Search Results: "andreas"

1 November 2021

Andreas R nnquist: Debian packages, version numbers and pre-release versions

Getting the latest version of a package into Debian involves checking when there are new versions available fortunately (and not surprisingly) Debian has tools to make this simpler. I have recently ran into the problem when an upstream beta version sorts higher than a newer non-beta version. Which is problematic, of course. This is due to Debian sorting something like 1.0b as later than a pure 1.0 version.
gusnan@debian-i7:~ > dpkg --compare-versions 1.0b lt 1.0 && echo true
gusnan@debian-i7:~ > dpkg --compare-versions 1.0b gt 1.0 && echo true
true
But there s a solution name the beta versions something like 1.0~beta. And you don t need to force upstream to make any changes either. You can use uscan and the watch file to make it interpret an upstream 1.0b version as 1.0~beta in Debian. This is done by using a line like
uversionmangle=s/(\d)[\_\.\-\+]?((RC rc pre dev beta alpha b a)\d*)$/$1~$2/;s/\~b/\~beta/;,\
in uversionmangle in your debian/watch file. In this case i have added on the end something to make the ending ~b into ~beta instead. Full version of the watch file available here.

31 October 2021

Joachim Breitner: A mostly allocation-free optional type

The Motoko programming language has a built-in data type for optional values, named ?t with values null and ?v (for v : t); this is the equivalent of Haskell s Maybe, Ocaml s option or Rust s Option. In this post, I explain how Motoko represents such optional values (almost) without allocation. I neither claim nor expect that any of this is novel; I just hope it s interesting.

Uniform representation The Motoko programming language, designed by Andreas Rossberg and implemented by a pretty cool team at DFINITY is a high-level language with strict semantics and a strong, structural, equi-recursive type system that compiles down to WebAssembly. Because the type system supports polymorphism, it represents all values uniformly. Simplified for the purpose of this blog post, they are always pointers into a heap object where the first word of the heap object, the heap tag, contains information about the value:
 
  tag    
 
The tag is something like array, int64, blob, variant, record, , and it has two purposes:
  • The garbage collector uses it to understand what kind of object it is looking at, so that it can move it around and follow pointers therein. Variable size objects such as arrays include the object size in a subsequent word of the heap object.
  • Some types have values that may have different shapes on the heap. For example, the ropes used in our text representation can either be a plain blob, or a concatenation node of two blobs. For these types, the tag of the heap object is inspected.

The optional type, naively The optional type (?t) is another example of such a type: Its values can either be null, or ?v for some value v of type t, and the primitive operations on this type are the two introduction forms, an analysis function, and a projection for non-null values:
null : () -> ?t
some : t -> ?t
is_some : ?t -> bool
project : ?t -> t     // must only be used if is_some holds
It is natural to use the heap tag to distinguish the two kind of values:
  • The null value is a simple one-word heap object with just a tag that says that this is null:
     
      null  
     
  • The other values are represented by a two-word object: The tag some, indicating that it is a ?v, and then the payload, which is the pointer that represents the value v:
     
      some   payload  
     
With this, the four operations can be implemented as follows:
def null():
  ptr <- alloc(1)
  ptr[0] = NULL_TAG
  return ptr
def some(v):
  ptr <- alloc(2)
  ptr[0] = SOME_TAG
  ptr[1] = v
  return ptr
def is_some(p):
  return p[0] == SOME_TAG
def project(p):
  return p[1]
The problem with this implementation is that null() and some(v) both allocate memory. This is bad if they are used very often, and very liberally, and this is the case in Motoko: For example the iterators used for the for (x in e) construct have type
type Iter<T> =   next : () -> ?T  
and would unavoidably allocate a few words on each iteration. Can we avoid this?

Static values It is quite simple to avoid this for for null: Just statically create a single null value and use it every time:
static_null = [NULL_TAG]
def null():
  return static_null
This way, at least null() doesn t allocate. But we gain more: Now every null value is represented by the same pointer, and since the pointer points to static memory, it does not change even with a moving garbage collector, so we can speed up is_some:
def is_some(p):
  return p != static_null
This is not a very surprising change so far, and most compilers out there can and will do at least the static allocation of such singleton constructors. For example, in Haskell, there is only a single empty list ([]) and a single Nothing value in your program, as you can see in my videos exploring the Haskell heap. But can we get rid of the allocation in some(v) too?

Unwrapped optional values If we don t want to allocate in some(v), what can we do? How about simply
def some(v):
  return v
That does not allocate! But it is also broken. At type ??Int, the values null, ?null and ??null are distinct values, but here this breaks. Or, more formally, the following laws should hold for our four primitive operations:
  1. is_some(null()) = false
  2. v. is_some(some(v)) = true
  3. p. project(some(p)) = p
But with the new definition of some, we d get is_some(some(null())) = false. Not good! But note that we only have a problem if we are wrapping a value that is null or some(v). So maybe take the shortcut only then, and write the following:
def some(v):
  if v == static_null   v[0] == SOME_TAG:
    ptr <- alloc(2)
    ptr[0] = SOME_TAG
    ptr[1] = v
    return ptr
  else:
    return v
The definition of is_some can stay as it is: It is still the case that all null values are represented by static_null. But the some values are now no longer all of the same shape, so we have to change project():
def project(p):
  if p[0] == SOME_TAG:
    return p[1]
  else:
    return p
Now things fall into place: A value ?v can, in many cases, be represented the same way as v, and no allocation is needed. Only when v is null or ?null or ??null or ???null etc. we need to use the some heap object, and thus have to allocate. In fact, it doesn t cost much to avoid allocation even for ?null:
static_some_null = [SOME_TAG, static_null]
def some(v):
  if v == static_null:
    return static_some_null
  else if v[0] == SOME_TAG:
    ptr <- alloc(2)
    ptr[0] = SOME_TAG
    ptr[1] = v
    return ptr
  else:
    return v
So unless one nests the ? type two levels deep, there is no allocation whatsoever, and the only cost is a bit more branching in some and project. That wasn t hard, but quite rewarding, as one can now use idioms like the iterator shown above with greater ease.

Examples The following tables shows the representation of various values before and after. Here [ ] is a pointed-to dynamically allocated heap object, a statically allocated heap object, N = NULL_TAG and S = SOME_TAG.
type value before after
Null null N N
?Int null N N
?Int ?23 [S,23] 23
??Int null N N
??Int ?null [S, N ] S, N
??Int ??23 [S,[S,23]] 23
???Int null N N
???Int ?null [S, N ] S, N
???Int ??null [S,[S, N ]] [S, S, N ]
???Int ???23 [S,[S,[S,23]]] 23

Concluding remarks
  • If you know what parametric polymorphism is, and wonder how this encoding can work in a language that has that, note that this representation is on the low-level of the untyped run-time value representation: We don t need to know the type of v in some(v), merely its heap representation.
  • The uniform representation in Motoko is a bit more involved: The pointers are tagged (by subtracting 1) and some scalar values are represented directly in place (shifted left by 1 bit). But this is luckily orthogonal to what I showed here.
  • Could Haskell do this for its Maybe type? Not so easily:
    • The Maybe type is not built-in, but rather a standard library-defined algebraic data type. But the compiler could feasible detect that this is option-like?
    • Haskell is lazy, so at runtime, the type Maybe could be Nothing, or Just v, or, and this is crucial, a yet to be evaluated expression, also called a thunk. And one definitely needs to distinguish between a thunk t :: Maybe a that may evaluate to Nothing, and a value Just t :: Maybe a that definitely is Just, but contains a value, which may be a thunk.
    Something like this may work for a strict Maybe type or unlifted sums like (# (# #) a #), but may clash with other ticks in GHC, such as pointer tagging.
  • As I said above, I don t expect this to be novel, and I am happy to add references to prior art here.
  • Given that a heap object with tag SOME_TAG now always encodes a tower ? null for n>0, one could try to optimize that even more by just storing the n:
     
      some    n   
     
    But that seems unadvisable: It is only a win if you have deep towers, which is probably rare. Worse, now the project function would have to return such a heap object with n decremented, so now projection might have to allocate, which goes against the cost model expected by the programmer.
  • If you rather want to see code than blog posts, feel free to check out Motoko PR #2115.
  • Does this kind of stuff excite you? Motoko is open source, so your contributions may be welcome!

15 May 2021

Utkarsh Gupta: Hello, Canonical! o/

Today marks the 90th day of me joining Canonical to work on Ubuntu full-time! So since it s been a while already, this blog post is long due. :)

The News
I joined Canonical, this February, to work on Ubuntu full-time! \o/
Those who know, they know that this is really very exciting for me because Canonical has been a dream company for me, for real (more about this below!). And hey, this is my first job, ever, so all the more reason to be psyched about, isn t it? ^_^ P.S. Keep reading and we ll meet my squad really sooon!

The Story Being an undergrad student (batch 2017-2021), I ve been slightly worried during my last two semesters, naturally, thinking about how s it all gonna pan out and what will I be doing, et al, because I ve been seeing all my friends and batchmates getting placed in companies or going for masters or at least having some sort of plans for their future and I, on the other hand, was hopelessly clueless. :D Well, to be fair, I did Google Summer of Code twice, in 2019 and 2020, became a Debian Developer in 2019, been a part of GCI and Outreachy, contributed to over dozens of open-source projects, et al, et al. So I wasn t all completely hopeless but for sure was completely clueless , heh. And for full disclosure, I was only slightly panicking because firstly, I did get placed in several companies and secondly, I didn t really need a job immediately since I was already getting paid to work on Debian stuff by Freexian, which was good enough. :)
(and honestly, Freexian has my whole heart! - more on that later sometime.) But that s not the point. I was still confused and worried and my mom & dad, more so than anyone. Ugh. We were all figuring out and she asked me places that I was interested to work in. And whilst I wasn t clear about things I wanted to do (and still am!) but I was (very) clear about this and so I told her about Canonical and also did tell her that it s a bit too ambitious for me to think about it now so I ll probably apply after some experience or something. and as they say, the world works in mysterious ways and well, it did for me! So back during the Ruby sprints (Feb 20), Kanashiro, the guy ( ), mentioned that his team was hiring and has a vacant position but I won t be eligible since I was still in my junior year. It was since then I ve been actively praying for Cronus, the god of time, to wave his magic wand and align it in such a way that the next opening should be somewhere near my graduation. And guess what? IT HAPPENED! 9 months later, in November 20, Kanashiro told me his team is hiring yet again and that I could apply this time! Without much (since there was some ) delay, I applied and started asking all sorts of questions to Kanashiro. No words are enough for him, he literally helped me throughout the process; from referring me to answering all sorts of doubts I had! And roughly after 2 months of interviewing, et al, my ambitious dream did come true and I finalyyyy signed my contract! \o/
(the interview process and what went on during those 10 weeks is a story for later ;))

The Server Team! \o This position, which I didn t mention earlier, was for the Server Team which is a team of 15 people, working to make Ubuntu server the best! And as I tweeted sometime back, the team is absolutely lovely, super kind, and consists of the best of teammates one could possibly ask for! Here s a quick sneak peek into our weekly team meeting. Thanks to Rafael for taking such a lovely picture. And yes, the cat Luna is a part of our squad! And oh, did I mention that we re completely remote and distributed?
FUN FACT: Our team covers all the TZs, that is, at any point of time (during weekdays), you ll find someone or the other from the team around! \o/ Anyway, our squad, managed by Rick is divided into two halves: Squeaky Wheels and Table Flip. Cool names, right?
Squeaky Wheels does the distro side of stuff and consists of Christian, Andreas, Rafael, Robie, Bryce, Sergio, Kanashiro, Athos, and now myself as well! And OTOH, Table Flip consists of Dan, Chad, Paride, Lucas, James, and Grant. Even though I interact w/ Squeaky Wheels more (basically daily), each of my teammates is absolutely lovely and equally awesome! Whilst I ll talk more about things here in the upcoming months, this is it for now! If there s anything, in particular, you d like to know more about, let me know! And lastly, here s us vibing our way through, making Ubuntu server better, cause that s how we roll!
Until next time.
:wq for today.

9 January 2021

Thorsten Alteholz: My Debian Activities in December 2020

FTP master This month I only accepted 8 packages and like last month rejected 0. Despite the holidays 293 packages got accepted. Debian LTS This was my seventy-eighth month that I did some work for the Debian LTS initiative, started by Raphael Hertzog at Freexian. This month my all in all workload has been 26h. During that time I did LTS uploads of: Unfortunately package slirp has the same version in Stretch and Buster. So I first had to upload slirp/1:1.0.17-11 to unstable, in order to be allowed to fix the CVE in Buster and to finally upload a new version to Stretch. Meanwhile the fix for Buster has been approved by the Release Team and I am waiting for the next point release now. I also prepared a debdiff for influxdb, which will result in DSA-4823-1 in January. As there appeared new CVEs for openjpeg2, I did not do an upload yet. This is planned for January now. Last but not least I did some days of frontdesk duties. Debian ELTS This month was the thirtieth ELTS month. During my allocated time I uploaded: As well as for LTS, I did not finish work on all CVEs of openjpeg2, so the upload is postponed to January. Last but not least I did some days of frontdesk duties. Unfortunately I also had to give back some hours. Other stuff This month I uploaded new upstream versions of: I fixed one or two bugs in: I improved packaging of: Some packages just needed a source upload: and there have been even some new packages: With these uploads I finished the libosmocom- and libctl-transitions. The Debian Med Advent Calendar was again really successful this year. There was no new record, but with 109, the second most number of bugs has been closed.
year number of bugs closed
2011 63
2012 28
2013 73
2014 5
2015 150
2016 95
2017 105
2018 81
2019 104
2020 109
Well done everybody who participated. It is really nice to see that Andreas is no longer a lone wolf.

