed to a test infrastructure where regression tests are executed. The results can be synthesized as a comment in the pull request to help the review. You check your proposed change does not modify the other existing policies.

Why not NetBox? NetBox does not share these features. It is a database with a REST and a GraphQL API. Traceability is limited: changes are not grouped into a transaction and they are not documented. You cannot fork the database. Usually, there is one staging database to test modifications before applying them to the production database. It does not scale well and reviews are difficult. Applying the same change to the production database can be hazardous. Rolling back a change is non-trivial.

Update (2021-11) Nautobot, a fork of NetBox, will soon address this point by using Dolt, an SQL database engine allowing you to clone, branch, and merge, like a Git repository. Dolt is compatible with MySQL clients. See Nautobots, Roll Back! for a preview of this feature.

Moreover, NetBox is not usually the single source of truth. It contains your hardware inventory, the IP addresses, and some topology information. However, this is not the place you put authorized SSH keys, syslog servers, or the BGP configuration. If you also use Ansible, this information ends in its inventory. The source of truth is therefore fragmented between several tools with different workflows. Since NetBox 2.7, you can append additional data with configuration contexts. This mitigates this point. The data is arranged hierarchically but the hierarchy cannot be customized.2 Nautobot can manage configuration contexts in a Git repository, while still allowing to use of the API to fetch them. You get some additional perks, thanks to Git, but the remaining data is still in a database with a different lifecycle. Lastly, the schema used by NetBox may not fit your needs and you cannot tweak it. For example, you may have a rule to compute the IPv6 address from the IPv4 address for dual-stack interfaces. Such a relationship cannot be easily expressed and enforced in NetBox. When changing the IPv4 address, you may forget the IPv6 address. The source of truth should only contain the IPv4 address but you also want the IPv6 address in NetBox because this is your IPAM and you need it to update your DNS entries.

Why not Git? There are some limitations when putting your source of truth in Git:
  1. If you want to expose a web interface to allow an external team to request a change, it is more difficult to do it with Git than with a database. Out-of-the-box, NetBox provides a nice web interface and a permission system. You can also write your own web interface and interact with NetBox through its API.
  2. YAML files are more difficult to query in different ways. For example, looking for a free IP address is complex if they are scattered in multiple places.
In my opinion, in most cases, you are better off putting the source of truth in Git instead of NetBox. You get a lot of perks by doing that and you can still use NetBox as a read-only view, usable by other tools. We do that with an Ansible module. In the remaining cases, Git could still fit the bill. Read-only access control can be done through submodules. Pull requests can restrict write access: a bot can check the changes only modify allowed files before auto-merging. This still requires some Git knowledge, but many teams are now comfortable using Git, thanks to its ubiquity.

  1. Wikimedia manages its infrastructure with Puppet. They publish everything on GitHub. Creative Commons uses Salt. They also publish everything on GitHub. Thanks to them for doing that! I wish I could provide more real-life examples.
  2. Being able to customize the hierarchy is key to avoiding repetition in the data. For example, if switches are paired together, some data should be attached to them as a group and not duplicated on each of them. Tags can be used to partially work around this issue but you lose the hierarchical aspect.

10 August 2021

Shirish Agarwal: BBI, IP report, State Borders and Civil Aviation I

If I have seen further, it is by standing on the shoulders of Giants Issac Newton, 1675. Although it should be credited to 12th century Bernard of Chartres. You will know why I have shared this, probably at the beginning of Civil Aviation history itself.

Comments on the BBI court case which happened in Kenya, then and the subsequent appeal. I am not going to share much about the coverage of the BBI appeal as Gautam Bhatia has shared quite eloquently his observations, both on the initial case and the subsequent appeal which lasted 5 days in Kenya and was shown all around the world thanks to YouTube. One of the interesting points which stuck with me was that in Kenya, sign language is one of the official languages. And in fact, I was able to read quite a bit about the various sign languages which are there in Kenya. It just boggles the mind that there are countries that also give importance to such even though they are not as rich or as developed as we call developed economies. I probably might give more space and give more depth as it does carry some important judicial jurisprudence which is and which will be felt around the world. How does India react or doesn t is probably another matter altogether  But yes, it needs it own space, maybe after some more time. Report on Standing Committee on IP Regulation in India and the false promises. Again, I do not want to take much time in sharing details about what the report contains, as the report can be found here. I have uploaded it on WordPress, in case of an issue. An observation on the same subject can be found here. At least, to me and probably those who have been following the IP space as either using/working on free software or even IP would be aware that the issues shared have been known since 1994. And it does benefit the industry rather than the country. This way, the rent-seekers, and monopolists win. There is ample literature that shared how rich countries had weak regulation for decades and even centuries till it was advantageous for them to have strong IP. One can look at the history of Europe and the United States for it. We can also look at the history of our neighbor China, which for the last 5 decades has used some provision of IP and disregarded many others. But these words are of no use, as the policies done and shared are by the rich for the rich.

Fighting between two State Borders Ironically or because of it, two BJP ruled states Assam and Mizoram fought between themselves. In which 6 policemen died. While the history of the two states is complicated it becomes a bit more complicated when one goes back into Assam and ULFA history and comes to know that ULFA could not have become that powerful until and unless, the Marwaris, people of my clan had not given generous donations to them. They thought it was a good investment, which later would turn out to be untrue. Those who think ULFA has declined, or whatever, still don t have answers to this or this. Interestingly, both the Chief Ministers approached the Home Minister (Mr. Amit Shah) of BJP. Mr. Shah was supposed to be the Chanakya but in many instances, including this one, he decided to stay away. His statement was on the lines of you guys figure it out yourself. There is a poem that was shared by the late poet Rahat Indori. I am sharing the same below as an image and will attempt to put a rough translation.
kisi ke baap ka hindustan todi hain Rahat Indori
Poets, whether in India or elsewhere, are known to speak truth to power and are a bit of a rebel. This poem by Rahat Indori is provocatively titled Kisi ke baap ka Hindustan todi hai , It challenges the majoritarian idea that Hindustan/India only belongs to the majoritarian religion. He also challenges as well as asserts at the same time that every Indian citizen, regardless of whatever his or her religion might be, is an Indian and can assert India as his home. While the whole poem is compelling in itself, for me what hits home is in the second stanza

:Lagegi Aag to aayege ghat kayi zad me, Yaha pe sirf hamara makan todi hai The meaning is simple yet subtle, he uses Aag or Fire as a symbol of hate sharing that if hate spreads, it won t be his home alone that will be torched. If one wants to literally understand what he meant, I present to you the cult Russian movie No Escapes or Ogon as it is known in Russian. If one were to decipher why the Russian film doesn t talk about climate change, one has to view it from the prism of what their leader Vladimir Putin has said and done over the years. As can be seen even in there, the situation is far more complex than one imagines. Although, it is interesting to note that he decried Climate change as man-made till as late as last year and was on the side of Trump throughout his presidency. This was in 2017 as well as perhaps this. Interestingly, there was a change in tenor and note just a couple of weeks back, but that could be only politicking or much more. Statements that are not backed by legislation and application are usually just a whitewash. We would have to wait to see what concrete steps are taken by Putin, Kremlin, and their Duma before saying either way.

Civil Aviation and the broad structure Civil Aviation is a large topic and I would not be able to do justice to it all in one article/blog post. So, for e.g. I will not be getting into Aircraft (Boeing, Airbus, Comac etc., etc.) or the new electric aircraft as that will just make the blog post long. I will not be also talking about cargo or Visa or many such topics, as all of them actually would and do need their own space. So this would be much more limited to Airports and to some extent airlines, as one cannot survive without the other. The primary reason for doing this is there is and has been a lot of myth-making in India about Civil Aviation in general, whether it has to do with Civil Aviation history or whatever passes as of policy in India.

A little early history Man has always looked at the stars and envisaged himself or herself as a bird, flying with gay abandon. In fact, there have been many paintings, sculptors who imagined how we would fly. The Steam Engine itself was invented in 82 BCE. But the attempt to fly was done by a certain Monk called Brother Elmer of Malmesbury who attempted the same in 1010., shortly after the birth of the rudimentary steam engine The most famous of all would be Leonardo da Vinci for his amazing sketches of flying machines in 1493. There were a couple of books by Cyrano de Bergerac, apparently wrote two books, both sadly published after his death. Interestingly, you can find both the book and the gentleman in the Project Gutenberg archives. How much of M/s Cyrano s exploits were his own and how much embellished by M/S Curtis, maybe a friend, a lover who knows, but it does give the air of the swashbuckling adventurer of the time which many men aspired to in that time. So, why not an author???

L Autre Monde: ou les tats et Empires de la Lune (Comical History of the States and Empires of the Moon) and Les tats et Empires du Soleil (The States and Empires of the Sun). These two French books apparently had a lot of references to flying machines. Both of them were authored by Cyrano de Bergerac. Both of these were sadly published after his death, one apparently in 1656 and the other one a couple of years later. By the 17th century, while it had become easy to know and measure the latitude, measuring longitude was a problem. In fact, it can be argued and probably successfully that India wouldn t have been under British rule or UK wouldn t have been a naval superpower if it hadn t solved the longitudinal problem. Over the years, the British Royal Navy suffered many blows, one of the most famous or infamous among them might be the Scilly naval disaster of 1707 which led to the death of 2000 odd British Royal naval personnel and led to Queen Anne, who was ruling over England at that time via Parliament and called it the Longitude Act which basically was an open competition for anybody to fix the problem and carried the prize money of 20,000. While nobody could claim the whole prize, many did get smaller amounts depending upon the achievements. The best and the nearest who came was John Harrison who made the first sea-watch and with modifications, over the years it became miniaturized to a pocket-sized Marine chronometer although, I doubt the ones used today look anything in those days. But if that had not been invented, we surely would have been freed long ago. The assumption being that the East India Company would have dashed onto rocks so many times, that the whole exercise would have been futile. The downside of it is that maritime trade routes that are being used today and the commerce would not have been. Neither would have aircraft or space for that matter, or at the very least delayed by how many years or decades, nobody knows. If one wants to read about the Longitudinal problem, one can get the famous book Longitude .

In many mythologies, including Indian and Arabian tales, in which we had the flying carpet which would let its passengers go from one place to the next. Then there is also mention of Pushpak Vimana in ancient texts, but those secrets remain secrets. Think how much foreign exchange India could make by both using it and exporting the same worldwide. And I m being serious. There are many who believe in it, but sadly, the ones who know the secret don t seem to want India s progress. Just think of the carbon credits that India could have, which itself would make India a superpower. And I m being serious.

Western Ideas and Implementation. Even in the late and early 18th century, there were many machines that were designed to have controlled flight, but it was only the Wright Flyer that was able to demonstrate a controlled flight in 1903. The ones who came pretty close to what the Wrights achieved were the people by the name of Cayley and Langley. They actually studied what the pioneers had done. They looked at what Otto Lilienthal had done, as he had done a lot of hang-gliding and put a lot of literature in the public domain then.

Furthermore, they also consulted Octave Chanute. The whole system and history of the same are a bit complicated, but it does give a window to what happened then. So, it won t be wrong to say that whatever the Wright Brothers accomplished would probably not have been possible or would have taken years or maybe even decades if that literature and experiments, drawings, etc. in the commons were not available. So, while they did experimentation, they also looked at what other people were doing and had done which was in public domain/commons.

They also did a lot of testing, which gave them new insights. Even the propulsion system they used in the 1903 flight was a design by Nicolaus Otto. In fact, the Aircraft would not have been born if the Chinese had not invented kites in the early sixth century A.D. One also has to credit Issac Newton because of the three laws of motion, again without which none of the above could have happened. What is credited to the Wilbur brothers is not just they made the Kitty Hawk, they also made it commercial as they sold it and variations of the design to the American Air Force and also made a pilot school where pilots were trained for warfighting. 119 odd pilots came out of that school. The Wrights thought that air supremacy would end the war early, but this turned out to be a false hope.

Competition and Those Magnificent Men and their flying machines One of the first competitions to unlock creativity was the English Channel crossing offer made by Daily Mail. This was successfully done by the Frenchman Louis Bl riot. You can read his account here. There were quite a few competitions before World War 1 broke out. There is a beautiful, humorous movie that does dedicate itself to imagining how things would have gone in that time. In fact, there have been two movies, this one and an earlier movie called Sky Riders made many a youth dream. The other movie sadly is not yet in the public domain, and when it will be nobody knows, but if you see it or even read it, it gives you goosebumps.

World War 1 and Improvements to Aircraft World War 1 is remembered as the Great War or the War to end all wars in an attempt at irony. It did a lot of destruction of both people and property, and in fact, laid the foundation of World War 2. At the same time, if World War 1 hadn t happened then Airpower, Plane technology would have taken decades. Even medicine and medical techniques became revolutionary due to World War 1. In order to be brief, I am not sharing much about World War 1 otherwise that itself would become its own blog post. And while it had its heroes and villains who, when, why could be tackled perhaps another time.

The Guggenheim Family and the birth of Civil Aviation If one has to credit one family for the birth of the Civil Aviation, it has to be the Guggenheim family. Again, I would not like to dwell much as much of their contribution has already been noted here. There are quite a few things still that need to be said and pointed out. First and foremost is the fact that they made lessons about flying from grade school to college and afterward till college and beyond which were in the syllabus, whereas in the Indian schooling system, there is nothing like that to date. Here, in India, even in Engineering courses, you don t have much info. Unless until you go for professional Aviation or Aeronautical courses and most of these courses cost a bomb so either the very rich or the very determined (with loans) only go for that, at least that s what my friends have shared. And there is no guarantee you will get a job after that, especially in today s climate. Even their fund, grants, and prizes which were given to people for various people so that improvements could be made to the United States Civil Aviation. This, as shared in the report/blog post shared, was in response to what the younger child/brother saw as Europe having a large advantage both in Military and Civil Aviation. They also made several grants in several Universities which would not only do notable work during their lifetime but carry on the legacy researching on different aspects of Aircraft. One point that should be noted is that Europe was far ahead even then of the U.S. which prompted the younger son. There had already been talks of civil/civilian flights on European routes, although much different from what either of us can imagine today. Even with everything that the U.S. had going for her and still has, Europe is the one which has better airports, better facilities, better everything than the U.S. has even today. If you look at the lists of the Airports for better value of money or facilities, you would find many Airports from Europe, some from Asia, and only a few from the U.S. even though they are some of the most frequent users of the service. But that debate and arguments I would have to leave for perhaps the next blog post as there is still a lot to be covered between the 1930s, 1950s, and today. The Guggenheims archives does a fantastic job of sharing part of the story till the 1950s, but there is also quite a bit which it doesn t. I will probably start from that in the next blog post and then carry on ahead. Lastly, before I wind up, I have to share why I felt the need to write, capture and share this part of Aviation history. The plain and simple reason being, many of the people I meet either on the web, on Twitter or even in real life, many of them are just unaware of how this whole thing came about. The unawareness in my fellow brothers and sisters is just shocking, overwhelming. At least, by sharing these articles, I at least would be able to guide them or at least let them know how it all came to be and where things are going and not just be so clueless. Till later.

9 August 2021

Dirk Eddelbuettel: nanotime 0.3.3 on CRAN: Some Updates

Leonardo and I are pleased to share that a new nanotime version 0.3.3 was released today, and arrived on CRAN. This release brings a new (plotting) demo, an updated documentation site, additional nanoduration and nanoperiod functionality, and enhanced testing. nanotime relies on the RcppCCTZ package for (efficient) high(er) resolution time parsing and formatting up to nanosecond resolution, and the bit64 package for the actual integer64 arithmetic. Initially implemented using the S3 system, it has benefitted greatly from work by co-author Leonardo who not only rejigged nanotime internals in S4 but also added new S4 types for periods, intervals and durations. The NEWS snippet adds full details.

Changes in version 0.3.3 (2021-08-09)
  • New demo ggplot2Example.R (Leonardo and Dirk).
  • New documentation website using mkdocs-material (Dirk).
  • Updated unit test to account for r-devel POSIXct changes, and re-enable full testing under r-devel (Dirk).
  • Additional nanoduration and character ops plus tests (Colin Umansky in #88 addressing #87).
  • New plus and minus functions for periods (Leonardo in #91).

Thanks to CRANberries there is also a diff to the previous version. More details and examples are at the nanotime page; code, issue tickets etc at the GitHub repository. If you like this or other open-source work I do, you can now sponsor me at GitHub.

This post by Dirk Eddelbuettel originated on his Thinking inside the box blog. Please report excessive re-aggregation in third-party for-profit settings.

30 June 2021

Enrico Zini: Systemd containers with unittest

This is part of a series of posts on ideas for an ansible-like provisioning system, implemented in Transilience. Unit testing some parts of Transilience, like the apt and systemd actions, or remote Mitogen connections, can really use a containerized system for testing. To have that, I reused my work on nspawn-runner. to build a simple and very fast system of ephemeral containers, with minimal dependencies, based on systemd-nspawn and btrfs snapshots: Setup To be able to use systemd-nspawn --ephemeral, the chroots needs to be btrfs subvolumes. If you are not running on a btrfs filesystem, you can create one to run the tests, even on a file:
fallocate -l 1.5G testfile
/usr/sbin/mkfs.btrfs testfile
sudo mount -o loop testfile test_chroots/
I created a script to setup the test environment, here is an extract:
mkdir -p test_chroots
cat << EOF > "test_chroots/CACHEDIR.TAG"
Signature: 8a477f597d28d172789f06886806bc55
# chroots used for testing transilience, can be regenerated with make-test-chroot
btrfs subvolume create test_chroots/buster
eatmydata debootstrap --variant=minbase --include=python3,dbus,systemd buster test_chroots/buster
CACHEDIR.TAG is a nice trick to tell backup software not to bother backing up the contents of this directory, since it can be easily regenerated. eatmydata is optional, and it speeds up debootstrap quite a bit. Running unittest with sudo Here's a simple helper to drop root as soon as possible, and regain it only when needed. Note that it needs $SUDO_UID and $SUDO_GID, that are set by sudo, to know which user to drop into:
class ProcessPrivs:
    Drop root privileges and regain them only when needed
    def __init__(self):
        self.orig_uid, self.orig_euid, self.orig_suid = os.getresuid()
        self.orig_gid, self.orig_egid, self.orig_sgid = os.getresgid()
        if "SUDO_UID" not in os.environ:
            raise RuntimeError("Tests need to be run under sudo")
        self.user_uid = int(os.environ["SUDO_UID"])
        self.user_gid = int(os.environ["SUDO_GID"])
        self.dropped = False
    def drop(self):
        Drop root privileges
        if self.dropped:
        os.setresgid(self.user_gid, self.user_gid, 0)
        os.setresuid(self.user_uid, self.user_uid, 0)
        self.dropped = True
    def regain(self):
        Regain root privileges
        if not self.dropped:
        os.setresuid(self.orig_suid, self.orig_suid, self.user_uid)
        os.setresgid(self.orig_sgid, self.orig_sgid, self.user_gid)
        self.dropped = False
    def root(self):
        Regain root privileges for the duration of this context manager
        if not self.dropped:
    def user(self):
        Drop root privileges for the duration of this context manager
        if self.dropped:
privs = ProcessPrivs()
As soon as this module is loaded, root privileges are dropped, and can be regained for as little as possible using a handy context manager:
   with privs.root():["systemd-run", ...], check=True, capture_output=True)
Using the chroot from test cases The infrastructure to setup and spin down ephemeral machine is relatively simple, once one has worked out the nspawn incantations:
class Chroot:
    Manage an ephemeral chroot
    running_chroots: Dict[str, "Chroot"] =  
    def __init__(self, name: str, chroot_dir: Optional[str] = None): = name
        if chroot_dir is None:
            self.chroot_dir = self.get_chroot_dir(name)
            self.chroot_dir = chroot_dir
        self.machine_name = f"transilience- uuid.uuid4() "
    def start(self):
        Start nspawn on this given chroot.
        The systemd-nspawn command is run contained into its own unit using
        unit_config = [
        cmd = ["systemd-run"]
        for c in unit_config:
            cmd.append(f"--property= c ")
            f"--directory= self.chroot_dir ",
            f"--machine= self.machine_name ",
            "--notify-ready=yes"))"%s: starting machine using image %s", self.machine_name, self.chroot_dir)
        log.debug("%s: running %s", self.machine_name, " ".join(shlex.quote(c) for c in cmd))
        with privs.root():
  , check=True, capture_output=True)
        log.debug("%s: started", self.machine_name)
        self.running_chroots[self.machine_name] = self
    def stop(self):
        Stop the running ephemeral containers
        cmd = ["machinectl", "terminate", self.machine_name]
        log.debug("%s: running %s", self.machine_name, " ".join(shlex.quote(c) for c in cmd))
        with privs.root():
  , check=True, capture_output=True)
        log.debug("%s: stopped", self.machine_name)
        del self.running_chroots[self.machine_name]
    def create(cls, chroot_name: str) -> "Chroot":
        Start an ephemeral machine from the given master chroot
        res = cls(chroot_name)
        return res
    def get_chroot_dir(cls, chroot_name: str):
        Locate a master chroot under test_chroots/
        chroot_dir = os.path.abspath(os.path.join(os.path.dirname(__file__), "..", "test_chroots", chroot_name))
        if not os.path.isdir(chroot_dir):
            raise RuntimeError(f" chroot_dir  does not exists or is not a chroot directory")
        return chroot_dir
# We need to use atextit, because unittest won't run
# tearDown/tearDownClass/tearDownModule methods in case of KeyboardInterrupt
# and we need to make sure to terminate the nspawn containers at exit
def cleanup():
    # Use a list to prevent changing running_chroots during iteration
    for chroot in list(Chroot.running_chroots.values()):
And here's a TestCase mixin that starts a containerized systems and opens a Mitogen connection to it:
class ChrootTestMixin:
    Mixin to run tests over a setns connection to an ephemeral systemd-nspawn
    container running one of the test chroots
    chroot_name = "buster"
    def setUpClass(cls):
        import mitogen
        from transilience.system import Mitogen = mitogen.master.Broker()
        cls.router = mitogen.master.Router(
        cls.chroot = Chroot.create(cls.chroot_name)
        with privs.root():
            cls.system = Mitogen(
          , "setns", kind="machinectl",
                    container=cls.chroot.machine_name, router=cls.router)
    def tearDownClass(cls):
Running tests Once the tests are set up, everything goes on as normal, except one needs to run nose2 with sudo:
sudo nose2-3
Spin up time for containers is pretty fast, and the tests drop root as soon as possible, and only regain it for as little as needed. Also, dependencies for all this are minimal and available on most systems, and the setup instructions seem pretty straightforward