26 December 2020

Paul Tagliamonte: Reverse Engineering my Christmas Tree

Over the course of the last year and a half, I ve been doing some self-directed learning on how radios work. I ve gone from a very basic understanding of wireless communications (there s usually some sort of antenna, I guess?) all the way through the process of learning about and implementing a set of libraries to modulate and demodulate data using my now formidable stash of SDRs. I ve been implementing all of the RF processing code from first principals and purely based on other primitives I ve written myself to prove to myself that I understand each concept before moving on. I figured that there was a fun capstone to be done here - the blind reverse engineering and implementation of the protocol my cheep Amazon power switch uses to turn on and off my Christmas Tree. All the work described in this post was done over the course of a few hours thanks to help during the demodulation from Tom Bereknyei and hlieberman.

Going in blind When I first got my switch, I checked it for any FCC markings in order to look up the FCC filings to determine the operational frequency of the device, and maybe some other information such as declared modulation or maybe even part numbers and/or diagrams. However, beyond a few regulatory stickers, there were no FCC ids or other distinguishing IDs on the device. Worse yet, it appeared to be a whitelabeled version of another product, so searching Google for the product name was very unhelpful. Since operation of this device is unlicensed, I figured I d start looking in the ISM band. The most common band used that I ve seen is the band starting at 433.05MHz up to 434.79MHz. I fired up my trusty waterfall tuned to a center frequency of 433.92MHz (since it s right in the middle of the band, and it let me see far enough up and down the band to spot the remote) and pressed a few buttons. Imagine my surprise when I realize the operational frequency of this device is 433.920MHz, exactly dead center. Weird, but lucky! After taking a capture, I started to look at understanding what the modulation type of the signal was, and how I may go about demodulating it. Using inspectrum, I was able to clearly see the signal in the capture, and it immediately stuck out to my eye to be encoded using OOK / ASK. Next, I started to measure the smallest pulse, and see if I could infer the symbols per second, and try to decode it by hand. These types of signals are generally pretty easy to decode by eye. This wound up giving me symbol rate of 2.2 Ksym/s, which is a lot faster than I expected. While I was working by hand, Tom demodulated a few messages in Python, and noticed that if you grouped the bits into groups of 4, you either had a 1000 or a 1110 which caused me to realize this was encoded using something I saw documented elsewhere, where the 0 is a short pulse, and a 1 is a long pulse, not unlike morse code, but where each symbol takes up a fixed length of time (monospace morse code?). Working on that assumption, I changed my inspectrum symbol width, and demodulated a few more by hand. This wound up demodulating nicely (and the preamble / clock sync could be represented as repeating 0s, which is handy!) and gave us a symbol rate of 612(ish) symbols per second a lot closer to what I was expecting. If we take the code for on in the inspectrum capture above and demodulate it by hand, we get 0000000000110101100100010 (treat a short pulse as a 0, and a long pulse as a 1). If you re interested in following along at home, click on the inspectrum image, and write down the bits you see, and compare it to what I have! Right, so it looks like from what we can tell so far that the packet looks something like this:
preamble / sync
stuff
Next, I took a capture of all the button presses and demodulated them by hand, and put them into a table to try and understand the format of the messages:
Button Demod'd Bits
On 0000000000110101100100010
Off 00000000001101011001010000
Dim Up 0000000000110101100110100
Dim Down 0000000000110101100100100
Timer 1h 0000000000110101100110010
Timer 2h 0000000000110101100100110
Timer 4h 0000000000110101100100000
Dim 100% 0000000000110101000101010
Dim 75% 00000000001101010001001100
Dim 50% 00000000001101010001001000
Dim 25% 0000000000110101000100000
Great! So, this is enough to attempt to control the tree with, I think so I wrote a simple modulator. My approach was to use the fact that I can break down a single symbol into 4 sub-symbol components which is to say, go back to representing a 1 as 1110, and a 0 as 1000. This let me allocate IQ space for the symbol, break the bit into 4 symbols, and if that symbol is 1, write out values from a carrier wave (cos in the real values, and sin in the imaginary values) to the buffer. Now that I can go from bits to IQ data, I can transmit that IQ data using my PlutoSDR or HackRF and try and control my tree. I gave it a try, and the tree blinked off! Success! But wait that s not enough for me I know I can t just demodulate bits and try and replay the bits forever there s stuff like addresses and keys and stuff, and I want to get a second one of these working. Let s take a look at the bits to see if we spot anything fun & interesting. At first glance, a few things jumped out at me as being weird? First is that the preamble is 10 bits long (fine, let s move along - maybe it just needs 8 in a row and there s two to ensure clocks sync?). Next is that the messages are not all the same length. I double (and triple!) checked the messages, and it s true, the messages are not all the same length. Adding an extra bit at the end didn t break anything, but I wonder if that s just due to the implementation rather than the protocol. But, good news, it looks like we have a stable prefix to the messages from the remote must be my device s address! The stable 6 bits that jump out right away are 110101. Something seems weird, though, 6 bits is a bit awkward, even for a bit limited embedded device. Why 6? But hey, wait, we had 10 bits in the preamble, what if we have an 8 bit address meaning my device is 00110101, and the preamble is 8 0 symbols! Those are numbers that someone working on an 8 bit aligned platform would pick! To test this, I added a 0 to the preamble to see if the message starts at the first 1, or if it requires all the bits to be fully decoded, and lo and behold, the tree did not turn on or off. This would seem to me to confirm that the 0s are part of the address, and I can assume we have two 8 bit aligned bytes in the prefix of the message.
preamble / sync
address
stuff
Now, when we go through the 9-10 bits of stuff , we see all sorts of weird bits floating all over the place. The first 4 bits look like it s either 1001 or 0001, but other than that, there s a lot of chaos. This is where things get really squishy. I needed more information to try and figure this out, but no matter how many times I sent a command it was always the same bits (so, no counters), and things feel very opaque still. The only way I was going to make any progress is to get another switch and see how the messages from the remote change. Off to Amazon I went, and ordered another switch from the same page, and eagerly waited its arrival.

Switch #2 The second switch showed up, and I hurriedly unboxed the kit, put batteries into the remote, and fired up my SDR to take a capture. After I captured the first button ( Off ), my heart sunk as I saw my lights connected to Switch #1 flicker off. Apparently the new switch and the old switch have the same exact address. To be sure, I demodulated the messages as before, and came out with the exact same bit pattern. This is a setback and letdown I was hoping to independently control my switches, but it also means I got no additional information about the address or button format. The upside to all of this, though, is that because the switches are controlled by either remote, I only needed one remote, so why not pull it apart and see if I can figure out what components it s using to transmit, and find any datasheets I can. The PCB was super simple, and I wound up finding a WL116SC IC on the PCB. After some googling, I found a single lone datasheet, entirely in Chinese. Thankfully, Google Translate seems to have worked well enough on technical words, and I was able to put together at least a little bit of understanding based on the documentation that was made available. I took a few screenshots below - I put the google translated text above the hanzi. From that sheet, we can see we got the basics of the 1 and 0 symbol encoding right (I was halfway expecting the bits to be flipped), and a huge find by way of a description of the bits in the message! It s a bummer that we missed the clock sync / preamble pulse before the data message, but that s OK somehow. It also turns out that 8 or 10 bit series of of 0"s wasn t clock sync at all - it was part of the address! Since it also turns out that all devices made by this manufacturer have the hardcoded address of []byte 0x00, 0x35 , that means that the vast majority of bits sent are always going to be the same for any button press on any remote made by this vendor. Seems like a waste of bits to me, but hey, what do I know. Additionally, this also tells us the trailing zeros are not part of the data encoding scheme, which is progress!
address
keycode
Now, working on the assumptions validated by the datasheet, here s the updated list of scancodes we ve found:
Button Scancode Bits Integer
On 10010001 145 / 0x91
Off 10010100 148 / 0x94
Dim Up 10011010 154 / 0x9A
Dim Down 10010010 146 / 0x92
Timer 1h 10011001 154 / 0x99
Timer 2h 10010011 147 / 0x93
Timer 4h 10010000 144 / 0x90
Dim 100% 00010101 21 / 0x15
Dim 75% 00010011 19 / 0x13
Dim 50% 00010010 18 / 0x12
Dim 25% 00010000 16 / 0x10
Interestingly, I think the Dim keys may have a confirmation that we have a good demod the codes on the bottom are missing the most significant bit, and when I look back at the scancode table in the datasheet, they make an interesting pattern the bottom two rows, right and left side values match up! If you take a look, Dim 100% is S1 , Dim 75% is S19 , Dim 50% is S8 , and Dim 25% is S20 . Cool! Since none of the other codes line up, I am willing to bet the most significant bit is a Combo indicator, and not part of the button (leaving 7 bits for the keycode). And even more interestingly, one of our scancodes ( Off , which is 0x94) shows up just below this table, in the examples. Over all, I think this tells us we have the right bits to look at for determining the scan code! Great news there!

Back to the modulation! So, armed with this knowledge, I was able to refactor my code to match the timings and understanding outlined by the datasheet and ensure things still work. The switch itself has a high degree of tolerance, so being wildly off frequency or a wildly wrong symbol rate may actually still work. It s hard to know if this is more or less correct, but matching documentation seems like a more stable foundation if nothing else. This code has been really reliable, and tends to work just as well as the remote from what I ve been able to determine. I ve been using incredibly low power to avoid any interference, and it s been very robust - a testament to the engineering that went into the outlet hardware, even though it cost less than of a lot of other switches! I have a lot of respect for the folks who built this device - it s incredibly simple, reliable and my guess is this thing will keep working even in some fairly harsh RF environments. The only downside is the fact the manufacturer used the same address for all their devices, rather than programming a unique address for each outlet and remote when the underlying WL116SC chip supports it. I m sure this was done to avoid complexity in assembly (e.g. pairing the remote and outlet, and having to keep those two items together during assembly), but it s still a bummer. I took apart the switch to see if I could dump an EEPROM and change the address in ROM, but the entire thing was potted in waterproof epoxy, which is a very nice feature if this was ever used outdoors. Not good news for tinkering, though!

Unsolved Mysteries At this point, even though I understand the protocol enough to control the device, it still feels like I hit a dead end in my understanding. I m not able to figure out how exactly the scancodes are implemented, and break them down into more specific parts. They are stable and based on the physical wiring of the remote, so I think I m going to leave it a magic number. I have what I was looking for, and these magic constants appear to be the right one to use, even if I did understand how to create the codes itself. This does leave us with a few bits we never resolved, which I ll memorialize below just to be sure I don t forget about them. Question #1: According to the datasheet there should be a preamble. Why do I not see one leading the first message? My hunch is that the trailing 0 at the end of the payload is actually just the preamble for the next message (always rendering the first message invalid?). This would let us claim there s an engineering reason why we are ignoring the weird bit, and also explain away something from the documentation. It s just weird that it wouldn t be present on the first message. This theory is mostly confirmed by measuring the timing and comparing it to the datasheet, but it s not exactly in line with the datasheet timings either (specifically, it s off by 200 s, which is kinda a lot for a system using 400 s timings). I think I could go either way on the last 0 being the preamble for the next message. It could be that the first message is technically invalid, or it could also be that this was not implemented or actively disabled by the vendor for this specific application / device. It s really hard to know without getting the source code for the WL116SC chip in this specific remote or the source in the outlet itself. Question #2: Why are some keycodes 8 bits and others 9 bits? I still have no idea why there sometimes 8 bits (for instance, On ) and other times there are 9 bits (for instance, Off ) in the 8 bit keycode field. I spent some time playing with the trailing zeros, when I try and send an Off with the most significant 8 bits (without the least significant / last 9th bit, which is a 0 ), it does not turn the tree off. If I send an On with 9 bits (an additional 0 after the least significant bit), it does work, but both On and Off work when I send 10, 11 or 12 bits padded with trailing zeros. I suspect my outlet will ignore data after the switch is done reading bits regardless of trailing zeros. The docs tell me there should only be 8 bits, but it won t work unless I send 9 bits for some commands. There s something fishy going on here, and the datasheet isn t exactly right either way. Question #3: How in the heck do those scancodes work? This one drove me nuts. I ve spent countless hours on trying to figure this out, including emailing the company that makes the WL116SC (they re really nice!), and even though they were super kind and generous with documentation and example source, I m still having a hard time lining up their documentation and examples with what I see from my remote. I think the manufacturer of my remote and switch has modified the protocol enough to where there s actually something different going on here. Bummer. I wound up in my place of last resort asking friends over Signal to try and see if they could find a pattern, as well as making multiple pleas to the twittersphere, to no avail (but thank you to Ben Hilburn, devnulling, Andreas Bombe and Larme for your repiles, help and advice!) I still don t understand how they assemble the scan code for instance, if you merely add, you won t know if a key press of 0x05 is 0x03 + 0x02 or if it s 0x01 + 0x04. On the other hand, treating it as two 4-bit integers won t work for 0x10 to 0x15 (since they need 5 bits to represent). It s also likely the most significant bit is a combo indicator, which only leaves 7 bits for the actual keypress data. Stuffing 10 bits of data into 7 bits is likely resulting in some really intricate bit work. On a last ditch whim, I tried to XOR the math into working, but some initial brute forcing to make the math work given the provided examples did not result in anything. It could be a bitpacked field that I don t understand, but I don t think I can make progress on that without inside knowledge and much more work. Here s the table containing the numbers I was working off of:
Keys Key Codes Scancode
S3 + S9 0x01 + 0x03 0x96
S6 + S12 0x07 + 0x09 0x94
S22 + S10 0x0D + 0x0F 0x3F
If anyone has thoughts on how these codes work, I d love to hear about it! Send me an email or a tweet or something - I m a bit stumped. There s some trick here that is being used to encode the combo key in a way that is decodeable. If it s actually not decodeable (which is a real possibility!), this may act as a unique button combo hash which allows the receiver to not actually determine which keys are pressed, but have a unique button that gets sent when a combo is used. I m not sure I know enough to have a theory as to which it may be.

19 December 2020

Andreas Bombe: PDP-8/e Replicated A Different Implementation

It has been almost a year since I got a different implementation of my PDP-8/e replica project for my birthday. Yes, it was a cake, and I have neglected to share it with the world so far. To be fair, there was a time this year where everything was a cake, at least on Twitter, and adding another one would have just been pouring gasoline on the fire. But here it is, first a side by side comparison of the implementations:
/post/pdp8e-cake-implementation/side-by-side.jpeg
Some detail to admire:
/post/pdp8e-cake-implementation/cake1.jpeg
/post/pdp8e-cake-implementation/cake2.jpeg
Afterwards I got to see some of the planning that went into it:
/post/pdp8e-cake-implementation/plan.jpeg
I can t say that the other implementation was as functional as mine, but it was definitely tastier.

14 October 2020

Sven Hoexter: Nice Helper to Sanitize File Names - sanity.pl

One of the most awesome helpers I carry around in my ~/bin since the early '00s is the sanity.pl script written by Andreas Gohr. It just recently came back to use when I started to archive some awesome Corona enforced live session music with youtube-dl. Update: Francois Marier pointed out that Debian contains the detox package, which has a similar functionality.

8 August 2020

Holger Levsen: 20200808-debconf8

DebConf8 This tshirt is 12 years old and from DebConf8. DebConf8 was my 6th DebConf and took place in Mar de la Plata, Argentina. Also this is my 6th post in this series of posts about DebConfs and for the last two days for the first time I failed my plan to do one post per day. And while two days ago I still planned to catch up on this by doing more than one post in a day, I have now decided to give in to realities, which mostly translates to sudden fantastic weather in Hamburg and other summer related changes in life. So yeah, I still plan to do short posts about all the DebConfs I was lucky to attend, but there might be days without a blog post. Anyhow, Mar de la Plata. When we held DebConf in Argentina it was winter there, meaning locals and other folks would wear jackets, scarfs, probably gloves, while many Debian folks not so much. Andreas Tille freaked out and/or amazed local people by going swimming in the sea every morning. And when I told Stephen Gran that even I would find it a bit cold with just a tshirt he replied "na, the weather is fine, just like british summer", while it was 14 celcius and mildly raining. DebConf8 was the first time I've met Valessio Brito, who I had worked together since at least DebConf6. That meeting was really super nice, Valessio is such a lovely person. Back in 2008 however, there was just one problem: his spoken English was worse than his written one, and that was already hard to parse sometimes. Fast forward eleven years to Curitiba last year and boom, Valessio speaks really nice English now. And, you might wonder why I'm telling this, especially if you were exposed to my Spanish back then and also now. So my point in telling this story about Valessio is to illustrate two things: a.) one can contribute to Debian without speaking/writing much English, Valessio did lots of great artwork since DebConf6 and b.) one can learn English by doing Debian stuff. It worked for me too! During set up of the conference there was one very memorable moment, some time after the openssl maintainer, Kurt Roeckx arrived at the venue: Shortly before DebConf8 Luciano Bello, from Argentina no less, had found CVE-2008-0166 which basically compromised the security of sshd of all Debian and Ubuntu installations done in the last 4 years (IIRC two Debian releases were affected) and which was commented heavily and noticed everywhere. So poor Kurt arrived and wondered whether we would all hate him, how many toilets he would have to clean and what not... And then, someone rather quickly noticed this, approached some people and suddenly a bunch of people at DebConf were group-hugging Kurt and then we were all smiling and continuing doing set up of the conference. That moment is one of my most joyful memories of all DebConfs and partly explains why I remember little about the conference itself, everything else pales in comparison and most things pale over the years anyway. As I remember it, the conference ran very smoothly in the end, despite quite some organisational problems right before the start. But as usual, once the geeks arrive and are happily geeking, things start to run smooth, also because Debian people are kind and smart and give hands and brain were needed. And like other DebConfs, Mar de la Plata also had moments which I want to share but I will only hint about, so it's up to you to imagine the special leaves which were brought to that cheese and wine party! ;-) Update: added another xkcd link, spelled out Kurt's name after talking to him and added a link to a video of the group hug.

23 July 2020

Enrico Zini: Build Qt5 cross-builder with raspbian sysroot: compiling with the sysroot (continued)

Lite extra ball, from https://www.flickr.com/photos/st3f4n/143623902 This is part of a series of posts on compiling a custom version of Qt5 in order to develop for both amd64 and a Raspberry Pi. The previous rounds of attempts ended in one issue too many to investigate in the allocated hourly budget. Andreas Gruber wrote:
Long story short, a fast solution for the issue with EGLSetBlobFuncANDROID is to remove libraspberrypi-dev from your sysroot and do a full rebuild. There will be some changes to the configure results, so please review them - if they are relevant for you - before proceeding with your work.
That got me unstuck! dpkg --purge libraspberrypi-dev in the sysroot, and we're back in the game. While Qt5's build has proven extremely fragile, I was surprised that some customization from Raspberry Pi hadn't yet broken something. In the end, they didn't disappoint. More i386 issues The run now stops with a new 32bit issue related to v8 snapshots:
qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtwebengine/src/core/release$ /usr/bin/g++ -pie -Wl,--fatal-warnings -Wl,--build-id=sha1 -fPIC -Wl,-z,noexecstack -Wl,-z,relro -Wl,-z,now -Wl,-z,defs -Wl,--as-needed -m32 -pie -Wl,--disable-new-dtags -Wl,-O2 -Wl,--gc-sections -o "v8_snapshot/mksnapshot" -Wl,--start-group @"v8_snapshot/mksnapshot.rsp"  -Wl,--end-group  -ldl -lpthread -lrt -lz
/usr/bin/ld: skipping incompatible //usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libz.so when searching for -lz
/usr/bin/ld: skipping incompatible //usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libz.a when searching for -lz
/usr/bin/ld: cannot find -lz
collect2: error: ld returned 1 exit status
Attempted solution: apt install zlib1g-dev:i386. Alternative solution (untried): configure Qt5 with -no-webengine-v8-snapshot. It builds! Installation paths Now it tries to install files into debian/tmp/home/build/sysroot/opt/qt5custom-armhf/. I realise that I now need to package the sysroot itself, both as a build-dependency of the Qt5 cross-compiler, and as a runtime dependency of the built cross-builder. Conclusion The current work in progress, patches, and all, is at https://github.com/Truelite/qt5custom/tree/master/debian-cross-qtwebengine It blows my mind how ridiculously broken is the Qt5 cross-compiler build, for a use case that, looking at how many people are trying, seems to be one of the main ones for the cross-builder.

16 July 2020

Enrico Zini: Build Qt5 cross-builder with raspbian sysroot: compiling with the sysroot