7 February 2021

Chris Lamb: Favourite books of 2020

I won't reveal precisely how many books I read in 2020, but it was definitely an improvement on 74 in 2019, 53 in 2018 and 50 in 2017. But not only did I read more in a quantitative sense, the quality seemed higher as well. There were certainly fewer disappointments: given its cultural resonance, I was nonplussed by Nick Hornby's Fever Pitch and whilst Ian Fleming's The Man with the Golden Gun was a little thin (again, given the obvious influence of the Bond franchise) the booked lacked 'thinness' in a way that made it interesting to critique. The weakest novel I read this year was probably J. M. Berger's Optimal, but even this hybrid of Ready Player One late-period Black Mirror wasn't that cringeworthy, all things considered. Alas, graphic novels continue to not quite be my thing, I'm afraid. I perhaps experienced more disappointments in the non-fiction section. Paul Bloom's Against Empathy was frustrating, particularly in that it expended unnecessary energy battling its misleading title and accepted terminology, and it could so easily have been an 20-minute video essay instead). (Elsewhere in the social sciences, David and Goliath will likely be the last Malcolm Gladwell book I voluntarily read.) After so many positive citations, I was also more than a little underwhelmed by Shoshana Zuboff's The Age of Surveillance Capitalism, and after Ryan Holiday's many engaging reboots of Stoic philosophy, his Conspiracy (on Peter Thiel and Hulk Hogan taking on Gawker) was slightly wide of the mark for me. Anyway, here follows a selection of my favourites from 2020, in no particular order:

Fiction Wolf Hall & Bring Up the Bodies & The Mirror and the Light Hilary Mantel During the early weeks of 2020, I re-read the first two parts of Hilary Mantel's Thomas Cromwell trilogy in time for the March release of The Mirror and the Light. I had actually spent the last few years eagerly following any news of the final instalment, feigning outrage whenever Mantel appeared to be spending time on other projects. Wolf Hall turned out to be an even better book than I remembered, and when The Mirror and the Light finally landed at midnight on 5th March, I began in earnest the next morning. Note that date carefully; this was early 2020, and the book swiftly became something of a heavy-handed allegory about the world at the time. That is to say and without claiming that I am Monsieur Cromuel in any meaningful sense it was an uneasy experience to be reading about a man whose confident grasp on his world, friends and life was slipping beyond his control, and at least in Cromwell's case, was heading inexorably towards its denouement. The final instalment in Mantel's trilogy is not perfect, and despite my love of her writing I would concur with the judges who decided against awarding her a third Booker Prize. For instance, there is something of the longueur that readers dislike in the second novel, although this might not be entirely Mantel's fault after all, the rise of the "ugly" Anne of Cleves and laborious trade negotiations for an uninspiring mineral (this is no Herbertian 'spice') will never match the court intrigues of Anne Boleyn, Jane Seymour and that man for all seasons, Thomas More. Still, I am already looking forward to returning to the verbal sparring between King Henry and Cromwell when I read the entire trilogy once again, tentatively planned for 2022.

The Fault in Our Stars John Green I came across John Green's The Fault in Our Stars via a fantastic video by Lindsay Ellis discussing Roland Barthes famous 1967 essay on authorial intent. However, I might have eventually come across The Fault in Our Stars regardless, not because of Green's status as an internet celebrity of sorts but because I'm a complete sucker for this kind of emotionally-manipulative bildungsroman, likely due to reading Philip Pullman's His Dark Materials a few too many times in my teens. Although its title is taken from Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, The Fault in Our Stars is actually more Romeo & Juliet. Hazel, a 16-year-old cancer patient falls in love with Gus, an equally ill teen from her cancer support group. Hazel and Gus share the same acerbic (and distinctly unteenage) wit and a love of books, centred around Hazel's obsession of An Imperial Affliction, a novel by the meta-fictional author Peter Van Houten. Through a kind of American version of Jim'll Fix It, Gus and Hazel go and visit Van Houten in Amsterdam. I'm afraid it's even cheesier than I'm describing it. Yet just as there is a time and a place for Michelin stars and Haribo Starmix, there's surely a place for this kind of well-constructed but altogether maudlin literature. One test for emotionally manipulative works like this is how well it can mask its internal contradictions while Green's story focuses on the universalities of love, fate and the shortness of life (as do almost all of his works, it seems), The Fault in Our Stars manages to hide, for example, that this is an exceedingly favourable treatment of terminal illness that is only possible for the better off. The 2014 film adaptation does somewhat worse in peddling this fantasy (and has a much weaker treatment of the relationship between the teens' parents too, an underappreciated subtlety of the book). The novel, however, is pretty slick stuff, and it is difficult to fault it for what it is. For some comparison, I later read Green's Looking for Alaska and Paper Towns which, as I mention, tug at many of the same strings, but they don't come together nearly as well as The Fault in Our Stars. James Joyce claimed that "sentimentality is unearned emotion", and in this respect, The Fault in Our Stars really does earn it.

The Plague Albert Camus P. D. James' The Children of Men, George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four, Arthur Koestler's Darkness at Noon ... dystopian fiction was already a theme of my reading in 2020, so given world events it was an inevitability that I would end up with Camus's novel about a plague that swept through the Algerian city of Oran. Is The Plague an allegory about the Nazi occupation of France during World War Two? Where are all the female characters? Where are the Arab ones? Since its original publication in 1947, there's been so much written about The Plague that it's hard to say anything new today. Nevertheless, I was taken aback by how well it captured so much of the nuance of 2020. Whilst we were saying just how 'unprecedented' these times were, it was eerie how a novel written in the 1940s could accurately how many of us were feeling well over seventy years on later: the attitudes of the people; the confident declarations from the institutions; the misaligned conversations that led to accidental misunderstandings. The disconnected lovers. The only thing that perhaps did not work for me in The Plague was the 'character' of the church. Although I could appreciate most of the allusion and metaphor, it was difficult for me to relate to the significance of Father Paneloux, particularly regarding his change of view on the doctrinal implications of the virus, and spoiler alert that he finally died of a "doubtful case" of the disease, beyond the idea that Paneloux's beliefs are in themselves "doubtful". Answers on a postcard, perhaps. The Plague even seemed to predict how we, at least speaking of the UK, would react when the waves of the virus waxed and waned as well:
The disease stiffened and carried off three or four patients who were expected to recover. These were the unfortunates of the plague, those whom it killed when hope was high
It somehow captured the nostalgic yearning for high-definition videos of cities and public transport; one character even visits the completely deserted railway station in Oman simply to read the timetables on the wall.

Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy John le Carr There's absolutely none of the Mad Men glamour of James Bond in John le Carr 's icy world of Cold War spies:
Small, podgy, and at best middle-aged, Smiley was by appearance one of London's meek who do not inherit the earth. His legs were short, his gait anything but agile, his dress costly, ill-fitting, and extremely wet.
Almost a direct rebuttal to Ian Fleming's 007, Tinker, Tailor has broken-down cars, bad clothes, women with their own internal and external lives (!), pathetically primitive gadgets, and (contra Mad Men) hangovers that significantly longer than ten minutes. In fact, the main aspect that the mostly excellent 2011 film adaption doesn't really capture is the smoggy and run-down nature of 1970s London this is not your proto-Cool Britannia of Austin Powers or GTA:1969, the city is truly 'gritty' in the sense there is a thin film of dirt and grime on every surface imaginable. Another angle that the film cannot capture well is just how purposefully the novel does not mention the United States. Despite the US obviously being the dominant power, the British vacillate between pretending it doesn't exist or implying its irrelevance to the matter at hand. This is no mistake on Le Carr 's part, as careful readers are rewarded by finding this denial of US hegemony in metaphor throughout --pace Ian Fleming, there is no obvious Felix Leiter to loudly throw money at the problem or a Sheriff Pepper to serve as cartoon racist for the Brits to feel superior about. By contrast, I recall that a clever allusion to "dusty teabags" is subtly mirrored a few paragraphs later with a reference to the installation of a coffee machine in the office, likely symbolic of the omnipresent and unavoidable influence of America. (The officer class convince themselves that coffee is a European import.) Indeed, Le Carr communicates a feeling of being surrounded on all sides by the peeling wallpaper of Empire. Oftentimes, the writing style matches the graceless and inelegance of the world it depicts. The sentences are dense and you find your brain performing a fair amount of mid-flight sentence reconstruction, reparsing clauses, commas and conjunctions to interpret Le Carr 's intended meaning. In fact, in his eulogy-cum-analysis of Le Carr 's writing style, William Boyd, himself a ventrioquilist of Ian Fleming, named this intentional technique 'staccato'. Like the musical term, I suspect the effect of this literary staccato is as much about the impact it makes on a sentence as the imperceptible space it generates after it. Lastly, the large cast in this sprawling novel is completely believable, all the way from the Russian spymaster Karla to minor schoolboy Roach the latter possibly a stand-in for Le Carr himself. I got through the 500-odd pages in just a few days, somehow managing to hold the almost-absurdly complicated plot in my head. This is one of those classic books of the genre that made me wonder why I had not got around to it before.

The Nickel Boys Colson Whitehead According to the judges who awarded it the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction, The Nickel Boys is "a devastating exploration of abuse at a reform school in Jim Crow-era Florida" that serves as a "powerful tale of human perseverance, dignity and redemption". But whilst there is plenty of this perseverance and dignity on display, I found little redemption in this deeply cynical novel. It could almost be read as a follow-up book to Whitehead's popular The Underground Railroad, which itself won the Pulitzer Prize in 2017. Indeed, each book focuses on a young protagonist who might be euphemistically referred to as 'downtrodden'. But The Nickel Boys is not only far darker in tone, it feels much closer and more connected to us today. Perhaps this is unsurprising, given that it is based on the story of the Dozier School in northern Florida which operated for over a century before its long history of institutional abuse and racism was exposed a 2012 investigation. Nevertheless, if you liked the social commentary in The Underground Railroad, then there is much more of that in The Nickel Boys:
Perhaps his life might have veered elsewhere if the US government had opened the country to colored advancement like they opened the army. But it was one thing to allow someone to kill for you and another to let him live next door.
Sardonic aper us of this kind are pretty relentless throughout the book, but it never tips its hand too far into on nihilism, especially when some of the visual metaphors are often first-rate: "An American flag sighed on a pole" is one I can easily recall from memory. In general though, The Nickel Boys is not only more world-weary in tenor than his previous novel, the United States it describes seems almost too beaten down to have the energy conjure up the Swiftian magical realism that prevented The Underground Railroad from being overly lachrymose. Indeed, even we Whitehead transports us a present-day New York City, we can't indulge in another kind of fantasy, the one where America has solved its problems:
The Daily News review described the [Manhattan restaurant] as nouveau Southern, "down-home plates with a twist." What was the twist that it was soul food made by white people?
It might be overly reductionist to connect Whitehead's tonal downshift with the racial justice movements of the past few years, but whatever the reason, we've ended up with a hard-hitting, crushing and frankly excellent book.