Whack-A-Mole machines from <https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Whac-A-Mole_Cedar_Point.jpg> This is part of a series of posts on compiling a custom version of Qt5 in order to develop for both amd64 and a Raspberry Pi. Now that I have a sysroot, I try to use it to build Qt5 with QtWebEngine. Nothing seems to work straightforwardly with Qt5's build system, and hit an endless series of significant blockers to try and work around.
Problem in wayland code QtWayland's source currently does not compile:
../../../hardwareintegration/client/brcm-egl/qwaylandbrcmeglwindow.cpp: In constructor  QtWaylandClient::QWaylandBrcmEglWindow::QWaylandBrcmEglWindow(QWindow*) :
../../../hardwareintegration/client/brcm-egl/qwaylandbrcmeglwindow.cpp:131:67: error: no matching function for call to  QtWaylandClient::QWaylandWindow::QWaylandWindow(QWindow*&) 
     , m_eventQueue(wl_display_create_queue(mDisplay->wl_display()))
                                                                   ^
In file included from ../../../../include/QtWaylandClient/5.15.0/QtWaylandClient/private/qwaylandwindow_p.h:1,
                 from ../../../hardwareintegration/client/brcm-egl/qwaylandbrcmeglwindow.h:43,
                 from ../../../hardwareintegration/client/brcm-egl/qwaylandbrcmeglwindow.cpp:40:
../../../../include/QtWaylandClient/5.15.0/QtWaylandClient/private/../../../../../src/client/qwaylandwindow_p.h:97:5: note: candidate:  QtWaylandClient::QWaylandWindow::QWaylandWindow(QWindow*, QtWayland
Client::QWaylandDisplay*) 
     QWaylandWindow(QWindow *window, QWaylandDisplay *display);
     ^~~~~~~~~~~~~~
../../../../include/QtWaylandClient/5.15.0/QtWaylandClient/private/../../../../../src/client/qwaylandwindow_p.h:97:5: note:   candidate expects 2 arguments, 1 provided
make[5]: Leaving directory '/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qttools/src/qdoc'
I am not trying to debug here. I understand that Wayland support is not a requirement, and I'm adding -skip wayland to Qt5's configure options. Next round. nss not found Qt5 embeds Chrome's sources. Chrome's sources require libnss3-dev to be available for both host and target architectures. Although I now have it installed both on the build system and in the sysroot, the pkg-config wrapper that Qt5 hooks into its Chrome's sources, failes to find it:
Command: /usr/bin/python2 /home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtwebengine/src/3rdparty/chromium/build/config/linux/pkg-config.py -s /home/build/sysroot/ -a arm -p /usr/bin/arm-linux-gnueabihf-pkg-config --system_libdir lib nss -v -lssl3
Returned 1.
stderr:
Package nss was not found in the pkg-config search path.
Perhaps you should add the directory containing  nss.pc'
to the PKG_CONFIG_PATH environment variable
No package 'nss' found
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtwebengine/src/3rdparty/chromium/build/config/linux/pkg-config.py", line 248, in <module>
    sys.exit(main())
  File "/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtwebengine/src/3rdparty/chromium/build/config/linux/pkg-config.py", line 143, in main
    prefix = GetPkgConfigPrefixToStrip(options, args)
  File "/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtwebengine/src/3rdparty/chromium/build/config/linux/pkg-config.py", line 82, in GetPkgConfigPrefixToStrip
    "--variable=prefix"] + args, env=os.environ).decode('utf-8')
  File "/usr/lib/python2.7/subprocess.py", line 223, in check_output
    raise CalledProcessError(retcode, cmd, output=output)
subprocess.CalledProcessError: Command '['/usr/bin/arm-linux-gnueabihf-pkg-config', '--variable=prefix', 'nss']' returned non-zero exit status 1
See //build/config/linux/nss/BUILD.gn:15:3: whence it was called.
  pkg_config("system_nss_no_ssl_config")  
  ^---------------------------------------
See //crypto/BUILD.gn:218:25: which caused the file to be included.
    public_configs += [ "//build/config/linux/nss:system_nss_no_ssl_config" ]
                        ^--------------------------------------------------
Project ERROR: GN run error!
It's trying to look into $SYSROOT/usr/lib/pkgconfig, while it should be $SYSROOT//usr/lib/arm-linux-gnueabihf/pkgconfig. I worked around this this patch to qtwebengine/src/3rdparty/chromium/build/config/linux/pkg-config.py:
--- pkg-config.py.orig  2020-07-16 11:46:21.005373002 +0200
+++ pkg-config.py   2020-07-16 11:46:02.605296967 +0200
@@ -61,6 +61,7 @@
   libdir = sysroot + '/usr/' + options.system_libdir + '/pkgconfig'
   libdir += ':' + sysroot + '/usr/share/pkgconfig'
+  libdir += ':' + sysroot + '/usr/lib/arm-linux-gnueabihf/pkgconfig'
   os.environ['PKG_CONFIG_LIBDIR'] = libdir
   return libdir
Next round. g++ 8.3.0 Internal Compiler Error Qt5's sources embed Chrome's sources that embed the skia library sources. One of the skia library sources, when cross-compiled to ARM with -O1 or -O2 with g++ 8.3.0, produces an Internal Compiler Error:
/usr/bin/arm-linux-gnueabihf-g++ -MMD -MF obj/skia/skcms/skcms.o.d -DUSE_UDEV -DUSE_AURA=1 -DUSE_NSS_CERTS=1 -DUSE_OZONE=1 -DOFFICIAL_BUILD -DTOOLKIT_QT -D_FILE_OFFSET_BITS=64 -D_LARGEFILE_SOURCE -D_LARGEFILE64_SOURCE -DNO_UNWIND_TABLES -D__STDC_CONSTANT_MACROS -D__STDC_FORMAT_MACROS -DCR_SYSROOT_HASH=76e6068f9f6954e2ab1ff98ce5fa236d3d85bcbd -DNDEBUG -DNVALGRIND -DDYNAMIC_ANNOTATIONS_ENABLED=0 -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/skia/include/third_party/skcms -Igen -I../../3rdparty/chromium -w -std=c11 -mfp16-format=ieee -fno-strict-aliasing --param=ssp-buffer-size=4 -fstack-protector -fno-unwind-tables -fno-asynchronous-unwind-tables -fPIC -pipe -pthread -march=armv7-a -mfloat-abi=hard -mtune=generic-armv7-a -mfpu=vfpv3-d16 -mthumb -Wall -U_FORTIFY_SOURCE -D_FORTIFY_SOURCE=2 -Wno-psabi -Wno-unused-local-typedefs -Wno-maybe-uninitialized -Wno-deprecated-declarations -fno-delete-null-pointer-checks -Wno-comments -Wno-packed-not-aligned -Wno-dangling-else -Wno-missing-field-initializers -Wno-unused-parameter -O2 -fno-ident -fdata-sections -ffunction-sections -fno-omit-frame-pointer -g0 -fvisibility=hidden -std=gnu++14 -Wno-narrowing -Wno-class-memaccess -Wno-attributes -Wno-class-memaccess -Wno-subobject-linkage -Wno-invalid-offsetof -Wno-return-type -Wno-deprecated-copy -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti --sysroot=../../../../../../sysroot/ -fvisibility-inlines-hidden -c ../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/skia/third_party/skcms/skcms.cc -o obj/skia/skcms/skcms.o
during RTL pass: expand
In file included from ../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/skia/third_party/skcms/skcms.cc:2053:
../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/skia/third_party/skcms/src/Transform_inl.h: In function  void baseline::exec_ops(const Op*, const void**, const char*, char*, int) :
../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/skia/third_party/skcms/src/Transform_inl.h:766:13: internal compiler error: in convert_move, at expr.c:218
 static void exec_ops(const Op* ops, const void** args,
             ^~~~~~~~
Please submit a full bug report,
with preprocessed source if appropriate.
See <file:///usr/share/doc/gcc-8/README.Bugs> for instructions.
I reported the bug at https://gcc.gnu.org/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=96206 Since this source compiles with -O0, I attempted to fix this by editing qtwebkit/src/3rdparty/chromium/build/config/compiler/BUILD.gn and replacing instances of -O1 and -O2 with -O0. Spoiler: wrong attempt. We'll see it in the next round. Impossible constraint in asm Qt5's sources embed Chrome's sources that embed the ffmpeg library sources. Even if ffmpeg's development libraries are present both in the host and in the target system, the build system insists in compiling and using the bundled version. Unfortunately, using -O0 breaks the build of ffmpeg:
/usr/bin/arm-linux-gnueabihf-gcc -MMD -MF obj/third_party/ffmpeg/ffmpeg_internal/opus.o.d -DHAVE_AV_CONFIG_H -D_POSIX_C_SOURCE=200112 -D_XOPEN_SOURCE=600 -DPIC -DFFMPEG_CONFIGURATION=NULL -DCHROMIUM_NO_LOGGING -D_ISOC99_SOURCE -D_LARGEFILE_SOURCE -DUSE_UDEV -DUSE_AURA=1 -DUSE_NSS_CERTS=1 -DUSE_OZONE=1 -DOFFICIAL_BUILD -DTOOLKIT_QT -D_FILE_OFFSET_BITS=64 -D_LARGEFILE_SOURCE -D_LARGEFILE64_SOURCE -DNO_UNWIND_TABLES -DCR_SYSROOT_HASH=76e6068f9f6954e2ab1ff98ce5fa236d3d85bcbd -DNDEBUG -DNVALGRIND -DDYNAMIC_ANNOTATIONS_ENABLED=0 -DOPUS_FIXED_POINT -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/ffmpeg/chromium/config/Chromium/linux/arm -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/ffmpeg -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/ffmpeg/compat/atomics/gcc -Igen -I../../3rdparty/chromium -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/opus/src/include -fPIC -Wno-deprecated-declarations -fomit-frame-pointer -w -std=c99 -pthread -fno-math-errno -fno-signed-zeros -fno-tree-vectorize -fno-strict-aliasing --param=ssp-buffer-size=4 -fstack-protector -fno-unwind-tables -fno-asynchronous-unwind-tables -fPIC -pipe -pthread -march=armv7-a -mfloat-abi=hard -mtune=generic-armv7-a -mfpu=vfpv3-d16 -mthumb -g0 -fvisibility=hidden -Wno-psabi -Wno-unused-local-typedefs -Wno-maybe-uninitialized -Wno-deprecated-declarations -fno-delete-null-pointer-checks -Wno-comments -Wno-packed-not-aligned -Wno-dangling-else -Wno-missing-field-initializers -Wno-unused-parameter -O0 -fno-ident -fdata-sections -ffunction-sections -std=gnu11 --sysroot=../../../../../../sysroot/ -c ../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/ffmpeg/libavcodec/opus.c -o obj/third_party/ffmpeg/ffmpeg_internal/opus.o
In file included from ../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/ffmpeg/libavutil/intmath.h:30,
                 from ../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/ffmpeg/libavutil/common.h:106,
                 from ../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/ffmpeg/libavutil/avutil.h:296,
                 from ../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/ffmpeg/libavutil/audio_fifo.h:30,
                 from ../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/ffmpeg/libavcodec/opus.h:28,
                 from ../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/ffmpeg/libavcodec/opus_celt.h:29,
                 from ../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/ffmpeg/libavcodec/opus.c:32:
../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/ffmpeg/libavcodec/opus.c: In function  ff_celt_quant_bands :
../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/ffmpeg/libavutil/arm/intmath.h:77:5: error: impossible constraint in  asm 
     __asm__ ("usat %0, %2, %1" : "=r"(x) : "r"(a), "i"(p));
     ^~~~~~~
The same source compiles with using -O2 instead of -O0. I worked around this by undoing the previous change, and limiting -O0 to just the source that causes the Internal Compiler Error. I edited qtwebengine/src/3rdparty/chromium/third_party/skia/third_party/skcms/skcms.cc to prepend:
#pragma GCC push_options
#pragma GCC optimize ("O0")
and append:
#pragma GCC pop_options
Next round. Missing build-deps for i386 code Qt5's sources embed Chrome's sources that embed the V8 library sources. For some reason, torque, that is part of V8, wants to build some of its sources into 32 bit code with -m32, and I did not have i386 cross-compilation libraries installed:
/usr/bin/g++ -MMD -MF v8_snapshot/obj/v8/torque_base/csa-generator.o.d -DUSE_UDEV -DUSE_AURA=1 -DUSE_NSS_CERTS=1 -DUSE_OZONE=1 -DOFFICIAL_BUILD -DTOOLKIT_QT -D_FILE_OFFSET_BITS=64 -D_LARGEFILE_SOURCE -D_LARGEFILE64_SOURCE -DNO_UNWIND_TABLES -D__STDC_CONSTANT_MACROS -D__STDC_FORMAT_MACROS -DNDEBUG -DNVALGRIND -DDYNAMIC_ANNOTATIONS_ENABLED=0 -DV8_TYPED_ARRAY_MAX_SIZE_IN_HEAP=64 -DENABLE_MINOR_MC -DV8_INTL_SUPPORT -DV8_CONCURRENT_MARKING -DV8_ENABLE_LAZY_SOURCE_POSITIONS -DV8_EMBEDDED_BUILTINS -DV8_SHARED_RO_HEAP -DV8_WIN64_UNWINDING_INFO -DV8_ENABLE_REGEXP_INTERPRETER_THREADED_DISPATCH -DV8_31BIT_SMIS_ON_64BIT_ARCH -DV8_DEPRECATION_WARNINGS -DV8_TARGET_ARCH_ARM -DCAN_USE_ARMV7_INSTRUCTIONS -DCAN_USE_VFP3_INSTRUCTIONS -DUSE_EABI_HARDFLOAT=1 -DV8_HAVE_TARGET_OS -DV8_TARGET_OS_LINUX -DDISABLE_UNTRUSTED_CODE_MITIGATIONS -DV8_31BIT_SMIS_ON_64BIT_ARCH -DV8_DEPRECATION_WARNINGS -Iv8_snapshot/gen -I../../3rdparty/chromium -I../../3rdparty/chromium/v8 -Iv8_snapshot/gen/v8 -fno-strict-aliasing --param=ssp-buffer-size=4 -fstack-protector -fno-unwind-tables -fno-asynchronous-unwind-tables -fPIC -pipe -pthread -m32 -msse2 -mfpmath=sse -mmmx -Wall -U_FORTIFY_SOURCE -D_FORTIFY_SOURCE=2 -Wno-unused-local-typedefs -Wno-maybe-uninitialized -Wno-deprecated-declarations -fno-delete-null-pointer-checks -Wno-comments -Wno-packed-not-aligned -Wno-dangling-else -Wno-missing-field-initializers -Wno-unused-parameter -fno-omit-frame-pointer -g0 -fvisibility=hidden -Wno-strict-overflow -Wno-return-type -O3 -fno-ident -fdata-sections -ffunction-sections -std=gnu++14 -Wno-narrowing -Wno-class-memaccess -Wno-attributes -Wno-class-memaccess -Wno-subobject-linkage -Wno-invalid-offsetof -Wno-return-type -Wno-deprecated-copy -fvisibility-inlines-hidden -fexceptions -frtti -c ../../3rdparty/chromium/v8/src/torque/csa-generator.cc -o v8_snapshot/obj/v8/torque_base/csa-generator.o
In file included from ../../3rdparty/chromium/v8/src/torque/csa-generator.h:8,
                 from ../../3rdparty/chromium/v8/src/torque/csa-generator.cc:5:
/usr/include/c++/8/iostream:38:10: fatal error: bits/c++config.h: No such file or directory
 #include <bits/c++config.h>
          ^~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
compilation terminated.
New build dependencies needed:
apt install lib32stdc++-8-dev
apt install libc6-dev-i386
dpkg --add-architecture i386
apt install linux-libc-dev:i386
Next round. OpenGL build issues Next bump are OpenGL related compiler issues:
/usr/bin/arm-linux-gnueabihf-g++ -MMD -MF obj/QtWebEngineCore/gl_ozone_glx_qt.o.d -DCHROMIUM_VERSION=\"80.0.3987.163\" -DUSE_UDEV -DUSE_AURA=1 -DUSE_NSS_CERTS=1 -DUSE_OZONE=1 -DOFFICIAL_BUILD -DTOOLKIT_QT -D_FILE_OFFSET_BITS=64 -D_LARGEFILE_SOURCE -D_LARGEFILE64_SOURCE -DNO_UNWIND_TABLES -D__STDC_CONSTANT_MACROS -D__STDC_FORMAT_MACROS -DCR_SYSROOT_HASH=76e6068f9f6954e2ab1ff98ce5fa236d3d85bcbd -DNDEBUG -DNVALGRIND -DDYNAMIC_ANNOTATIONS_ENABLED=0 -DQT_NO_LINKED_LIST -DQT_NO_KEYWORDS -DQT_USE_QSTRINGBUILDER -DQ_FORWARD_DECLARE_OBJC_CLASS=QT_FORWARD_DECLARE_CLASS -DQTWEBENGINECORE_VERSION_STR=\"5.15.0\" -DQTWEBENGINEPROCESS_NAME=\"QtWebEngineProcess\" -DBUILDING_CHROMIUM -DQTWEBENGINE_EMBEDDED_SWITCHES -DQT_NO_EXCEPTIONS -D_LARGEFILE64_SOURCE -D_LARGEFILE_SOURCE -DQT_NO_DEBUG -DQT_QUICK_LIB -DQT_GUI_LIB -DQT_QMLMODELS_LIB -DQT_WEBCHANNEL_LIB -DQT_QML_LIB -DQT_NETWORK_LIB -DQT_POSITIONING_LIB -DQT_CORE_LIB -DQT_WEBENGINECOREHEADERS_LIB -DVK_NO_PROTOTYPES -DGL_GLEXT_PROTOTYPES -DUSE_GLX -DUSE_EGL -DGOOGLE_PROTOBUF_NO_RTTI -DGOOGLE_PROTOBUF_NO_STATIC_INITIALIZER -DHAVE_PTHREAD -DU_USING_ICU_NAMESPACE=0 -DU_ENABLE_DYLOAD=0 -DUSE_CHROMIUM_ICU=1 -DU_STATIC_IMPLEMENTATION -DICU_UTIL_DATA_IMPL=ICU_UTIL_DATA_FILE -DUCHAR_TYPE=uint16_t -DWEBRTC_NON_STATIC_TRACE_EVENT_HANDLERS=0 -DWEBRTC_CHROMIUM_BUILD -DWEBRTC_POSIX -DWEBRTC_LINUX -DABSL_ALLOCATOR_NOTHROW=1 -DWEBRTC_USE_BUILTIN_ISAC_FIX=1 -DWEBRTC_USE_BUILTIN_ISAC_FLOAT=0 -DHAVE_SCTP -DNO_MAIN_THREAD_WRAPPING -DSK_HAS_PNG_LIBRARY -DSK_HAS_WEBP_LIBRARY -DSK_USER_CONFIG_HEADER=\"../../skia/config/SkUserConfig.h\" -DSK_GL -DSK_HAS_JPEG_LIBRARY -DSK_USE_LIBGIFCODEC -DSK_VULKAN_HEADER=\"../../skia/config/SkVulkanConfig.h\" -DSK_VULKAN=1 -DSK_SUPPORT_GPU=1 -DSK_GPU_WORKAROUNDS_HEADER=\"gpu/config/gpu_driver_bug_workaround_autogen.h\" -DVK_NO_PROTOTYPES -DLEVELDB_PLATFORM_CHROMIUM=1 -DLEVELDB_PLATFORM_CHROMIUM=1 -DV8_31BIT_SMIS_ON_64BIT_ARCH -DV8_DEPRECATION_WARNINGS -I../../3rdparty/chromium/skia/config -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/boringssl/src/include -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/skia/include/core -Igen -I../../3rdparty/chromium -I/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtwebengine/src/core -I/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtwebengine/src/core/api -I/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtdeclarative/include/QtQuick/5.15.0 -I/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtdeclarative/include/QtQuick/5.15.0/QtQuick -I/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtbase/include/QtGui/5.15.0 -I/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtbase/include/QtGui/5.15.0/QtGui -I/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtdeclarative/include -I/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtdeclarative/include/QtQuick -I/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtbase/include -I/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtbase/include/QtGui -I/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtdeclarative/include/QtQmlModels/5.15.0 -I/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtdeclarative/include/QtQmlModels/5.15.0/QtQmlModels -I/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtdeclarative/include/QtQml/5.15.0 -I/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtdeclarative/include/QtQml/5.15.0/QtQml -I/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtbase/include/QtCore/5.15.0 -I/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtbase/include/QtCore/5.15.0/QtCore -I/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtdeclarative/include/QtQmlModels -I/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtwebchannel/include -I/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtwebchannel/include/QtWebChannel -I/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtdeclarative/include/QtQml -I/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtbase/include/QtNetwork -I/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtlocation/include -I/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtlocation/include/QtPositioning -I/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtbase/include/QtCore -I/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtwebengine/include -I/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtwebengine/include/QtWebEngineCore -I/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtwebengine/include/QtWebEngineCore/5.15.0 -I/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtwebengine/include/QtWebEngineCore/5.15.0/QtWebEngineCore -I.moc -I/home/build/sysroot/opt/vc/include -I/home/build/sysroot/opt/vc/include/interface/vcos/pthreads -I/home/build/sysroot/opt/vc/include/interface/vmcs_host/linux -Igen/.moc -I/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtbase/mkspecs/devices/linux-rasp-pi2-g++ -Igen -Igen -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/libyuv/include -Igen -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/jsoncpp/source/include -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/jsoncpp/generated -Igen -Igen -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/khronos -I../../3rdparty/chromium/gpu -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/vulkan/include -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/perfetto/include -Igen/third_party/perfetto/build_config -Igen -Igen -Igen/third_party/dawn/src/include -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/dawn/src/include -Igen -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/boringssl/src/include -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/protobuf/src -Igen/protoc_out -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/protobuf/src -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/ced/src -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/icu/source/common -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/icu/source/i18n -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/webrtc_overrides -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/webrtc -Igen/third_party/webrtc -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/abseil-cpp -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/skia -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/libgifcodec -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/vulkan/include -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/skia/third_party/vulkanmemoryallocator -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/vulkan/include -Igen/third_party/perfetto -Igen/third_party/perfetto -Igen/third_party/perfetto -Igen/third_party/perfetto -Igen/third_party/perfetto -Igen/third_party/perfetto -Igen/third_party/perfetto -Igen/third_party/perfetto -Igen/third_party/perfetto -Igen/third_party/perfetto -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/crashpad/crashpad -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/crashpad/crashpad/compat/non_mac -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/crashpad/crashpad/compat/linux -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/crashpad/crashpad/compat/non_win -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/libwebm/source -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/leveldatabase -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/leveldatabase/src -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/leveldatabase/src/include -I../../3rdparty/chromium/v8/include -Igen/v8/include -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/mesa_headers -fno-strict-aliasing --param=ssp-buffer-size=4 -fstack-protector -fno-unwind-tables -fno-asynchronous-unwind-tables -fPIC -pipe -pthread -march=armv7-a -mfloat-abi=hard -mtune=generic-armv7-a -mfpu=vfpv3-d16 -mthumb -Wall -U_FORTIFY_SOURCE -D_FORTIFY_SOURCE=2 -Wno-psabi -Wno-unused-local-typedefs -Wno-maybe-uninitialized -Wno-deprecated-declarations -fno-delete-null-pointer-checks -Wno-comments -Wno-packed-not-aligned -Wno-dangling-else -Wno-missing-field-initializers -Wno-unused-parameter -O2 -fno-ident -fdata-sections -ffunction-sections -fno-omit-frame-pointer -g0 -fvisibility=hidden -g -O2 -fdebug-prefix-map=/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0=. -fstack-protector-strong -Wformat -Werror=format-security -Wdate-time -D_FORTIFY_SOURCE=2 -O2 -fno-exceptions -Wall -Wextra -D_REENTRANT -I/home/build/sysroot/usr/include/nss -I/home/build/sysroot/usr/include/nspr -std=gnu++14 -Wno-narrowing -Wno-class-memaccess -Wno-attributes -Wno-class-memaccess -Wno-subobject-linkage -Wno-invalid-offsetof -Wno-return-type -Wno-deprecated-copy -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti --sysroot=../../../../../../sysroot/ -fvisibility-inlines-hidden -g -O2 -fdebug-prefix-map=/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0=. -fstack-protector-strong -Wformat -Werror=format-security -Wdate-time -D_FORTIFY_SOURCE=2 -O2 -std=gnu++1y -fno-exceptions -Wall -Wextra -D_REENTRANT -Wno-unused-parameter -Wno-unused-variable -Wno-deprecated-declarations -c /home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtwebengine/src/core/ozone/gl_ozone_glx_qt.cpp -o obj/QtWebEngineCore/gl_ozone_glx_qt.o
In file included from ../../3rdparty/chromium/ui/gl/gl_bindings.h:497,
                 from ../../3rdparty/chromium/ui/gl/gl_gl_api_implementation.h:12,
                 from /home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtwebengine/src/core/ozone/gl_ozone_glx_qt.cpp:49:
../../3rdparty/chromium/ui/gl/gl_bindings_autogen_egl.h:227:5: error:  EGLSetBlobFuncANDROID  has not been declared
     EGLSetBlobFuncANDROID set,
     ^~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
../../3rdparty/chromium/ui/gl/gl_bindings_autogen_egl.h:228:5: error:  EGLGetBlobFuncANDROID  has not been declared
     EGLGetBlobFuncANDROID get);
     ^~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
../../3rdparty/chromium/ui/gl/gl_bindings_autogen_egl.h:571:46: error:  EGLSetBlobFuncANDROID  has not been declared
                                              EGLSetBlobFuncANDROID set,
                                              ^~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
../../3rdparty/chromium/ui/gl/gl_bindings_autogen_egl.h:572:46: error:  EGLGetBlobFuncANDROID  has not been declared
                                              EGLGetBlobFuncANDROID get) = 0;
                                              ^~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
cc1plus: warning: unrecognized command line option  -Wno-deprecated-copy 
/usr/bin/arm-linux-gnueabihf-g++ -MMD -MF obj/QtWebEngineCore/display_gl_output_surface.o.d -DCHROMIUM_VERSION=\"80.0.3987.163\" -DUSE_UDEV -DUSE_AURA=1 -DUSE_NSS_CERTS=1 -DUSE_OZONE=1 -DOFFICIAL_BUILD -DTOOLKIT_QT -D_FILE_OFFSET_BITS=64 -D_LARGEFILE_SOURCE -D_LARGEFILE64_SOURCE -DNO_UNWIND_TABLES -D__STDC_CONSTANT_MACROS -D__STDC_FORMAT_MACROS -DCR_SYSROOT_HASH=76e6068f9f6954e2ab1ff98ce5fa236d3d85bcbd -DNDEBUG -DNVALGRIND -DDYNAMIC_ANNOTATIONS_ENABLED=0 -DQT_NO_LINKED_LIST -DQT_NO_KEYWORDS -DQT_USE_QSTRINGBUILDER -DQ_FORWARD_DECLARE_OBJC_CLASS=QT_FORWARD_DECLARE_CLASS -DQTWEBENGINECORE_VERSION_STR=\"5.15.0\" -DQTWEBENGINEPROCESS_NAME=\"QtWebEngineProcess\" -DBUILDING_CHROMIUM -DQTWEBENGINE_EMBEDDED_SWITCHES -DQT_NO_EXCEPTIONS -D_LARGEFILE64_SOURCE -D_LARGEFILE_SOURCE -DQT_NO_DEBUG -DQT_QUICK_LIB -DQT_GUI_LIB -DQT_QMLMODELS_LIB -DQT_WEBCHANNEL_LIB -DQT_QML_LIB -DQT_NETWORK_LIB -DQT_POSITIONING_LIB -DQT_CORE_LIB -DQT_WEBENGINECOREHEADERS_LIB -DVK_NO_PROTOTYPES -DGL_GLEXT_PROTOTYPES -DUSE_GLX -DUSE_EGL -DGOOGLE_PROTOBUF_NO_RTTI -DGOOGLE_PROTOBUF_NO_STATIC_INITIALIZER -DHAVE_PTHREAD -DU_USING_ICU_NAMESPACE=0 -DU_ENABLE_DYLOAD=0 -DUSE_CHROMIUM_ICU=1 -DU_STATIC_IMPLEMENTATION -DICU_UTIL_DATA_IMPL=ICU_UTIL_DATA_FILE -DUCHAR_TYPE=uint16_t -DWEBRTC_NON_STATIC_TRACE_EVENT_HANDLERS=0 -DWEBRTC_CHROMIUM_BUILD -DWEBRTC_POSIX -DWEBRTC_LINUX -DABSL_ALLOCATOR_NOTHROW=1 -DWEBRTC_USE_BUILTIN_ISAC_FIX=1 -DWEBRTC_USE_BUILTIN_ISAC_FLOAT=0 -DHAVE_SCTP -DNO_MAIN_THREAD_WRAPPING -DSK_HAS_PNG_LIBRARY -DSK_HAS_WEBP_LIBRARY -DSK_USER_CONFIG_HEADER=\"../../skia/config/SkUserConfig.h\" -DSK_GL -DSK_HAS_JPEG_LIBRARY -DSK_USE_LIBGIFCODEC -DSK_VULKAN_HEADER=\"../../skia/config/SkVulkanConfig.h\" -DSK_VULKAN=1 -DSK_SUPPORT_GPU=1 -DSK_GPU_WORKAROUNDS_HEADER=\"gpu/config/gpu_driver_bug_workaround_autogen.h\" -DVK_NO_PROTOTYPES -DLEVELDB_PLATFORM_CHROMIUM=1 -DLEVELDB_PLATFORM_CHROMIUM=1 -DV8_31BIT_SMIS_ON_64BIT_ARCH -DV8_DEPRECATION_WARNINGS -I../../3rdparty/chromium/skia/config -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/boringssl/src/include -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/skia/include/core -Igen -I../../3rdparty/chromium -I/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtwebengine/src/core -I/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtwebengine/src/core/api -I/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtdeclarative/include/QtQuick/5.15.0 -I/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtdeclarative/include/QtQuick/5.15.0/QtQuick -I/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtbase/include/QtGui/5.15.0 -I/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtbase/include/QtGui/5.15.0/QtGui -I/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtdeclarative/include -I/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtdeclarative/include/QtQuick -I/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtbase/include -I/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtbase/include/QtGui -I/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtdeclarative/include/QtQmlModels/5.15.0 -I/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtdeclarative/include/QtQmlModels/5.15.0/QtQmlModels -I/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtdeclarative/include/QtQml/5.15.0 -I/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtdeclarative/include/QtQml/5.15.0/QtQml -I/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtbase/include/QtCore/5.15.0 -I/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtbase/include/QtCore/5.15.0/QtCore -I/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtdeclarative/include/QtQmlModels -I/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtwebchannel/include -I/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtwebchannel/include/QtWebChannel -I/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtdeclarative/include/QtQml -I/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtbase/include/QtNetwork -I/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtlocation/include -I/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtlocation/include/QtPositioning -I/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtbase/include/QtCore -I/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtwebengine/include -I/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtwebengine/include/QtWebEngineCore -I/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtwebengine/include/QtWebEngineCore/5.15.0 -I/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtwebengine/include/QtWebEngineCore/5.15.0/QtWebEngineCore -I.moc -I/home/build/sysroot/opt/vc/include -I/home/build/sysroot/opt/vc/include/interface/vcos/pthreads -I/home/build/sysroot/opt/vc/include/interface/vmcs_host/linux -Igen/.moc -I/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtbase/mkspecs/devices/linux-rasp-pi2-g++ -Igen -Igen -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/libyuv/include -Igen -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/jsoncpp/source/include -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/jsoncpp/generated -Igen -Igen -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/khronos -I../../3rdparty/chromium/gpu -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/vulkan/include -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/perfetto/include -Igen/third_party/perfetto/build_config -Igen -Igen -Igen/third_party/dawn/src/include -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/dawn/src/include -Igen -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/boringssl/src/include -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/protobuf/src -Igen/protoc_out -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/protobuf/src -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/ced/src -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/icu/source/common -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/icu/source/i18n -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/webrtc_overrides -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/webrtc -Igen/third_party/webrtc -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/abseil-cpp -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/skia -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/libgifcodec -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/vulkan/include -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/skia/third_party/vulkanmemoryallocator -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/vulkan/include -Igen/third_party/perfetto -Igen/third_party/perfetto -Igen/third_party/perfetto -Igen/third_party/perfetto -Igen/third_party/perfetto -Igen/third_party/perfetto -Igen/third_party/perfetto -Igen/third_party/perfetto -Igen/third_party/perfetto -Igen/third_party/perfetto -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/crashpad/crashpad -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/crashpad/crashpad/compat/non_mac -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/crashpad/crashpad/compat/linux -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/crashpad/crashpad/compat/non_win -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/libwebm/source -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/leveldatabase -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/leveldatabase/src -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/leveldatabase/src/include -I../../3rdparty/chromium/v8/include -Igen/v8/include -I../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/mesa_headers -fno-strict-aliasing --param=ssp-buffer-size=4 -fstack-protector -fno-unwind-tables -fno-asynchronous-unwind-tables -fPIC -pipe -pthread -march=armv7-a -mfloat-abi=hard -mtune=generic-armv7-a -mfpu=vfpv3-d16 -mthumb -Wall -U_FORTIFY_SOURCE -D_FORTIFY_SOURCE=2 -Wno-psabi -Wno-unused-local-typedefs -Wno-maybe-uninitialized -Wno-deprecated-declarations -fno-delete-null-pointer-checks -Wno-comments -Wno-packed-not-aligned -Wno-dangling-else -Wno-missing-field-initializers -Wno-unused-parameter -O2 -fno-ident -fdata-sections -ffunction-sections -fno-omit-frame-pointer -g0 -fvisibility=hidden -g -O2 -fdebug-prefix-map=/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0=. -fstack-protector-strong -Wformat -Werror=format-security -Wdate-time -D_FORTIFY_SOURCE=2 -O2 -fno-exceptions -Wall -Wextra -D_REENTRANT -I/home/build/sysroot/usr/include/nss -I/home/build/sysroot/usr/include/nspr -std=gnu++14 -Wno-narrowing -Wno-class-memaccess -Wno-attributes -Wno-class-memaccess -Wno-subobject-linkage -Wno-invalid-offsetof -Wno-return-type -Wno-deprecated-copy -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti --sysroot=../../../../../../sysroot/ -fvisibility-inlines-hidden -g -O2 -fdebug-prefix-map=/home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0=. -fstack-protector-strong -Wformat -Werror=format-security -Wdate-time -D_FORTIFY_SOURCE=2 -O2 -std=gnu++1y -fno-exceptions -Wall -Wextra -D_REENTRANT -Wno-unused-parameter -Wno-unused-variable -Wno-deprecated-declarations -c /home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtwebengine/src/core/compositor/display_gl_output_surface.cpp -o obj/QtWebEngineCore/display_gl_output_surface.o
In file included from ../../3rdparty/chromium/gpu/command_buffer/client/gles2_interface.h:8,
                 from ../../3rdparty/chromium/gpu/command_buffer/client/client_transfer_cache.h:15,
                 from ../../3rdparty/chromium/gpu/command_buffer/client/gles2_implementation.h:28,
                 from /home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtwebengine/src/core/compositor/display_gl_output_surface.cpp:47:
/home/build/sysroot/opt/vc/include/GLES2/gl2.h:78: warning: "GL_FALSE" redefined
 #define GL_FALSE                          (GLboolean)0
In file included from ../../3rdparty/chromium/gpu/command_buffer/client/client_context_state.h:10,
                 from ../../3rdparty/chromium/gpu/command_buffer/client/gles2_implementation.h:27,
                 from /home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtwebengine/src/core/compositor/display_gl_output_surface.cpp:47:
../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/khronos/GLES3/gl3.h:85: note: this is the location of the previous definition
 #define GL_FALSE                          0
In file included from ../../3rdparty/chromium/gpu/command_buffer/client/gles2_interface.h:8,
                 from ../../3rdparty/chromium/gpu/command_buffer/client/client_transfer_cache.h:15,
                 from ../../3rdparty/chromium/gpu/command_buffer/client/gles2_implementation.h:28,
                 from /home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtwebengine/src/core/compositor/display_gl_output_surface.cpp:47:
/home/build/sysroot/opt/vc/include/GLES2/gl2.h:79: warning: "GL_TRUE" redefined
 #define GL_TRUE                           (GLboolean)1
In file included from ../../3rdparty/chromium/gpu/command_buffer/client/client_context_state.h:10,
                 from ../../3rdparty/chromium/gpu/command_buffer/client/gles2_implementation.h:27,
                 from /home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtwebengine/src/core/compositor/display_gl_output_surface.cpp:47:
../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/khronos/GLES3/gl3.h:86: note: this is the location of the previous definition
 #define GL_TRUE                           1
In file included from ../../3rdparty/chromium/gpu/command_buffer/client/gles2_interface.h:8,
                 from ../../3rdparty/chromium/gpu/command_buffer/client/client_transfer_cache.h:15,
                 from ../../3rdparty/chromium/gpu/command_buffer/client/gles2_implementation.h:28,
                 from /home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtwebengine/src/core/compositor/display_gl_output_surface.cpp:47:
/home/build/sysroot/opt/vc/include/GLES2/gl2.h:600:37: error: conflicting declaration of C function  void glShaderSource(GLuint, GLsizei, const GLchar**, const GLint*) 
 GL_APICALL void         GL_APIENTRY glShaderSource (GLuint shader, GLsizei count, const GLchar** string, const GLint* length);
                                     ^~~~~~~~~~~~~~
In file included from ../../3rdparty/chromium/gpu/command_buffer/client/client_context_state.h:10,
                 from ../../3rdparty/chromium/gpu/command_buffer/client/gles2_implementation.h:27,
                 from /home/build/armhf/qt-everywhere-src-5.15.0/qtwebengine/src/core/compositor/display_gl_output_surface.cpp:47:
../../3rdparty/chromium/third_party/khronos/GLES3/gl3.h:624:29: note: previous declaration  void glShaderSource(GLuint, GLsizei, const GLchar* const*, const GLint*) 
 GL_APICALL void GL_APIENTRY glShaderSource (GLuint shader, GLsizei count, const GLchar *const*string, const GLint *length);
                             ^~~~~~~~~~~~~~
cc1plus: warning: unrecognized command line option  -Wno-deprecated-copy 
I'm out of the allocated hour budget, and I'll stop here for now. Building Qt5 has been providing some of the most nightmarish work time in my entire professional life. If my daily job became being required to deal with this kind of insanity, I would strongly invest in a change of career. Update Andreas Gruber wrote:
Long story short, a fast solution for the issue with EGLSetBlobFuncANDROID is to remove libraspberrypi-dev from your sysroot and do a full rebuild. There will be some changes to the configure results, so please review them - if they are relevant for you - before proceeding with your work.
And thanks to Andreas, the story can continue...

6 July 2020

Reproducible Builds: Reproducible Builds in June 2020

Welcome to the June 2020 report from the Reproducible Builds project. In these reports we outline the most important things that we and the rest of the community have been up to over the past month.

What are reproducible builds? One of the original promises of open source software is that distributed peer review and transparency of process results in enhanced end-user security. But whilst anyone may inspect the source code of free and open source software for malicious flaws, almost all software today is distributed as pre-compiled binaries. This allows nefarious third-parties to compromise systems by injecting malicious code into seemingly secure software during the various compilation and distribution processes.

News The GitHub Security Lab published a long article on the discovery of a piece of malware designed to backdoor open source projects that used the build process and its resulting artifacts to spread itself. In the course of their analysis and investigation, the GitHub team uncovered 26 open source projects that were backdoored by this malware and were actively serving malicious code. (Full article) Carl Dong from Chaincode Labs uploaded a presentation on Bitcoin Build System Security and reproducible builds to YouTube: The app intended to trace infection chains of Covid-19 in Switzerland published information on how to perform a reproducible build. The Reproducible Builds project has received funding in the past from the Open Technology Fund (OTF) to reach specific technical goals, as well as to enable the project to meet in-person at our summits. The OTF has actually also assisted countless other organisations that promote transparent, civil society as well as those that provide tools to circumvent censorship and repressive surveillance. However, the OTF has now been threatened with closure. (More info) It was noticed that Reproducible Builds was mentioned in the book End-user Computer Security by Mark Fernandes (published by WikiBooks) in the section titled Detection of malware in software. Lastly, reproducible builds and other ideas around software supply chain were mentioned in a recent episode of the Ubuntu Podcast in a wider discussion about the Snap and application stores (at approx 16:00).

Distribution work In the ArchLinux distribution, a goal to remove .doctrees from installed files was created via Arch s TODO list mechanism. These .doctree files are caches generated by the Sphinx documentation generator when developing documentation so that Sphinx does not have to reparse all input files across runs. They should not be packaged, especially as they lead to the package being unreproducible as their pickled format contains unreproducible data. Jelle van der Waa and Eli Schwartz submitted various upstream patches to fix projects that install these by default. Dimitry Andric was able to determine why the reproducibility status of FreeBSD s base.txz depended on the number of CPU cores, attributing it to an optimisation made to the Clang C compiler [ ]. After further detailed discussion on the FreeBSD bug it was possible to get the binaries reproducible again [ ]. For the GNU Guix operating system, Vagrant Cascadian started a thread about collecting reproducibility metrics and Jan janneke Nieuwenhuizen posted that they had further reduced their bootstrap seed to 25% which is intended to reduce the amount of code to be audited to avoid potential compiler backdoors. In openSUSE, Bernhard M. Wiedemann published his monthly Reproducible Builds status update as well as made the following changes within the distribution itself:

Debian Holger Levsen filed three bugs (#961857, #961858 & #961859) against the reproducible-check tool that reports on the reproducible status of installed packages on a running Debian system. They were subsequently all fixed by Chris Lamb [ ][ ][ ]. Timo R hling filed a wishlist bug against the debhelper build tool impacting the reproducibility status of 100s of packages that use the CMake build system which led to a number of tests and next steps. [ ] Chris Lamb contributed to a conversation regarding the nondeterministic execution of order of Debian maintainer scripts that results in the arbitrary allocation of UNIX group IDs, referencing the Tails operating system s approach this [ ]. Vagrant Cascadian also added to a discussion regarding verification formats for reproducible builds. 47 reviews of Debian packages were added, 37 were updated and 69 were removed this month adding to our knowledge about identified issues. Chris Lamb identified and classified a new uids_gids_in_tarballs_generated_by_cmake_kde_package_app_templates issue [ ] and updated the paths_vary_due_to_usrmerge as deterministic issue, and Vagrant Cascadian updated the cmake_rpath_contains_build_path and gcc_captures_build_path issues. [ ][ ][ ]. Lastly, Debian Developer Bill Allombert started a mailing list thread regarding setting the -fdebug-prefix-map command-line argument via an environment variable and Holger Levsen also filed three bugs against the debrebuild Debian package rebuilder tool (#961861, #961862 & #961864).

Development On our website this month, Arnout Engelen added a link to our Mastodon account [ ] and moved the SOURCE_DATE_EPOCH git log example to another section [ ]. Chris Lamb also limited the number of news posts to avoid showing items from (for example) 2017 [ ]. strip-nondeterminism is our tool to remove specific non-deterministic results from a completed build. It is used automatically in most Debian package builds. This month, Mattia Rizzolo bumped the debhelper compatibility level to 13 [ ] and adjusted a related dependency to avoid potential circular dependency [ ].