True Grit & No Country for Old Men Charles Portis & Cormac McCarthy It's one of the most tedious cliches to claim the book is better than the film, but these two books are of such high quality that even the Coen Brothers at their best cannot transcend them. I'm grouping these books together here though, not because their respective adaptations will exemplify some of the best cinema of the 21st century, but because of their superb treatment of language. Take the use of dialogue. Cormac McCarthy famously does not use any punctuation "I believe in periods, in capitals, in the occasional comma, and that's it" but the conversations in No Country for Old Men together feel familiar and commonplace, despite being relayed through this unconventional technique. In lesser hands, McCarthy's written-out Texan drawl would be the novelistic equivalent of white rap or Jar Jar Binks, but not only is the effect entirely gripping, it helps you to believe you are physically present in the many intimate and domestic conversations that hold this book together. Perhaps the cinematic familiarity helps, as you can almost hear Tommy Lee Jones' voice as Sheriff Bell from the opening page to the last. Charles Portis' True Grit excels in its dialogue too, but in this book it is not so much in how it flows (although that is delightful in its own way) but in how forthright and sardonic Maddie Ross is:
"Earlier tonight I gave some thought to stealing a kiss from you, though you are very young, and sick and unattractive to boot, but now I am of a mind to give you five or six good licks with my belt." "One would be as unpleasant as the other."
Perhaps this should be unsurprising. Maddie, a fourteen-year-old girl from Yell County, Arkansas, can barely fire her father's heavy pistol, so she can only has words to wield as her weapon. Anyway, it's not just me who treasures this book. In her encomium that presages most modern editions, Donna Tartt of The Secret History fame traces the novels origins through Huckleberry Finn, praising its elegance and economy: "The plot of True Grit is uncomplicated and as pure in its way as one of the Canterbury Tales". I've read any Chaucer, but I am inclined to agree. Tartt also recalls that True Grit vanished almost entirely from the public eye after the release of John Wayne's flimsy cinematic vehicle in 1969 this earlier film was, Tartt believes, "good enough, but doesn't do the book justice". As it happens, reading a book with its big screen adaptation as a chaser has been a minor theme of my 2020, including P. D. James' The Children of Men, Kazuo Ishiguro's Never Let Me Go, Patricia Highsmith's Strangers on a Train, James Ellroy's The Black Dahlia, John Green's The Fault in Our Stars, John le Carr 's Tinker, Tailor Soldier, Spy and even a staged production of Charles Dicken's A Christmas Carol streamed from The Old Vic. For an autodidact with no academic background in literature or cinema, I've been finding this an effective and enjoyable means of getting closer to these fine books and films it is precisely where they deviate (or perhaps where they are deficient) that offers a means by which one can see how they were constructed. I've also found that adaptations can also tell you a lot about the culture in which they were made: take the 'straightwashing' in the film version of Strangers on a Train (1951) compared to the original novel, for example. It is certainly true that adaptions rarely (as Tartt put it) "do the book justice", but she might be also right to alight on a legal metaphor, for as the saying goes, to judge a movie in comparison to the book is to do both a disservice.

The Glass Hotel Emily St. John Mandel In The Glass Hotel, Mandel somehow pulls off the impossible; writing a loose roman- -clef on Bernie Madoff, a Ponzi scheme and the ephemeral nature of finance capital that is tranquil and shimmeringly beautiful. Indeed, don't get the wrong idea about the subject matter; this is no over over-caffeinated The Big Short, as The Glass Hotel is less about a Madoff or coked-up financebros but the fragile unreality of the late 2010s, a time which was, as we indeed discovered in 2020, one event away from almost shattering completely. Mandel's prose has that translucent, phantom quality to it where the chapters slip through your fingers when you try to grasp at them, and the plot is like a ghost ship that that slips silently, like the Mary Celeste, onto the Canadian water next to which the eponymous 'Glass Hotel' resides. Indeed, not unlike The Overlook Hotel, the novel so overflows with symbolism so that even the title needs to evoke the idea of impermanence permanently living in a hotel might serve as a house, but it won't provide a home. It's risky to generalise about such things post-2016, but the whole story sits in that the infinitesimally small distance between perception and reality, a self-constructed culture that is not so much 'post truth' but between them. There's something to consider in almost every character too. Take the stand-in for Bernie Madoff: no caricature of Wall Street out of a 1920s political cartoon or Brechtian satire, Jonathan Alkaitis has none of the oleaginous sleaze of a Dominic Strauss-Kahn, the cold sociopathy of a Marcus Halberstam nor the well-exercised sinuses of, say, Jordan Belford. Alkaitis is dare I say it? eminently likeable, and the book is all the better for it. Even the C-level characters have something to say: Enrico, trivially escaping from the regulators (who are pathetically late to the fraud without Mandel ever telling us explicitly), is daydreaming about the girlfriend he abandoned in New York: "He wished he'd realised he loved her before he left". What was in his previous life that prevented him from doing so? Perhaps he was never in love at all, or is love itself just as transient as the imaginary money in all those bank accounts? Maybe he fell in love just as he crossed safely into Mexico? When, precisely, do we fall in love anyway? I went on to read Mandel's Last Night in Montreal, an early work where you can feel her reaching for that other-worldly quality that she so masterfully achieves in The Glass Hotel. Her f ted Station Eleven is on my must-read list for 2021. "What is truth?" asked Pontius Pilate. Not even Mandel cannot give us the answer, but this will certainly do for now.

Running the Light Sam Tallent Although it trades in all of the clich s and stereotypes of the stand-up comedian (the triumvirate of drink, drugs and divorce), Sam Tallent's debut novel depicts an extremely convincing fictional account of a touring road comic. The comedian Doug Stanhope (who himself released a fairly decent No Encore for the Donkey memoir in 2020) hyped Sam's book relentlessly on his podcast during lockdown... and justifiably so. I ripped through Running the Light in a few short hours, the only disappointment being that I can't seem to find videos online of Sam that come anywhere close to match up to his writing style. If you liked the rollercoaster energy of Paul Beatty's The Sellout, the cynicism of George Carlin and the car-crash invertibility of final season Breaking Bad, check this great book out.

Non-fiction Inside Story Martin Amis This was my first introduction to Martin Amis's work after hearing that his "novelised autobiography" contained a fair amount about Christopher Hitchens, an author with whom I had a one of those rather clich d parasocial relationship with in the early days of YouTube. (Hey, it could have been much worse.) Amis calls his book a "novelised autobiography", and just as much has been made of its quasi-fictional nature as the many diversions into didactic writing advice that betwixt each chapter: "Not content with being a novel, this book also wants to tell you how to write novels", complained Tim Adams in The Guardian. I suspect that reviewers who grew up with Martin since his debut book in 1973 rolled their eyes at yet another demonstration of his manifest cleverness, but as my first exposure to Amis's gift of observation, I confess that I was thought it was actually kinda clever. Try, for example, "it remains a maddening truth that both sexual success and sexual failure are steeply self-perpetuating" or "a hospital gym is a contradiction like a young Conservative", etc. Then again, perhaps I was experiencing a form of nostalgia for a pre-Gamergate YouTube, when everything in the world was a lot simpler... or at least things could be solved by articulate gentlemen who honed their art of rhetoric at the Oxford Union. I went on to read Martin's first novel, The Rachel Papers (is it 'arrogance' if you are, indeed, that confident?), as well as his 1997 Night Train. I plan to read more of him in the future.

The Collected Essays, Journalism and Letters: Volume 1 & Volume 2 & Volume 3 & Volume 4 George Orwell These deceptively bulky four volumes contain all of George Orwell's essays, reviews and correspondence, from his teenage letters sent to local newspapers to notes to his literary executor on his deathbed in 1950. Reading this was part of a larger, multi-year project of mine to cover the entirety of his output. By including this here, however, I'm not recommending that you read everything that came out of Orwell's typewriter. The letters to friends and publishers will only be interesting to biographers or hardcore fans (although I would recommend Dorian Lynskey's The Ministry of Truth: A Biography of George Orwell's 1984 first). Furthermore, many of his book reviews will be of little interest today. Still, some insights can be gleaned; if there is any inconsistency in this huge corpus is that his best work is almost 'too' good and too impactful, making his merely-average writing appear like hackwork. There are some gems that don't make the usual essay collections too, and some of Orwell's most astute social commentary came out of series of articles he wrote for the left-leaning newspaper Tribune, related in many ways to the US Jacobin. You can also see some of his most famous ideas start to take shape years if not decades before they appear in his novels in these prototype blog posts. I also read Dennis Glover's novelised account of the writing of Nineteen-Eighty Four called The Last Man in Europe, and I plan to re-read some of Orwell's earlier novels during 2021 too, including A Clergyman's Daughter and his 'antebellum' Coming Up for Air that he wrote just before the Second World War; his most under-rated novel in my estimation. As it happens, and with the exception of the US and Spain, copyright in the works published in his lifetime ends on 1st January 2021. Make of that what you will.

Capitalist Realism & Chavs: The Demonisation of the Working Class Mark Fisher & Owen Jones These two books are not natural companions to one another and there is likely much that Jones and Fisher would vehemently disagree on, but I am pairing these books together here because they represent the best of the 'political' books I read in 2020. Mark Fisher was a dedicated leftist whose first book, Capitalist Realism, marked an important contribution to political philosophy in the UK. However, since his suicide in early 2017, the currency of his writing has markedly risen, and Fisher is now frequently referenced due to his belief that the prevalence of mental health conditions in modern life is a side-effect of various material conditions, rather than a natural or unalterable fact "like weather". (Of course, our 'weather' is being increasingly determined by a combination of politics, economics and petrochemistry than pure randomness.) Still, Fisher wrote on all manner of topics, from the 2012 London Olympics and "weird and eerie" electronic music that yearns for a lost future that will never arrive, possibly prefiguring or influencing the Fallout video game series. Saying that, I suspect Fisher will resonate better with a UK audience more than one across the Atlantic, not necessarily because he was minded to write about the parochial politics and culture of Britain, but because his writing often carries some exasperation at the suppression of class in favour of identity-oriented politics, a viewpoint not entirely prevalent in the United States outside of, say, Tour F. Reed or the late Michael Brooks. (Indeed, Fisher is likely best known in the US as the author of his controversial 2013 essay, Exiting the Vampire Castle, but that does not figure greatly in this book). Regardless, Capitalist Realism is an insightful, damning and deeply unoptimistic book, best enjoyed in the warm sunshine I found it an ironic compliment that I had quoted so many paragraphs that my Kindle's copy protection routines prevented me from clipping any further. Owen Jones needs no introduction to anyone who regularly reads a British newspaper, especially since 2015 where he unofficially served as a proxy and punching bag for expressing frustrations with the then-Labour leader, Jeremy Corbyn. However, as the subtitle of Jones' 2012 book suggests, Chavs attempts to reveal the "demonisation of the working class" in post-financial crisis Britain. Indeed, the timing of the book is central to Jones' analysis, specifically that the stereotype of the "chav" is used by government and the media as a convenient figleaf to avoid meaningful engagement with economic and social problems on an austerity ridden island. (I'm not quite sure what the US equivalent to 'chav' might be. Perhaps Florida Man without the implications of mental health.) Anyway, Jones certainly has a point. From Vicky Pollard to the attacks on Jade Goody, there is an ignorance and prejudice at the heart of the 'chav' backlash, and that would be bad enough even if it was not being co-opted or criminalised for ideological ends. Elsewhere in political science, I also caught Michael Brooks' Against the Web and David Graeber's Bullshit Jobs, although they are not quite methodical enough to recommend here. However, Graeber's award-winning Debt: The First 5000 Years will be read in 2021. Matt Taibbi's Hate Inc: Why Today's Media Makes Us Despise One Another is worth a brief mention here though, but its sprawling nature felt very much like I was reading a set of Substack articles loosely edited together. And, indeed, I was.

The Golden Thread: The Story of Writing Ewan Clayton A recommendation from a dear friend, Ewan Clayton's The Golden Thread is a journey through the long history of the writing from the Dawn of Man to present day. Whether you are a linguist, a graphic designer, a visual artist, a typographer, an archaeologist or 'just' a reader, there is probably something in here for you. I was already dipping my quill into calligraphy this year so I suspect I would have liked this book in any case, but highlights would definitely include the changing role of writing due to the influence of textual forms in the workplace as well as digression on ergonomic desks employed by monks and scribes in the Middle Ages. A lot of books by otherwise-sensible authors overstretch themselves when they write about computers or other technology from the Information Age, at best resulting in bizarre non-sequiturs and dangerously Panglossian viewpoints at worst. But Clayton surprised me by writing extremely cogently and accurate on the role of text in this new and unpredictable era. After finishing it I realised why for a number of years, Clayton was a consultant for the legendary Xerox PARC where he worked in a group focusing on documents and contemporary communications whilst his colleagues were busy inventing the graphical user interface, laser printing, text editors and the computer mouse.

New Dark Age & Radical Technologies: The Design of Everyday Life James Bridle & Adam Greenfield I struggled to describe these two books to friends, so I doubt I will suddenly do a better job here. Allow me to quote from Will Self's review of James Bridle's New Dark Age in the Guardian:
We're accustomed to worrying about AI systems being built that will either "go rogue" and attack us, or succeed us in a bizarre evolution of, um, evolution what we didn't reckon on is the sheer inscrutability of these manufactured minds. And minds is not a misnomer. How else should we think about the neural network Google has built so its translator can model the interrelation of all words in all languages, in a kind of three-dimensional "semantic space"?
New Dark Age also turns its attention to the weird, algorithmically-derived products offered for sale on Amazon as well as the disturbing and abusive videos that are automatically uploaded by bots to YouTube. It should, by rights, be a mess of disparate ideas and concerns, but Bridle has a flair for introducing topics which reveals he comes to computer science from another discipline altogether; indeed, on a four-part series he made for Radio 4, he's primarily referred to as "an artist". Whilst New Dark Age has rather abstract section topics, Adam Greenfield's Radical Technologies is a rather different book altogether. Each chapter dissects one of the so-called 'radical' technologies that condition the choices available to us, asking how do they work, what challenges do they present to us and who ultimately benefits from their adoption. Greenfield takes his scalpel to smartphones, machine learning, cryptocurrencies, artificial intelligence, etc., and I don't think it would be unfair to say that starts and ends with a cynical point of view. He is no reactionary Luddite, though, and this is both informed and extremely well-explained, and it also lacks the lazy, affected and Private Eye-like cynicism of, say, Attack of the 50 Foot Blockchain. The books aren't a natural pair, for Bridle's writing contains quite a bit of air in places, ironically mimics the very 'clouds' he inveighs against. Greenfield's book, by contrast, as little air and much lower pH value. Still, it was more than refreshing to read two technology books that do not limit themselves to platitudinal booleans, be those dangerously naive (e.g. Kevin Kelly's The Inevitable) or relentlessly nihilistic (Shoshana Zuboff's The Age of Surveillance Capitalism). Sure, they are both anti-technology screeds, but they tend to make arguments about systems of power rather than specific companies and avoid being too anti-'Big Tech' through a narrower, Silicon Valley obsessed lens for that (dipping into some other 2020 reading of mine) I might suggest Wendy Liu's Abolish Silicon Valley or Scott Galloway's The Four. Still, both books are superlatively written. In fact, Adam Greenfield has some of the best non-fiction writing around, both in terms of how he can explain complicated concepts (particularly the smart contract mechanism of the Ethereum cryptocurrency) as well as in the extremely finely-crafted sentences I often felt that the writing style almost had no need to be that poetic, and I particularly enjoyed his fictional scenarios at the end of the book.

The Algebra of Happiness & Indistractable: How to Control Your Attention and Choose Your Life Scott Galloway & Nir Eyal A cocktail of insight, informality and abrasiveness makes NYU Professor Scott Galloway uncannily appealing to guys around my age. Although Galloway definitely has his own wisdom and experience, similar to Joe Rogan I suspect that a crucial part of Galloway's appeal is that you feel you are learning right alongside him. Thankfully, 'Prof G' is far less err problematic than Rogan (Galloway is more of a well-meaning, spirited centrist), although he, too, has some pretty awful takes at time. This is a shame, because removed from the whirlwind of social media he can be really quite considered, such as in this long-form interview with Stephanie Ruhle. In fact, it is this kind of sentiment that he captured in his 2019 Algebra of Happiness. When I look over my highlighted sections, it's clear that it's rather schmaltzy out of context ("Things you hate become just inconveniences in the presence of people you love..."), but his one-two punch of cynicism and saccharine ("Ask somebody who purchased a home in 2007 if their 'American Dream' came true...") is weirdly effective, especially when he uses his own family experiences as part of his story:
A better proxy for your life isn't your first home, but your last. Where you draw your last breath is more meaningful, as it's a reflection of your success and, more important, the number of people who care about your well-being. Your first house signals the meaningful your future and possibility. Your last home signals the profound the people who love you. Where you die, and who is around you at the end, is a strong signal of your success or failure in life.
Nir Eyal's Indistractable, however, is a totally different kind of 'self-help' book. The important background story is that Eyal was the author of the widely-read Hooked which turned into a secular Bible of so-called 'addictive design'. (If you've ever been cornered by a techbro wielding a Wikipedia-thin knowledge of B. F. Skinner's behaviourist psychology and how it can get you to click 'Like' more often, it ultimately came from Hooked.) However, Eyal's latest effort is actually an extended mea culpa for his previous sin and he offers both high and low-level palliative advice on how to avoid falling for the tricks he so studiously espoused before. I suppose we should be thankful to capitalism for selling both cause and cure. Speaking of markets, there appears to be a growing appetite for books in this 'anti-distraction' category, and whilst I cannot claim to have done an exhausting study of this nascent field, Indistractable argues its points well without relying on accurate-but-dry "studies show..." or, worse, Gladwellian gotchas. My main criticism, however, would be that Eyal doesn't acknowledge the limits of a self-help approach to this problem; it seems that many of the issues he outlines are an inescapable part of the alienation in modern Western society, and the only way one can really avoid distraction is to move up the income ladder or move out to a 500-acre ranch.

26 December 2020

Paul Tagliamonte: Reverse Engineering my Christmas Tree

Over the course of the last year and a half, I ve been doing some self-directed learning on how radios work. I ve gone from a very basic understanding of wireless communications (there s usually some sort of antenna, I guess?) all the way through the process of learning about and implementing a set of libraries to modulate and demodulate data using my now formidable stash of SDRs. I ve been implementing all of the RF processing code from first principals and purely based on other primitives I ve written myself to prove to myself that I understand each concept before moving on. I figured that there was a fun capstone to be done here - the blind reverse engineering and implementation of the protocol my cheep Amazon power switch uses to turn on and off my Christmas Tree. All the work described in this post was done over the course of a few hours thanks to help during the demodulation from Tom Bereknyei and hlieberman.

Going in blind When I first got my switch, I checked it for any FCC markings in order to look up the FCC filings to determine the operational frequency of the device, and maybe some other information such as declared modulation or maybe even part numbers and/or diagrams. However, beyond a few regulatory stickers, there were no FCC ids or other distinguishing IDs on the device. Worse yet, it appeared to be a whitelabeled version of another product, so searching Google for the product name was very unhelpful. Since operation of this device is unlicensed, I figured I d start looking in the ISM band. The most common band used that I ve seen is the band starting at 433.05MHz up to 434.79MHz. I fired up my trusty waterfall tuned to a center frequency of 433.92MHz (since it s right in the middle of the band, and it let me see far enough up and down the band to spot the remote) and pressed a few buttons. Imagine my surprise when I realize the operational frequency of this device is 433.920MHz, exactly dead center. Weird, but lucky! After taking a capture, I started to look at understanding what the modulation type of the signal was, and how I may go about demodulating it. Using inspectrum, I was able to clearly see the signal in the capture, and it immediately stuck out to my eye to be encoded using OOK / ASK. Next, I started to measure the smallest pulse, and see if I could infer the symbols per second, and try to decode it by hand. These types of signals are generally pretty easy to decode by eye. This wound up giving me symbol rate of 2.2 Ksym/s, which is a lot faster than I expected. While I was working by hand, Tom demodulated a few messages in Python, and noticed that if you grouped the bits into groups of 4, you either had a 1000 or a 1110 which caused me to realize this was encoded using something I saw documented elsewhere, where the 0 is a short pulse, and a 1 is a long pulse, not unlike morse code, but where each symbol takes up a fixed length of time (monospace morse code?). Working on that assumption, I changed my inspectrum symbol width, and demodulated a few more by hand. This wound up demodulating nicely (and the preamble / clock sync could be represented as repeating 0s, which is handy!) and gave us a symbol rate of 612(ish) symbols per second a lot closer to what I was expecting. If we take the code for on in the inspectrum capture above and demodulate it by hand, we get 0000000000110101100100010 (treat a short pulse as a 0, and a long pulse as a 1). If you re interested in following along at home, click on the inspectrum image, and write down the bits you see, and compare it to what I have! Right, so it looks like from what we can tell so far that the packet looks something like this:
preamble / sync
Next, I took a capture of all the button presses and demodulated them by hand, and put them into a table to try and understand the format of the messages:
Button Demod'd Bits
On 0000000000110101100100010
Off 00000000001101011001010000
Dim Up 0000000000110101100110100
Dim Down 0000000000110101100100100
Timer 1h 0000000000110101100110010
Timer 2h 0000000000110101100100110
Timer 4h 0000000000110101100100000
Dim 100% 0000000000110101000101010
Dim 75% 00000000001101010001001100
Dim 50% 00000000001101010001001000
Dim 25% 0000000000110101000100000
Great! So, this is enough to attempt to control the tree with, I think so I wrote a simple modulator. My approach was to use the fact that I can break down a single symbol into 4 sub-symbol components which is to say, go back to representing a 1 as 1110, and a 0 as 1000. This let me allocate IQ space for the symbol, break the bit into 4 symbols, and if that symbol is 1, write out values from a carrier wave (cos in the real values, and sin in the imaginary values) to the buffer. Now that I can go from bits to IQ data, I can transmit that IQ data using my PlutoSDR or HackRF and try and control my tree. I gave it a try, and the tree blinked off! Success! But wait that s not enough for me I know I can t just demodulate bits and try and replay the bits forever there s stuff like addresses and keys and stuff, and I want to get a second one of these working. Let s take a look at the bits to see if we spot anything fun & interesting. At first glance, a few things jumped out at me as being weird? First is that the preamble is 10 bits long (fine, let s move along - maybe it just needs 8 in a row and there s two to ensure clocks sync?). Next is that the messages are not all the same length. I double (and triple!) checked the messages, and it s true, the messages are not all the same length. Adding an extra bit at the end didn t break anything, but I wonder if that s just due to the implementation rather than the protocol. But, good news, it looks like we have a stable prefix to the messages from the remote must be my device s address! The stable 6 bits that jump out right away are 110101. Something seems weird, though, 6 bits is a bit awkward, even for a bit limited embedded device. Why 6? But hey, wait, we had 10 bits in the preamble, what if we have an 8 bit address meaning my device is 00110101, and the preamble is 8 0 symbols! Those are numbers that someone working on an 8 bit aligned platform would pick! To test this, I added a 0 to the preamble to see if the message starts at the first 1, or if it requires all the bits to be fully decoded, and lo and behold, the tree did not turn on or off. This would seem to me to confirm that the 0s are part of the address, and I can assume we have two 8 bit aligned bytes in the prefix of the message.
preamble / sync
Now, when we go through the 9-10 bits of stuff , we see all sorts of weird bits floating all over the place. The first 4 bits look like it s either 1001 or 0001, but other than that, there s a lot of chaos. This is where things get really squishy. I needed more information to try and figure this out, but no matter how many times I sent a command it was always the same bits (so, no counters), and things feel very opaque still. The only way I was going to make any progress is to get another switch and see how the messages from the remote change. Off to Amazon I went, and ordered another switch from the same page, and eagerly waited its arrival.