Upstream work The Reproducible Builds project attempts to fix unreproducible packages and we try to to send all of our patches upstream. This month, we wrote a large number of such patches including: Bernhard M. Wiedemann also filed reports for frr (build fails on single-processor machines), ghc-yesod-static/git-annex (a filesystem ordering issue) and ooRexx (ASLR-related issue).

diffoscope diffoscope is our in-depth diff-on-steroids utility which helps us diagnose reproducibility issues in packages. It does not define reproducibility, but rather provides a helpful and human-readable guidance for packages that are not reproducible, rather than relying essentially-useless binary diffs. This month, Chris Lamb uploaded versions 147, 148 and 149 to Debian and made the following changes:
  • New features:
    • Add output from strings(1) to ELF binaries. (#148)
    • Dump PE32+ executables (such as EFI applications) using objdump(1). (#181)
    • Add support for Zsh shell completion. (#158)
  • Bug fixes:
    • Prevent a traceback when comparing PDF documents that did not contain metadata (ie. a PDF /Info stanza). (#150)
    • Fix compatibility with jsondiff version 1.2.0. (#159)
    • Fix an issue in GnuPG keybox file handling that left filenames in the diff. [ ]
    • Correct detection of JSON files due to missing call to File.recognizes that checks candidates against file(1). [ ]
  • Output improvements:
    • Use the CSS word-break property over manually adding U+200B zero-width spaces as these were making copy-pasting cumbersome. (!53)
    • Downgrade the tlsh warning message to an info level warning. (#29)
  • Logging improvements:
  • Testsuite improvements:
    • Update tests for file(1) version 5.39. (#179)
    • Drop accidentally-duplicated copy of the --diff-mask tests. [ ]
    • Don t mask an existing test. [ ]
  • Codebase improvements:
    • Replace obscure references to WF with Wagner-Fischer for clarity. [ ]
    • Use a semantic AbstractMissingType type instead of remembering to check for both types of missing files. [ ]
    • Add a comment regarding potential security issue in the .changes, .dsc and .buildinfo comparators. [ ]
    • Drop a large number of unused imports. [ ][ ][ ][ ][ ]
    • Make many code sections more Pythonic. [ ][ ][ ][ ]
    • Prevent some variable aliasing issues. [ ][ ][ ]
    • Use some tactical f-strings to tidy up code [ ][ ] and remove explicit u"unicode" strings [ ].
    • Refactor a large number of routines for clarity. [ ][ ][ ][ ]
trydiffoscope is the web-based version of diffoscope. This month, Chris Lamb also corrected the location for the celerybeat scheduler to ensure that the clean/tidy tasks are actually called which had caused an accidental resource exhaustion. (#12) In addition Jean-Romain Garnier made the following changes:
  • Fix the --new-file option when comparing directories by merging DirectoryContainer.compare and Container.compare. (#180)
  • Allow user to mask/filter diff output via --diff-mask=REGEX. (!51)
  • Make child pages open in new window in the --html-dir presenter format. [ ]
  • Improve the diffs in the --html-dir format. [ ][ ]
Lastly, Daniel Fullmer fixed the Coreboot filesystem comparator [ ] and Mattia Rizzolo prevented warnings from the tlsh fuzzy-matching library during tests [ ] and tweaked the build system to remove an unwanted .build directory [ ]. For the GNU Guix distribution Vagrant Cascadian updated the version of diffoscope to version 147 [ ] and later 148 [ ].

Testing framework We operate a large and many-featured Jenkins-based testing framework that powers tests.reproducible-builds.org. Amongst many other tasks, this tracks the status of our reproducibility efforts across many distributions as well as identifies any regressions that have been introduced. This month, Holger Levsen made the following changes:
  • Debian-related changes:
    • Prevent bogus failure emails from rsync2buildinfos.debian.net every night. [ ]
    • Merge a fix from David Bremner s database of .buildinfo files to include a fix regarding comparing source vs. binary package versions. [ ]
    • Only run the Debian package rebuilder job twice per day. [ ]
    • Increase bullseye scheduling. [ ]
  • System health status page:
    • Add a note displaying whether a node needs to be rebooted for a kernel upgrade. [ ]
    • Fix sorting order of failed jobs. [ ]
    • Expand footer to link to the related Jenkins job. [ ]
    • Add archlinux_html_pages, openwrt_rebuilder_today and openwrt_rebuilder_future to known broken jobs. [ ]
    • Add HTML <meta> header to refresh the page every 5 minutes. [ ]
    • Count the number of ignored jobs [ ], ignore permanently known broken jobs [ ] and jobs on known offline nodes [ ].
    • Only consider the known offline status from Git. [ ]
    • Various output improvements. [ ][ ]
  • Tools:
    • Switch URLs for the Grml Live Linux and PureOS package sets. [ ][ ]
    • Don t try to build a disorderfs Debian source package. [ ][ ][ ]
    • Stop building diffoscope as we are moving this to Salsa. [ ][ ]
    • Merge several is diffoscope up-to-date on every platform? test jobs into one [ ] and fail less noisily if the version in Debian cannot be determined [ ].
In addition: Marcus Hoffmann was added as a maintainer of the F-Droid reproducible checking components [ ], Jelle van der Waa updated the is diffoscope up-to-date in every platform check for Arch Linux and diffoscope [ ], Mattia Rizzolo backed up a copy of a remove script run on the Codethink-hosted jump server [ ] and Vagrant Cascadian temporarily disabled the fixfilepath on bullseye, to get better data about the ftbfs_due_to_f-file-prefix-map categorised issue. Lastly, the usual build node maintenance was performed by Holger Levsen [ ][ ], Mattia Rizzolo [ ] and Vagrant Cascadian [ ][ ][ ][ ][ ].

If you are interested in contributing to the Reproducible Builds project, please visit our Contribute page on our website. However, you can get in touch with us via:

This month s report was written by Bernhard M. Wiedemann, Chris Lamb, Eli Schwartz, Holger Levsen, Jelle van der Waa and Vagrant Cascadian. It was subsequently reviewed by a bunch of Reproducible Builds folks on IRC and the mailing list.

29 May 2020

Gunnar Wolf: Heads up Online MiniDebConf is Online

I know most Debian people know about this already But in case you don t follow the usual Debian communications channels, this might interest you! Given most of the world is still under COVID-19 restrictions, and that we want to work on Debian, given there is no certainty as to what the future holds in store for us Our DPL fearless as they always are had the bold initiative to make this weekend into the first-ever miniDebConf Online (MDCO)! miniDebConf Online So, we are already halfway through DebCamp (which means, you can come and hang out with us in the debian.social DebCamp Jitsi lounge, where some impromptu presentations might happen (or not). Starting tomorrow morning (11AM UTC), we will have a quite interesting set of talks. I am reproducing the schedule here:

Saturday 2020.05.30
Time (UTC) Speaker Talk
11:00 - 11:10 MDCO team members Hello + Welcome
11:30 - 11:50 Wouter Verhelst Extrepo
12:00 - 12:45 JP Mengual Debian France, trust european organization
13:00 - 13:20 Arnaud Ferraris Bringing Debian to mobile phones, one package at a time
13:30 - 15:00 Lunch Break A chance for the teams to catch some air
15:00 - 15:45 JP Mengual The community team, United Nations Organizations of Debian?
16:00 - 16:45 Christoph Biedl Clevis and tang - overcoming the disk unlocking problem
17:00 - 17:45 Antonio Terceiro I m a programmer, how can I help Debian

Sunday 2020.05.31
Time (UTC) Speaker Talk
11:00 - 11:45 Andreas Tille The effect of Covid-19 on the Debian Med project
12:00 - 12:45 Paul Gevers BoF: running autopkgtest for your package
13:00 - 13:20 Ben Hutchings debplate: Build many binary packages with templates
13:30 - 15:00 Lunch break A chance for the teams to catch some air
15:00 - 15:45 Holger Levsen Reproducing bullseye in practice
16:00 - 16:45 Jonathan Carter Striving towards excellence
17:00 - 17:45 Delib* Organizing Peer-to-Peer Debian Facilitation Training
18:00 - 18:15 MDCO team members Closing
  • subject to confirmation

Timezone Remember this is an online event, meant for all of the world! Yes, the chosen times seem quite Europe-centric (but they are mostly a function of the times the talk submitters requested). Talks are 11:00 18:00UTC, which means, 06:00 13:00 Mexico (GMT-5), 20:00 03:00 Japan (GMT+9), 04:00 11:00 Western Canada/USA/Mexico (GMT-7) and the rest of the world, somewhere in between. (No, this was clearly not optimized for our dear usual beer team. Sorry! I guess we need you to be fully awake at beertime!)

[update] Connecting! Of course, I didn t make it clear at first how to connect to the Online miniDebConf, silly me!
  • The video streams are available at: https://video.debconf.org/
  • Suggested: tune in to the #minidebconf-online IRC channel in OFTC.
That should be it. Hope to see you there! (Stay home, stay safe )

Gunnar Wolf: Heads up Online MiniDebConf is Online

I know most Debian people know about this already But in case you don t follow the usual Debian communications channels, this might interest you! Given most of the world is still under COVID-19 restrictions, and that we want to work on Debian, given there is no certainty as to what the future holds in store for us Our DPL fearless as they always are had the bold initiative to make this weekend into the first-ever miniDebConf Online (MDCO)! miniDebConf Online So, we are already halfway through DebCamp (which means, you can come and hang out with us in the debian.social DebCamp Jitsi lounge, where some impromptu presentations might happen (or not). Starting tomorrow morning (11AM UTC), we will have a quite interesting set of talks. I am reproducing the schedule here:

Saturday 2020.05.30
Time (UTC) Speaker Talk
11:00 - 11:10 MDCO team members Hello + Welcome
11:30 - 11:50 Wouter Verhelst Extrepo
12:00 - 12:45 JP Mengual Debian France, trust european organization
13:00 - 13:20 Arnaud Ferraris Bringing Debian to mobile phones, one package at a time
13:30 - 15:00 Lunch Break A chance for the teams to catch some air
15:00 - 15:45 JP Mengual The community team, United Nations Organizations of Debian?
16:00 - 16:45 Christoph Biedl Clevis and tang - overcoming the disk unlocking problem
17:00 - 17:45 Antonio Terceiro I m a programmer, how can I help Debian

Sunday 2020.05.31
Time (UTC) Speaker Talk
11:00 - 11:45 Andreas Tille The effect of Covid-19 on the Debian Med project
12:00 - 12:45 Paul Gevers BoF: running autopkgtest for your package
13:00 - 13:20 Ben Hutchings debplate: Build many binary packages with templates
13:30 - 15:00 Lunch break A chance for the teams to catch some air
15:00 - 15:45 Holger Levsen Reproducing bullseye in practice
16:00 - 16:45 Jonathan Carter Striving towards excellence
17:00 - 17:45 Delib* Organizing Peer-to-Peer Debian Facilitation Training
18:00 - 18:15 MDCO team members Closing
  • subject to confirmation

Timezone Remember this is an online event, meant for all of the world! Yes, the chosen times seem quite Europe-centric (but they are mostly a function of the times the talk submitters requested). Talks are 11:00 18:00UTC, which means, 06:00 13:00 Mexico (GMT-5), 20:00 03:00 Japan (GMT+9), 04:00 11:00 Western Canada/USA/Mexico (GMT-7) and the rest of the world, somewhere in between. (No, this was clearly not optimized for our dear usual beer team. Sorry! I guess we need you to be fully awake at beertime!)

[update] Connecting! Of course, I didn t make it clear at first how to connect to the Online miniDebConf, silly me!
  • The video streams are available at: https://video.debconf.org/
  • Suggested: tune in to the #minidebconf-online IRC channel in OFTC.
That should be it. Hope to see you there! (Stay home, stay safe )

30 March 2020

Shirish Agarwal: Covid 19 and the Indian response.

There have been lot of stories about Coronavirus and with it a lot of political blame-game has been happening. The first step that India took of a lockdown is and was a good step but without having a plan as to how especially the poor and the needy and especially the huge migrant population that India has (internal migration) be affected by it. A 2019 World Economic Forum shares the stats. as 139 million people. That is a huge amount of people and there are a variety of both push and pull factors which has displaced these huge number of people. While there have been attempts in the past and probably will continue in future they will be hampered unless we have trust-worthy data which is where there is lots that need to be done. In the recent few years, both the primary and secondary data has generated lot of controversies within India as well as abroad so no point in rehashing all of that. Even the definition of who is a migrant needs to be well-established just as who is a farmer . The simplest lucanae in the later is those who have land are known as farmers but the tenant farmers and their wives are not added as farmers hence the true numbers are never known. Is this an India-specific problem or similar definition issues are there in the rest of the world I don t know.