Switch #2 The second switch showed up, and I hurriedly unboxed the kit, put batteries into the remote, and fired up my SDR to take a capture. After I captured the first button ( Off ), my heart sunk as I saw my lights connected to Switch #1 flicker off. Apparently the new switch and the old switch have the same exact address. To be sure, I demodulated the messages as before, and came out with the exact same bit pattern. This is a setback and letdown I was hoping to independently control my switches, but it also means I got no additional information about the address or button format. The upside to all of this, though, is that because the switches are controlled by either remote, I only needed one remote, so why not pull it apart and see if I can figure out what components it s using to transmit, and find any datasheets I can. The PCB was super simple, and I wound up finding a WL116SC IC on the PCB. After some googling, I found a single lone datasheet, entirely in Chinese. Thankfully, Google Translate seems to have worked well enough on technical words, and I was able to put together at least a little bit of understanding based on the documentation that was made available. I took a few screenshots below - I put the google translated text above the hanzi. From that sheet, we can see we got the basics of the 1 and 0 symbol encoding right (I was halfway expecting the bits to be flipped), and a huge find by way of a description of the bits in the message! It s a bummer that we missed the clock sync / preamble pulse before the data message, but that s OK somehow. It also turns out that 8 or 10 bit series of of 0"s wasn t clock sync at all - it was part of the address! Since it also turns out that all devices made by this manufacturer have the hardcoded address of []byte 0x00, 0x35 , that means that the vast majority of bits sent are always going to be the same for any button press on any remote made by this vendor. Seems like a waste of bits to me, but hey, what do I know. Additionally, this also tells us the trailing zeros are not part of the data encoding scheme, which is progress!
Now, working on the assumptions validated by the datasheet, here s the updated list of scancodes we ve found:
Button Scancode Bits Integer
On 10010001 145 / 0x91
Off 10010100 148 / 0x94
Dim Up 10011010 154 / 0x9A
Dim Down 10010010 146 / 0x92
Timer 1h 10011001 154 / 0x99
Timer 2h 10010011 147 / 0x93
Timer 4h 10010000 144 / 0x90
Dim 100% 00010101 21 / 0x15
Dim 75% 00010011 19 / 0x13
Dim 50% 00010010 18 / 0x12
Dim 25% 00010000 16 / 0x10
Interestingly, I think the Dim keys may have a confirmation that we have a good demod the codes on the bottom are missing the most significant bit, and when I look back at the scancode table in the datasheet, they make an interesting pattern the bottom two rows, right and left side values match up! If you take a look, Dim 100% is S1 , Dim 75% is S19 , Dim 50% is S8 , and Dim 25% is S20 . Cool! Since none of the other codes line up, I am willing to bet the most significant bit is a Combo indicator, and not part of the button (leaving 7 bits for the keycode). And even more interestingly, one of our scancodes ( Off , which is 0x94) shows up just below this table, in the examples. Over all, I think this tells us we have the right bits to look at for determining the scan code! Great news there!

Back to the modulation! So, armed with this knowledge, I was able to refactor my code to match the timings and understanding outlined by the datasheet and ensure things still work. The switch itself has a high degree of tolerance, so being wildly off frequency or a wildly wrong symbol rate may actually still work. It s hard to know if this is more or less correct, but matching documentation seems like a more stable foundation if nothing else. This code has been really reliable, and tends to work just as well as the remote from what I ve been able to determine. I ve been using incredibly low power to avoid any interference, and it s been very robust - a testament to the engineering that went into the outlet hardware, even though it cost less than of a lot of other switches! I have a lot of respect for the folks who built this device - it s incredibly simple, reliable and my guess is this thing will keep working even in some fairly harsh RF environments. The only downside is the fact the manufacturer used the same address for all their devices, rather than programming a unique address for each outlet and remote when the underlying WL116SC chip supports it. I m sure this was done to avoid complexity in assembly (e.g. pairing the remote and outlet, and having to keep those two items together during assembly), but it s still a bummer. I took apart the switch to see if I could dump an EEPROM and change the address in ROM, but the entire thing was potted in waterproof epoxy, which is a very nice feature if this was ever used outdoors. Not good news for tinkering, though!

Unsolved Mysteries At this point, even though I understand the protocol enough to control the device, it still feels like I hit a dead end in my understanding. I m not able to figure out how exactly the scancodes are implemented, and break them down into more specific parts. They are stable and based on the physical wiring of the remote, so I think I m going to leave it a magic number. I have what I was looking for, and these magic constants appear to be the right one to use, even if I did understand how to create the codes itself. This does leave us with a few bits we never resolved, which I ll memorialize below just to be sure I don t forget about them. Question #1: According to the datasheet there should be a preamble. Why do I not see one leading the first message? My hunch is that the trailing 0 at the end of the payload is actually just the preamble for the next message (always rendering the first message invalid?). This would let us claim there s an engineering reason why we are ignoring the weird bit, and also explain away something from the documentation. It s just weird that it wouldn t be present on the first message. This theory is mostly confirmed by measuring the timing and comparing it to the datasheet, but it s not exactly in line with the datasheet timings either (specifically, it s off by 200 s, which is kinda a lot for a system using 400 s timings). I think I could go either way on the last 0 being the preamble for the next message. It could be that the first message is technically invalid, or it could also be that this was not implemented or actively disabled by the vendor for this specific application / device. It s really hard to know without getting the source code for the WL116SC chip in this specific remote or the source in the outlet itself. Question #2: Why are some keycodes 8 bits and others 9 bits? I still have no idea why there sometimes 8 bits (for instance, On ) and other times there are 9 bits (for instance, Off ) in the 8 bit keycode field. I spent some time playing with the trailing zeros, when I try and send an Off with the most significant 8 bits (without the least significant / last 9th bit, which is a 0 ), it does not turn the tree off. If I send an On with 9 bits (an additional 0 after the least significant bit), it does work, but both On and Off work when I send 10, 11 or 12 bits padded with trailing zeros. I suspect my outlet will ignore data after the switch is done reading bits regardless of trailing zeros. The docs tell me there should only be 8 bits, but it won t work unless I send 9 bits for some commands. There s something fishy going on here, and the datasheet isn t exactly right either way. Question #3: How in the heck do those scancodes work? This one drove me nuts. I ve spent countless hours on trying to figure this out, including emailing the company that makes the WL116SC (they re really nice!), and even though they were super kind and generous with documentation and example source, I m still having a hard time lining up their documentation and examples with what I see from my remote. I think the manufacturer of my remote and switch has modified the protocol enough to where there s actually something different going on here. Bummer. I wound up in my place of last resort asking friends over Signal to try and see if they could find a pattern, as well as making multiple pleas to the twittersphere, to no avail (but thank you to Ben Hilburn, devnulling, Andreas Bombe and Larme for your repiles, help and advice!) I still don t understand how they assemble the scan code for instance, if you merely add, you won t know if a key press of 0x05 is 0x03 + 0x02 or if it s 0x01 + 0x04. On the other hand, treating it as two 4-bit integers won t work for 0x10 to 0x15 (since they need 5 bits to represent). It s also likely the most significant bit is a combo indicator, which only leaves 7 bits for the actual keypress data. Stuffing 10 bits of data into 7 bits is likely resulting in some really intricate bit work. On a last ditch whim, I tried to XOR the math into working, but some initial brute forcing to make the math work given the provided examples did not result in anything. It could be a bitpacked field that I don t understand, but I don t think I can make progress on that without inside knowledge and much more work. Here s the table containing the numbers I was working off of:
Keys Key Codes Scancode
S3 + S9 0x01 + 0x03 0x96
S6 + S12 0x07 + 0x09 0x94
S22 + S10 0x0D + 0x0F 0x3F
If anyone has thoughts on how these codes work, I d love to hear about it! Send me an email or a tweet or something - I m a bit stumped. There s some trick here that is being used to encode the combo key in a way that is decodeable. If it s actually not decodeable (which is a real possibility!), this may act as a unique button combo hash which allows the receiver to not actually determine which keys are pressed, but have a unique button that gets sent when a combo is used. I m not sure I know enough to have a theory as to which it may be.

16 November 2020

Bits from Debian: New Debian Developers and Maintainers (September and October 2020)

The following contributors got their Debian Developer accounts in the last two months: The following contributors were added as Debian Maintainers in the last two months: Congratulations!

19 September 2020

Bits from Debian: New Debian Maintainers (July and August 2020)

The following contributors were added as Debian Maintainers in the last two months: Congratulations!

12 September 2020

Markus Koschany: My Free Software Activities in August 2020

Welcome to Here is my monthly report (+ the first week in September) that covers what I have been doing for Debian. If you re interested in Java, Games and LTS topics, this might be interesting for you. Debian Games
Debian Java Misc Debian LTS This was my 54. month as a paid contributor and I have been paid to work 20 hours on Debian LTS, a project started by Rapha l Hertzog. In that time I did the following: ELTS Extended Long Term Support (ELTS) is a project led by Freexian to further extend the lifetime of Debian releases. It is not an official Debian project but all Debian users benefit from it without cost. The current ELTS release is Debian 8 Jessie . This was my 27. month and I have been paid to work 14,25 hours on ELTS. Thanks for reading and see you next time.

4 September 2020

Dirk Eddelbuettel: nanotime 0.3.2: Tweaks

Another (minor) nanotime release, now at version 0.3.2. This release brings an endianness correction which was kindly contributed in a PR, switches to using the API header exported by RcppCCTZ, and tweaks test coverage a little with respect to r-devel. nanotime relies on the RcppCCTZ package for (efficient) high(er) resolution time parsing and formatting up to nanosecond resolution, and the bit64 package for the actual integer64 arithmetic. Initially implemented using the S3 system, it has benefitted greatly from work by co-author Leonardo who not only rejigged nanotime internals in S4 but also added new S4 types for periods, intervals and durations. The NEWS snippet adds full details.

Changes in version 0.3.2 (2020-09-03)
  • Correct for big endian (Elliott Sales de Andrade in #81).
  • Use the RcppCCTZ_API.h header (Dirk in #82).
  • Conditionally reduce test coverage (Dirk in #83).

Thanks to CRANberries there is also a diff to the previous version. More details and examples are at the nanotime page; code, issue tickets etc at the GitHub repository. If you like this or other open-source work I do, you can now sponsor me at GitHub. For the first year, GitHub will match your contributions.

This post by Dirk Eddelbuettel originated on his Thinking inside the box blog. Please report excessive re-aggregation in third-party for-profit settings.

31 August 2020

Chris Lamb: Free software activities in August 2020

Here is another monthly update covering what I have been doing in the free software world during August 2020 (previous month): I uploaded Lintian versions 2.86.0, 2.87.0, 2.88.0, 2.89.0, 2.90.0, 2.91.0 and 2.92.0, as well as made the following changes:

Reproducible Builds One of the original promises of open source software is that distributed peer review and transparency of process results in enhanced end-user security. However, whilst anyone may inspect the source code of free and open source software for malicious flaws, almost all software today is distributed as pre-compiled binaries. This allows nefarious third-parties to compromise systems by injecting malicious code into ostensibly secure software during the various compilation and distribution processes. The motivation behind the Reproducible Builds effort is to ensure no flaws have been introduced during this compilation process by promising identical results are always generated from a given source, thus allowing multiple third-parties to come to a consensus on whether a build was compromised. The project is proud to be a member project of the Software Freedom Conservancy. Conservancy acts as a corporate umbrella allowing projects to operate as non-profit initiatives without managing their own corporate structure. If you like the work of the Conservancy or the Reproducible Builds project, please consider becoming an official supporter. This month, I:

diffoscope I made the following changes to diffoscope, including preparing and uploading versions 155, 156, 157 and 158 to Debian:

Debian Debian LTS This month I have worked 18 hours on Debian Long Term Support (LTS) and 12 hours on its sister Extended LTS project. You can find out more about the project via the following video:

Uploads to Debian

10 August 2020

Dirk Eddelbuettel: nanotime 0.3.1: Misc Build Fixes for Yuge New Features!

The nanotime 0.3.0 release four days ago was so exciting that we decided to do it again! Kidding aside, and fairly extensive tests notwithstanding we were bitten by a few build errors: who knew clang on macOS needed extra curlies to be happy, another manifestation of Solaris having no idea what a timezone setting America/New_York is, plus some extra pickyness from the SAN tests and whatnot. So Leonardo and I gave it some extra care over the weekend, uploaded it late yesterday and here we are with 0.3.1. Thanks again to CRAN for prompt processing even though they are clearly deluged shortly before their (brief) summer break. nanotime relies on the RcppCCTZ package for (efficient) high(er) resolution time parsing and formatting up to nanosecond resolution, and the bit64 package for the actual integer64 arithmetic. Initially implemented using the S3 system, it has benefitted greatly from work by Leonardo Silvestri who rejigged internals in S4 and now added new types for periods, intervals and durations. The NEWS snippet adds full details.

Changes in version 0.3.1 (2020-08-09)
  • Several small cleanups to ensure a more robust compilation (Leonardo and Dirk in #75 fixing #74).
  • Show Solaris some extra love by skipping tests and examples with a timezone (Dirk in #76).

Thanks to CRANberries there is also a diff to the previous version. More details and examples are at the nanotime page; code, issue tickets etc at the GitHub repository. If you like this or other open-source work I do, you can now sponsor me at GitHub. For the first year, GitHub will match your contributions.

This post by Dirk Eddelbuettel originated on his Thinking inside the box blog. Please report excessive re-aggregation in third-party for-profit settings.

6 August 2020

Dirk Eddelbuettel: nanotime 0.3.0: Yuge New Features!

A fresh major release of the nanotime package for working with nanosecond timestamps is hitting CRAN mirrors right now. nanotime relies on the RcppCCTZ package for (efficient) high(er) resolution time parsing and formatting up to nanosecond resolution, and the bit64 package for the actual integer64 arithmetic. Initially implemented using the S3 system, it has benefitted greatly from work by Leonardo Silvestri who rejigged internals in S4 and now added new types for periods, intervals and durations. This is what is commonly called a big fucking deal!! So a really REALLY big thank you to my coauthor Leonardo for all these contributions. With all these Yuge changes patiently chisseled in by Leonardo, it took some time since the last release and a few more things piled up. Matt Dowle corrected something we borked for integration with the lovely and irreplacable data.table. We also switched to the awesome yet minimal tinytest package by Mark van der Loo, and last but not least we added the beginnings of a proper vignette currently at nine pages but far from complete. The NEWS snippet adds full details.

Changes in version 0.3.0 (2020-08-06)
  • Use tzstr= instead of tz= in call to RcppCCTZ::parseDouble()) (Matt Dowle in #49).
  • Add new comparison operators for nanotime and charcters (Dirk in #54 fixing #52).
  • Switch from RUnit to tinytest (Dirk in #55)
  • Substantial functionality extension in with new types nanoduration, nanoival and nanoperiod (Leonardo in #58, #60, #62, #63, #65, #67, #70 fixing #47, #51, #57, #61, #64 with assistance from Dirk).
  • A new (yet still draft-ish) vignette was added describing the four core types (Leonardo and Dirk in #71).
  • A required compilation flag for Windows was added (Leonardo in #72).
  • RcppCCTZ function are called in new 'non-throwing' variants to not trigger exeception errors (Leonardo in #73).

We also have a diff to the previous version thanks to CRANberries. More details and examples are at the nanotime page; code, issue tickets etc at the GitHub repository. If you like this or other open-source work I do, you can now sponsor me at GitHub. For the first year, GitHub will match your contributions.

This post by Dirk Eddelbuettel originated on his Thinking inside the box blog. Please report excessive re-aggregation in third-party for-profit settings.

5 August 2020

Dirk Eddelbuettel: RcppCCTZ 0.2.8: Minor API Extension

A new minor release 0.2.8 of RcppCCTZ is now on CRAN. RcppCCTZ uses Rcpp to bring CCTZ to R. CCTZ is a C++ library for translating between absolute and civil times using the rules of a time zone. In fact, it is two libraries. One for dealing with civil time: human-readable dates and times, and one for converting between between absolute and civil times via time zones. And while CCTZ is made by Google(rs), it is not an official Google product. The RcppCCTZ page has a few usage examples and details. This package was the first CRAN package to use CCTZ; by now at least three others do using copies in their packages which remains less than ideal. This version adds three no throw variants of three existing functions, contributed again by Leonardo. This will be used in an upcoming nanotime release which we are finalising now.

Changes in version 0.2.8 (2020-08-04)
  • Added three new nothrow variants (for win32) needed by the expanded nanotime package (Leonardo in #37)

We also have a diff to the previous version thanks to CRANberries. More details are at the RcppCCTZ page; code, issue tickets etc at the GitHub repository. If you like this or other open-source work I do, you can now sponsor me at GitHub. For the first year, GitHub will match your contributions.

This post by Dirk Eddelbuettel originated on his Thinking inside the box blog. Please report excessive re-aggregation in third-party for-profit settings.

30 June 2020

Russ Allbery: Review: The Fifth Risk

Review: The Fifth Risk, by Michael Lewis
Publisher: W.W. Norton
Copyright: 2018
Printing: 2019
ISBN: 0-393-35745-7
Format: Kindle
Pages: 254
The Fifth Risk starts with the presidential transition. Max Stier, the first person profiled by Lewis in this book, is the founder of the Partnership for Public Service. That foundation helped push through laws to provide more resources and structure for the transition of the United States executive branch from one president to the next. The goal was to fight wasted effort, unnecessary churn, and pointless disruption in the face of each administration's skepticism about everyone who worked for the previous administration.
"It's Groundhog Day," said Max. "The new people come in and think that the previous administration and the civil service are lazy or stupid. Then they actually get to know the place they are managing. And when they leave, they say, 'This was a really hard job, and those are the best people I've ever worked with.' This happens over and over and over."
By 2016, Stier saw vast improvements, despite his frustration with other actions of the Obama administration. He believed their transition briefings were one of the best courses ever produced on how the federal government works. Then that transition process ran into Donald Trump. Or, to be more accurate, that transition did not run into Donald Trump, because neither he nor anyone who worked for him were there. We'll never know how good the transition information was because no one ever listened to or read it. Meetings were never scheduled. No one showed up. This book is not truly about the presidential transition, though, despite its presence as a continuing theme. The Fifth Risk is, at its heart, an examination of government work, the people who do it, why it matters, and why you should care about it. It's a study of the surprising and misunderstood responsibilities of the departments of the United States federal government. And it's a series of profiles of the people who choose this work as a career, not in the upper offices of political appointees, but deep in the civil service, attempting to keep that system running. I will warn now that I am far too happy that this book exists to be entirely objective about it. The United States desperately needs basic education about the government at all levels, but particularly the federal civil service. The public impression of government employees is skewed heavily towards the small number of public-facing positions and towards paperwork frustrations, over which the agency usually has no control because they have been sabotaged by Congress (mostly by Republicans, although the Democrats get involved occasionally). Mental images of who works for the government are weirdly selective. The Coast Guard could say "I'm from the government and I'm here to help" every day, to the immense gratitude of the people they rescue, but Reagan was still able to use that as a cheap applause line in his attack on government programs. Other countries have more functional and realistic social attitudes towards their government workers. The United States is trapped in a politically-fueled cycle of contempt and ignorance. It has to stop. And one way to help stop it is someone with Michael Lewis's story-telling skills writing a different narrative. The Fifth Risk is divided into a prologue about presidential transitions, three main parts, and an afterword (added in current editions) about a remarkable government worker whom you likely otherwise would never hear about. Each of the main parts talks about a different federal department: the Department of Energy, the Department of Agriculture, and the Department of Commerce. In keeping with the theme of the book, the people Lewis profiles do not do what you might expect from the names of those departments. Lewis's title comes from his discussion with John MacWilliams, a former Goldman Sachs banker who quit the industry in search of more personally meaningful work and became the chief risk officer for the Department of Energy. Lewis asks him for the top five risks he sees, and if you know that the DOE is responsible for safeguarding nuclear weapons, you will be able to guess several of them: nuclear weapons accidents, North Korea, and Iran. If you work in computer security, you may share his worry about the safety of the electrical grid. But his fifth risk was project management. Can the government follow through on long-term hazardous waste safety and cleanup projects, despite constant political turnover? Can it attract new scientists to the work of nuclear non-proliferation before everyone with the needed skills retires? Can it continue to lay the groundwork with basic science for innovation that we'll need in twenty or fifty years? This is what the Department of Energy is trying to do. Lewis's profiles of other departments are similarly illuminating. The Department of Agriculture is responsible for food stamps, the most effective anti-poverty program in the United States with the possible exception of Social Security. The section on the Department of Commerce is about weather forecasting, specifically about NOAA (the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). If you didn't know that all of the raw data and many of the forecasts you get from weather apps and web sites are the work of government employees, and that AccuWeather has lobbied Congress persistently for years to prohibit the NOAA from making their weather forecasts public so that AccuWeather can charge you more for data your taxes already paid for, you should read this book. The story of American contempt for government work is partly about ignorance, but it's also partly about corporations who claim all of the credit while selling taxpayer-funded resources back to you at absurd markups. The afterword I'll leave for you to read for yourself, but it's the story of Art Allen, a government employee you likely have never heard of but whose work for the Coast Guard has saved more lives than we are able to measure. I found it deeply moving. If you, like I, are a regular reader of long-form journalism and watch for new Michael Lewis essays in particular, you've probably already read long sections of this book. By the time I sat down with it, I think I'd read about a third in other forms on-line. But the profiles that I had already read were so good that I was happy to read them again, and the additional stories and elaboration around previously published material was more than worth the cost and time investment in the full book.
It was never obvious to me that anyone would want to read what had interested me about the United States government. Doug Stumpf, my magazine editor for the past decade, persuaded me that, at this strange moment in American history, others might share my enthusiasm.
I'll join Michael Lewis in thanking Doug Stumpf. The Fifth Risk is not a proposal for how to fix government, or politics, or polarization. It's not even truly a book about the Trump presidency or about the transition. Lewis's goal is more basic: The United States government is full of hard-working people who are doing good and important work. They have effectively no public relations department. Achievements that would result in internal and external press releases in corporations, not to mention bonuses and promotions, go unnoticed and uncelebrated. If you are a United States citizen, this is your government and it does important work that you should care about. It deserves the respect of understanding and thoughtful engagement, both from the citizenry and from the politicians we elect. Rating: 10 out of 10