How our Policies fail to reach the poor and the vulnerable The sad part is most policies in India are made in castles in the air . An interview by the wire shares the conundrum of those who are affected and the policies which are enacted for them (it s a youtube video, sorry)
If one with an open and fresh mind sees the interview it is clear that why there was a huge reverse migration from Indian cities to villages. The poor and marginalized has always seen the Indian state as an extortive force so it doesn t make sense for them to be in the cities. The Prime Minister s annoucement of food for 3 months was a clear indication for the migrant population that for 3 months they will have no work. Faced with such a scenario, the best option for them was to return to their native places. While videos of huge number of migrants were shown of Delhi, this was the scenario of most states and cities, including Pune, my own city . Another interesting point which was made is most of the policies will need the migrants to be back in the villages. Most of these are tied to the accounts which are opened in villages, so even if they want to have the benefits they will have to migrate to villages in order to use them. Of course, everybody in India knows how leaky the administration is. The late Shri Rajiv Gandhi had famously and infamously remarked once how leaky the Public Distribution system and such systems are. It s only 10 paise out of rupee which reaches the poor. And he said this about 30 years ago. There have been numerous reports of both IPS (Indian Police Services) reforms and IAS (Indian Administrative Services) reforms over the years, many of the committee reports have been in public domain and in fact was part of the election manifesto of the ruling party in 2014 but no movement has happened on that part. The only thing which has happened is people from the ruling party have been appointed on various posts which is same as earlier governments. I was discussing with a friend who is a contractor and builder about the construction labour issues which were pointed in the report and if it is true that many a times the migrant labour is not counted. While he shared a number of cases where he knew, a more recent case in public memory was when some labourers died while building Amanora mall which is perhaps one of largest malls in India. There were few accidents while constructing the mall. Apparently, the insurance money which should have gone to the migrant laborer was taken by somebody close to the developers who were building the mall. I have a friend in who lives in Jharkhand who is a labour officer. She has shared with me so many stories of how the labourers are exploited. Keep in mind she has been a labor officer appointed by the state and her salary is paid by the state. So she always has to maintain a balance of ensuring worker s rights and the interests of the state, private entities etc. which are usually in cahoots with the state and it is possible that lot of times the State wins over the worker s rights. Again, as a labour officer, she doesn t have that much power and when she was new to the work, she was often frustrated but as she remarked few months back, she has started taking it easy (routinized) as anyways it wasn t helping her in any good way. Also there have been plenty of cases of labor officers being murdered so its easier to understand why one tries to retain some sanity while doing their job.

The Indian response and the World Response The Indian response has been the lockdown and very limited testing. We seem to be following the pattern of UK and U.S. which had been slow to respond and slow to testing. In the past Kerala showed the way but this time even that is not enough. At the end of the day we need to test, test and test just as shared by the WHO chairman. India is trying to create its own cheap test kits with ICMR approval, for e.g. a firm from my own city Pune MyLab has been given approval. We will know how good or bad they are only after they have been field-tested. For ventilators we have asked Mahindra and Mahindra even though there are companies like Allied Medical and others who have exported to EU and others which the Govt. is still taking time to think through. This is similar to how in UK some companies who are with the Govt. but who have no experience in making ventilators are been given orders while those who have experience and were exporting to Germany and other countries are not been given orders. The playbook is errily similar. In India, we don t have the infrastructure for any new patients, period. Heck only a couple of states have done something proper for the anganwadi workers. In fact, last year there were massive strikes by anganwadi workers all over India but only NDTV showed a bit of it along with some of the news channels from South India. Most mainstream channels chose to ignore it. On the world stage, some of the other countries and how they have responded perhaps need sharing. For e.g. I didn t know that Cuba had so many doctors and the politics between it and Brazil. Or the interesting stats. shared by Andreas Backhaus which seems to show how distributed the issue (age-wise) is rather than just a few groups as has been told in Indian media. What was surprising for me is the 20-29 age group which has not been shared so much in the Indian media which is the bulk of our population. The HBR article also makes a few key points which I hope both the general public and policymakers both in India as well as elsewhere take note of. What is worrying though that people can be infected twice or more as seems to be from Singapore or China and elsewhere. I have read enough of Robin Cook and Michael Crichton books to be aware that viruses can do whatever. They will over time mutate, how things will happen then is anybody s guess. What I found interesting is the world economic forum article which hypothesis that it may be two viruses which got together as well as research paper from journal from poteome research which has recently been published. The biggest myth flying around is that summer will halt or kill the spread which even some of my friends have been victim of . While a part of me wants to believe them, a simple scientific fact has been viruses have probably been around us and evolved over time, just like we have. In fact, there have been cases of people dying due to common cold and other things. Viruses are so prevalent it s unbelivable. What is and was interesting to note is that bat-borne viruses as well as pangolin viruses had been theorized and shared by Chinese researchers going all the way back to 90 s . The problem is even if we killed all the bats in the world, some other virus will take its place for sure. One of the ideas I had, dunno if it s feasible or not that at least in places like Airports, we should have some sort of screenings and a labs working on virology. Of course, this will mean more expenses for flying passengers but for public health and safety maybe it would worth doing so. In any case, virologists should have a field day cataloging various viruses and would make it harder for viruses to spread as fast as this one has. The virus spread also showed a lack of leadership in most of our leaders who didn t react fast enough. While one hopes people do learn from this, I am afraid the whole thing is far from over. These are unprecedented times and hope that all are maintaining social distancing and going out only when needed.

15 March 2020

Andreas Metzler: balance sheet snowboarding season 2019/20

Looking at the date I am posting this it will not come as a surprise that the season was not a strong one. For pre-opening I again booked a carving fresh-up workshop with Pure Boarding in Pitztal (November 21 to November 24). Since the resort extends to more than 3400m of atitude the weather can be harsh. This year we had strong southern winds and moved to Riffelsee for Saturday, which turned out to be a really nice resort. Natural snow turned out to be a rare commodity this year, but nevertheless I only rode at Diedamskopf where they rely on tnatural snow almost eclusively. They again managed to prepare quality slopes with natural snow. First day on snow was 15 December followed by a long pause until December 28. Having loads of unused vacation days I did three- or four-day work weeks in January and start of February whenever work (thanks, colleagues!) weather and conditions were nice. In hindsight this saved the season. Since resorts have closed yesterday or will close today due to COVID-19 I am missing out on riding in Warth/Salober in spring. While the number of a days is a low number, the quality of riding was still high. Health-wise jumper's knee has kept me from finally really improving on my backside turn. Well here is the balance-sheet, excluding pre-opening in Pitztal:
2019/20 2018/19 2017/18 2016/17 2015/16 2014/15 2013/14 2012/13 2011/12 2010/11 2009/10 2008/09 2007/08 2006/07 2005/06
number of (partial) days 21 33 29 30 17 24 30 23 25 30 30 37 29 17 25
Dam ls 0 2 8 4 4 9 29 4 10 23 16 10 5 10 10
Diedamskopf 21 26 19 23 12 13 1 19 14 4 13 23 24 4 15
Warth/Schr cken 0 5 2 3 1 2 0 0 1 3 1 4 0 3 0
total meters of altitude 160797 296308 266158 269819 138037 224909 274706 203562 228588 203918 202089 226774 219936 74096 124634
highscore 9375 10850 11116 12245 11015 13278 12848m 13885m 13076m 10976m 11888m 11272m 12108m 8321m 10247m
# of runs 374 701 616 634 354 530 597 468 516 449 462 551 503 189 309

20 November 2017

Reproducible builds folks: Reproducible Builds: Weekly report #133

Here's what happened in the Reproducible Builds effort between Sunday November 5 and Saturday November 11 2017: Upcoming events On November 17th Chris Lamb will present at Open Compliance Summit, Yokohama, Japan on how reproducible builds ensures the long-term sustainability of technology infrastructure. We plan to hold an assembly at 34C3 - hope to see you there! LEDE CI tests Thanks to the work of lynxis, Mattia and h01ger, we're now testing all LEDE packages in our setup. This is our first result for the ar71xx target: "502 (100.0%) out of 502 built images and 4932 (94.8%) out of 5200 built packages were reproducible in our test setup." - see below for details how this was achieved. Bootstrapping and Diverse Double Compilation As a follow-up of a discussion on bootstrapping compilers we had on the Berlin summit, Bernhard and Ximin worked on a Proof of Concept for Diverse Double Compilation of tinycc (aka tcc). Ximin Luo did a successful diverse-double compilation of tinycc git HEAD using gcc-7.2.0, clang-4.0.1, icc-18.0.0 and pgcc-17.10-0 (pgcc needs to triple-compile it). More variations are planned for the future, with the eventual aim to reproduce the same binaries cross-distro, and extend it to test GCC itself. Packages reviewed and fixed, and bugs filed Patches filed upstream: Patches filed in Debian: Patches filed in OpenSUSE: Reviews of unreproducible packages 73 package reviews have been added, 88 have been updated and 40 have been removed in this week, adding to our knowledge about identified issues. 4 issue types have been updated: Weekly QA work During our reproducibility testing, FTBFS bugs have been detected and reported by: diffoscope development Mattia Rizzolo uploaded version 88~bpo9+1 to stretch-backports. reprotest development reproducible-website development theunreproduciblepackage development tests.reproducible-builds.org in detail Misc. This week's edition was written by Ximin Luo, Bernhard M. Wiedemann, Chris Lamb and Holger Levsen & reviewed by a bunch of Reproducible Builds folks on IRC & the mailing lists.

7 November 2017

Reproducible builds folks: Reproducible Builds: Weekly report #132

Here's what happened in the Reproducible Builds effort between Sunday October 29 and Saturday November 4 2017: Past events Upcoming events Reproducible work in other projects Packages reviewed and fixed, and bugs filed Reviews of unreproducible packages 7 package reviews have been added, 43 have been updated and 47 have been removed in this week, adding to our knowledge about identified issues. Weekly QA work During our reproducibility testing, FTBFS bugs have been detected and reported by: Documentation updates diffoscope development Version 88 was uploaded to unstable by Mattia Rizzolo. It included contributions (already covered by posts of the previous weeks) from: strip-nondeterminism development Version 0.040-1 was uploaded to unstable by Mattia Rizzolo. It included contributions already covered by posts of the previous weeks, as well as new ones from:
Version 0.5.2-2 was uploaded to unstable by Holger Levsen. It included contributions already covered by posts of the previous weeks, as well as new ones from: reprotest development buildinfo.debian.net development tests.reproducible-builds.org Misc. This week's edition was written by Bernhard M. Wiedemann, Chris Lamb, Mattia Rizzolo & reviewed by a bunch of Reproducible Builds folks on IRC & the mailing lists.

6 November 2017

Andreas Bombe: Reviving GHDL in Debian

It has been a few years since Debian last had a working VHDL simulator in the archive. Its competitor Verilog has been covered by the iverilog and verilator simulator packages, but GHDL was the only option for VHDL in Debian and that has become broken, orphaned and was eventually removed. I have just submitted an ITP to make my work on it official. A lot has changed since the last Debian upload of GHDL. Upstream development is quite active and it has gained free reimplementations of the standard library definitions (the lack of which frustrated at least two attempts at adoption of the Debian package). It has gained additional backends, in addition to GCC it can now also use LLVM and its own custom mcode (x86 only) code generator. The mcode backend should provide faster compilation at the expense of lacking sophisticated optimization, hence it might be preferable over the other two for small projects. My intentions are to provide all three backends in separate packages which would also offer easier backend troubleshooting a user experiencing problems can simply install another package to try a different backend. The problem with that idea is that GHDL is not designed for that kind of parallel installation. The backend is chosen at build configure time and that configuration is built and installed. Parallel installation will probably need some development but if that would turn out to be much work I could always have the packages conflicting initially. Given all these changes I am redoing the Debianization from ground up and maybe take bits and pieces from the old packaging where suitable. Right now I m building the different backends to compare and see what files are backend specific and what can go into a common package.

9 October 2017

Markus Koschany: My Free Software Activities in September 2017

Welcome to gambaru.de. Here is my monthly report that covers what I have been doing for Debian. If you re interested in Java, Games and LTS topics, this might be interesting for you. Debian Games Debian Java Debian LTS This was my nineteenth month as a paid contributor and I have been paid to work 15,75 hours on Debian LTS, a project started by Rapha l Hertzog. In that time I did the following: Misc QA upload Thanks for reading and see you next time.

3 October 2017

Reproducible builds folks: Reproducible Builds: Weekly report #127

Here's what happened in the Reproducible Builds effort between Sunday September 24 and Saturday September 30 2017: Development and fixes in key packages Kai Harries did an initial packaging of the Nix package manager for Debian. You can track his progress in #877019. Uploads in Debian: Packages reviewed and fixed, and bugs filed Patches sent upstream: Reproducible bugs (with patches) filed in Debian: QA bugs filed in Debian: Reviews of unreproducible packages 103 package reviews have been added, 153 have been updated and 78 have been removed in this week, adding to our knowledge about identified issues. Weekly QA work During our reproducibility testing, FTBFS bugs have been detected and reported by: diffoscope development Mattia Rizzolo uploaded version 87 to stretch-backports. strip-nondeterminism development reprotest development tests.reproducible-builds.org reproducible-website development Misc. This week's edition was written by Ximin Luo, Bernhard M. Wiedemann, Holger Levsen and Chris Lamb & reviewed by a bunch of Reproducible Builds folks on IRC & the mailing lists.

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