19 April 2020

Enrico Zini: Little wonders

Did you ever wish you could make scatter plots with cat shaped points? Now you can! - Gibbsdavidl/CatterPlots
What is the best tool to use for drawing vector pictures? For me and probably for many others, the answer is pretty obvious: Illustrator, or, maybe, Inkscape.
A coloring book to help folks understand how SELinux works. - mairin/selinux-coloring-book
The EURion constellation (also known as Omron rings[1] or doughnuts[2]) is a pattern of symbols incorporated into a number of banknote designs worldwide since about 1996. It is added to help imaging software detect the presence of a banknote in a digital image. Such software can then block the user from reproducing banknotes to prevent counterfeiting using colour photocopiers. According to research from 2004, the EURion constellation is used for colour photocopiers but probably not used in computer software.[3] It has been reported that Adobe Photoshop will not allow editing of an image of a banknote, but in some versions this is believed to be due to a different, unknown digital watermark rather than the EURion constellation.[4][3]
This huge collection of non-scary optical illusions and fascinating visual phenomena emphasizes interactive exploration, beauty, and scientific explanation.
Generated photos are created from scratch by AI systems. All images can be used for any purpose without worrying about copyrights, distribution rights, infringement claims, or royalties.
Dokumentarfilm ber die Rangierer im Bahnhof Dresden-Friedrichstadt in der DDR aus dem Jahr 1984.
Il termine sardo femina accabadora, femina agabbad ra o, pi comunemente, agabbadora o accabadora (s'agabbad ra, lett. "colei che finisce", deriva dal sardo s'acabbu, "la fine" o dallo spagnolo acabar, "terminare") denota la figura storicamente incerta di una donna che si incaricava di portare la morte a persone di qualunque et , nel caso in cui queste fossero in condizioni di malattia tali da portare i familiari o la stessa vittima a richiederla. In realt non ci sono prove di tale pratica, che avrebbe riguardato alcune regioni sarde come Marghine, Planargia e Gallura[1]. La pratica non doveva essere retribuita dai parenti del malato poich il pagare per dare la morte era contrario ai dettami religiosi e della superstizione.
Alright the people have spoken and they want more cat genetics. So, I present to you all "Cat Coat Genetics 101: A Tweetorial", feat. pics of many real life cats (for science, of course...this baby is Caterpillar).

18 March 2020

Dirk Eddelbuettel: RcppCCTZ 0.2.7

A new release 0.2.7 of RcppCCTZ is now at CRAN. RcppCCTZ uses Rcpp to bring CCTZ to R. CCTZ is a C++ library for translating between absolute and civil times using the rules of a time zone. In fact, it is two libraries. One for dealing with civil time: human-readable dates and times, and one for converting between between absolute and civil times via time zones. And while CCTZ is made by Google(rs), it is not an official Google product. The RcppCCTZ page has a few usage examples and details. This package was the first CRAN package to use CCTZ; by now at least three others do using copies in their packages which remains less than ideal. This version adds internal extensions, contributed by Leonardo, which support upcoming changes to the nanotime package we are working on.

Changes in version 0.2.7 (2020-03-18)
  • Added functions _RcppCCTZ_convertToCivilSecond that converts a time point to the number of seconds since epoch, and _RcppCCTZ_convertToTimePoint that converts a number of seconds since epoch into a time point; these functions are only callable from C level (Leonardo in #34 and #35).
  • Added function _RcppCCTZ_getOffset that returns the offset at a speficied time-point for a specified timezone; this function is only callable from C level (Leonardo in #32).

We also have a diff to the previous version thanks to CRANberries. More details are at the RcppCCTZ page; code, issue tickets etc at the GitHub repository. If you like this or other open-source work I do, you can now sponsor me at GitHub. For the first year, GitHub will match your contributions.

This post by Dirk Eddelbuettel originated on his Thinking inside the box blog. Please report excessive re-aggregation in third-party for-profit settings.

15 March 2020

Antoine Beaupr : Remote presence tools for social distancing

As a technologist, I've been wondering how I can help people with the rapidly spreading coronavirus pandemic. With the world entering the "exponential stage" (e.g. Canada, the USA and basically all of Europe), everyone should take precautions and limit practice Social Distancing (and not dumbfuckery). But this doesn't mean we should dig ourselves in a hole in our basement: we can still talk to each other on the internet, and there are great, and free, tools available to do this. As part of my work as a sysadmin, I've had to answer questions about this a few times and I figured it was useful to share this more publicly.

Just say hi using whatever First off, feel free to use the normal tools you normally use: Signal, Facetime, Skype, Zoom, and Discord can be fine to connect with your folks, and since it doesn't take much to make someone's day please do use those tools to call your close ones and say "hi". People, especially your older folks, will feel alone and maybe scared in those crazy times. Every little bit you can do will help, even if it's just a normal phone call, an impromptu balcony fanfare, a remote workout class, or just a sing-along from your balcony, anything goes. But if those tools don't work well for some reason, or you want to try something new, or someone doesn't have an iPad, or it's too dang cold to go on your balcony, you should know there are other alternatives that you can use.

Jitsi We've been suggesting our folks use a tool called "Jitsi". Jitsi is a free software platform to host audio/video conferences. It has a web app which means anyone with a web browser can join a session. It can also do "screen sharing" if you need to work together on a project. There are many "instances", but here's a subset I know about: You can connect to those with your web browser directly. If your web browser doesn't work, try switching to another (e.g. if Firefox doesn't work, try Chrome and vice-versa). There are also apps for desktop and mobile apps (F-Droid, Google Play, Apple Store) that will work better than just using your browser. Jitsi should scale for small meetings up to a dozen people.

Mumble ... but beyond that, you might have trouble doing a full video-conference with a lot of people anyways. If you need to have a large conference with a lot of people, or if you have bandwidth and reliability problems with Jitsi, you can also try Mumble. Mumble is an audio-only conferencing service, similar to Discord or Teamspeak, but made with free software. It requires users to install an app but there are clients for every platform out there (F-Droid, Google Play, Apple Store). Mumble is harder to setup, but is much more efficient in terms of bandwidth and latency. In other words, it will just scale and sound better. Mumble ships with a list of known servers, but you can also connect to those trusted ones:
  • - Mayfirst (see also their instructions on how to use it, hosted in New York city
  • - Riseup, an autonomous collective, hosted in Seattle (ask me if you need their password) not a public service
  • - systemli, a left-wing network and technics-collective, hosted in Berlin

Live streaming If for some reason those tools still don't scale, you might have a bigger problem on your hands. If your audience is over 100 people, you will not be able to all join in the same conference together. And besides, maybe you just want to broadcast some news and do not need audio or video feedback from the audience. In this case, you need "live streaming". Here, proprietary services are Twitch, and Youtube. But the community also provides alternatives to those. This is more complicated to setup, but just to get you started, I'll link to: For either of those tools, you need an app on your desktop. The Mayfirst instructions use OBS Studio for this, but it might be possible to hotwire VLC to stream video from your computer as well.

Text chat When all else fails, text should go through. Slack, Twitter and Facebook are the best known alternatives here, obviously. I would warn against spending too much time on those, as they can foment harmful rumors and can spread bullshit like a virus on any given day. The situation does not make that any better. But it can be a good way to keep in touch with your loved ones. But if you want to have a large meetings with a crazy number of people, text can actually accomplish wonders. Internet Relay Chat also known as "IRC" (and which oldies might have experienced for a bit as mIRC) is, incredibly, still alive at the venerable age of 30 years old. It is mainly used by free software projects, but can be used by anyone. Here are some networks you can try: Those are all web interface to the IRC networks, but there are also a plenitude of IRC apps you can install on your desktop if you want the full experience.

Whiteboards and screensharing I decided to add this section later on because it's a frequently mentioned "oh but you forgot..." comment I get from this post.
  • Big Blue Button - seems to check all the boxes: free software, VoIP integration, whiteboarding and screen sharing, works from a web browser
  • CodiMD: collaborative text editor with UML and diagrams support
  • Excalidraw: (collaborative) whiteboard tool that lets you easily sketch diagrams that have a hand-drawn feel
I'll also mention that collaborative editors, in general, like Etherpad are just great for taking minutes because you don't have that single person with the load of writing down what people are saying and is too busy to talk. Google Docs and Nextcloud have similar functionality, of course. Update, public Big Blue Button instances: BBB requires one user to register to start the conference, but once that's done, anyone with the secret URL can join.

Common recommendations Regardless of the tools you pick, audio and video streaming is a technical challenge. A lot of things happen under the hood when you pick up your phone and dial a number, and sometimes using a desktop, it can be difficult to get everything "just right". Some advice:
  1. get a good microphone and headset: good audio really makes a difference in how pleasing the experience will be, both for you and your peers. good hardware will reduce echo, feedback and other audio problems. (see also my audio docs)
  2. check your audio/video setup before joining the meeting, ideally with another participant on the same platform you will use
  3. find a quiet place to meet: even a good microphone will pick up noises from the environment, if you reduce this up front, everything will sound better. if you do live streaming and want high quality recording, considering setting up a smaller room to do recording. (tip: i heard of at least one journalist hiding in a closer full of clothes to make recordings, as it dampens the sound!)
  4. mute your microphone when you are not speaking (spacebar in Jitsi, follow the "audio wizard" in Mumble)
If you have questions or need help, feel free to ask! Comment on this blog or just drop me an email (see contact), I'd be happy to answer your questions.

Other ideas Inevitably, when I write a post like this, someone writes something like "I can't believe you did not mention APL!" Here's a list of tools I have not mentioned here, deliberately or because I forgot:
  • Nextcloud Talk - needs access to a special server, but can be used for small meetings (less than 5, or so i heard)
  • Jabber/XMPP - yes, I know, XMPP can do everything and it's magic. but I've given up a while back, and I don't think setting up audio conferences with multiple enough is easy enough to make the cut here
  • Signal - signal is great. i use it every day. it's the primary way I do long distance, international voice calls for free, and the only way I do video-conferencing with family and friends at all. but it's one to one only, and the group (text) chat kind of sucks
Also, all the tools I recommend above are made of free software, which means they can be self-hosted. If things go bad and all those services stop existing, it should be possible for you to run your own instance. Let me know if I forgot anything, but in a friendly way. And stay safe out there. Update: a similar article from the good folks at systemli also recommends Mastodon, Ticker, Wikis and Etherpad. Update 2: same, at SFC, which also mentions Firefox Send and Etherpad (and now I wish I did).